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Copyright N?.__C< 




Iftatow Mb VJqwebttk 

Copyright, 1908 

By Howard H. Morse 

First edition completed December, 1908 

Flocker & Hicks, . Tarrytown-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

Artists, ) Edwin V. Marquardt, Khinebeck, N. Y. 

Designers, > 

Engravers, ) Royal Engraving Co., New York City 

Binders, J. F. Tapley Co., . . New York City 

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d el j. 

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Echoes of Two Centuries 

A ijufcsmt torr an& 5Pnst l&mb (Eolnntal GInum 




IjtBtonral ; (Settralogtral ; Htflgrapfjtral ; ©rabtttnnal 

An authentic summary of collated facts from records, 
old papers, manuscripts, and the memory of man, of 
value to those interested in this " old home town " 



Counsellor at Law 

Rhinebeck, N. Y. 

Published by the Author 

Copyrighted, 190s ; all rights reserved 

Two Guti--' Receive ' 

. Copyr lfc .i-. fcntry 

To Rhinebeckers 

Native or adopted, dead or alive, their descendants. 

relatives and friends, at home or elsewhere, this 

collection of historic data is sincerely 



This book has grown out of a purpose 
formed and a promise made many years ago. 
It has been long* deferred but not forgotten. 
Rhinebeck is one of the oldest settlements in 
the State. It has " a past worthy of record/' 
commencing- as far back as 1686. Its sons 
and daughters, from the earliest time, were 
connected with memorable events in colonial, 
State and national affairs, and " ye olcle town " 
shares in their dignity and importance. 

Names and deeds are creditable and effect- 
ive reminders of byg-one days. The story of 
the " events themselves" is a long and inter- 
esting one. It deserves to be better told. 
Echoes of Two Centuries should stir the imag- 
ination of the quick witted, awaken the dull 
of soul, inspire the thoughtful mind, encour- 
age the earnest worker. Incomplete as it is, 
" Historic Old Rhinebeck " covers many years 
of labor. It has been a pleasure. This writer 
owes much to the town where he was born and 
lived for over thirty years. His book will 
not pay the debt, but it is a tribute to the 
old home and to the memory of deserving- 
men and women. The collection of data 
upon which "Historic Old Rhinebeck " rests 

as commenced by me in the fall of 1866, but 
my friends — Tunis Wortman, Edwin Styles, 
Alfred T. Ackert and others — antedated this 
man^y 3^ears. Much of their invaluable work 
was contributed to my collection. I here 
acknowledge my indebtedness. This also ap- 
plies to Edward M. Smith for documentary 
transcripts. Especially am I grateful to the 
many friends who, by their interest, kindness 
and knowledge of local affairs, have fur- 
nished much reliable material and assured 
accuracy of facts related. To librarians and 
others whose courtesy and assistance during 
the past two or three years I have had in 
verifying' incidents, names, dates, etc., I re- 
turn sincere thanks. Edwin V. Marquardt, a 
home artist of rare ability, whose work is 
shown in many of the illustrations, has made 
me and the reader his debtor. I feel sure his 
labor will be appreciated. Fearful of mistakes, 
regretting omissions, also errors in proofread- 
ing, I submit "Historic Old Rhinebeck " to 
the charitable consideration of friends of "ye 
olde town." 

Howard H. Morse. 

December 1, 1908. 


Chapter Page 

I The .Start; When; Where; by Whom 1 

II The Beekman Epoch 18 

III The Name 31 

IV The Palatines 42 

V The Streams, Mills and Docks 52 

VI Roads 66 

VII County, Ward, Precinct, Town 79 

VIII Churches 106 

IX Schools 199 

X Why and Wherefore 219 

XI Taverns 245 

XII The Village 264 

XIII Stage Coach Days 317 

XIV River Travel 325 

XV Bonding the Town 332 

XVI Colonial Times and Later 344 

XVII Rhinebeck in War Times 356 

XVIII The Cemetery 363 

XIX Rhinecliff 370 

XX The Fraternities 375 

XXI Violets 387 

XXII Who's AVho and Was 394 




Portrait of Author 

Buying Land from Indians 5 

Partition Map of Kipsbergen 13 

Making Survey of Beekman's Land 23 

Margaret Beekman-Livingston 26 

Old German Church 35 

Buttermilk Falls 54 

Kip's Ferry, 1760 64 

Road Map 70 

Toll-Gate 76 

Stone Church 119 

Reformed Dutch Church 140 

Wurtemburgh Church 149 

Miss Mary Garrettson 168 

Episcopal Church 192 

High School 212 

Map of Beekman Land and Partition 221 

Mills Dock 225 

Taproom Scene 240 

First Taverns 246 

Old Hotel 250 

Town Pump : 272 

The Big Fire, May, 1864 279 

General Training 287 

Men Who Were 96,276, 282,294,300, 396 

Old and New Methodist Church 306, 308 

Doctor and One-Horse Shay 311 

Stage Wagon 320 

Horse Boat 327 

Barge Milan 329 

Soldiers' Monument 357 

Small Pictures on Pages 68, 73, 75, 134, 345, 348, 351 

Echoes of Two Centuries 



"This is the place. Stand still, my friend — 
Let us review the scene, 
And summon from the shadowy past 
The forms that once have been." 

Adapted from Longfellow. 

WHEN the white man first ventured on the 
lands described in 1686 in an Indian deed 
as "right over against the mouth of the 
Redout Creek" (Rondout) is uncertain. He 
came over the river from Esopus (Kingston), 
which place was settled as early as 1658. This 
was some thirty years after the Dutch West 
India Company, through its colony at the 
"Manhaltes," had obtained substantia] foot- 
ing on that island and laid the foundation 
for the city of New York. A settlement was 
also made by them at Fort Orange (Albany) 
in 1623. 


2 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

The first settlers in Esopus located at Wilt- 
wick ; they were Holland Dutch and French 
Huguenots. Brave, hardy, stern and intel- 
ligent, brought together through religious 
persecution in the old country, and now pio- 
neers, united in a new country, by self inter- 
est, religious sympathy, as well as the ties of 
blood through intermarriage. 

Hon. Francis R. Tillou (father of " Charley " 
Tillou, at one time a resident of Rhinebeck), 
recognized as an authority, writing of their ad- 
vent in the colony of New York, says : " They 
were of all ranks and occupations — men of 
letters and science, agriculturists, artists, 
surgeons, physicians, manufacturers, mechan- 
ics, artisans, vineyardsmen, laborers and min- 
isters, were included." The Hollander and 
the Huguenot formed a great combination. 
They have merited veneration and respect. 
A worthy people, they had endured much for 
conscience' sake and were willing to endure 
more for the common good. It is said that to 
their friends they were ever devoted ; to their 
enemies always a terror. 

From these people came the five partners, 
Gerrit Artsen, Arie Roosa, Jan Elton, Hen- 
drick Kip, and Jacob Kip, the first settlers on 
the east bank of the Hudson river, called in 
1702, Kipsbergen, and after 1737, Rhinebeck. 

The Start ; When ; Where ; by Whom 3 

They used the Dutch language in most cases, 
but New York was then an English colony, 
and that language was being taught and to 
some extent then used. The determined vigor 
and sturdy integrity of the Dutch character 
were stamped upon all their public acts. They 
knew what, as pioneers, was before them, and 
they had both the will to do and the courage 
to do it. 

The Esopus Indians, a tribe of the Mohegan 
nation, occupied this land as natural owners 
in 1686, and probably for many centuries prior 
thereto. It was a wilderness, but for them 
"a happy hunting ground." The east side 
Indians called themselves "Sepascos." 

Many years' intercourse with the white man, 
and frequent warfare with the Mohawks and 
other tribes, in which they had the sympathy 
and often the aid of the whites, made them 
friendly. A trail led east from the river to 
an Indian village on a natural sheet of water, 
still called "Sepasco," and to a cave nearby 
that they frequented. Matty s Sleight, in a 
letter to Col. Philip Schuyler, written Octo- 
ber 20, 1720, called this cave the "Sepeske- 
not He] an," and charged the Indians with 
" stelan " and hiding the "plunderen " there. 
In recent years it has been known by the 
name of Welch. 

4 Historic Old Bhinebeck 

During the summer of 1686 some of these 
Indian owners sold and conveyed, as appears 
03^ the record in Book AA, in the Ulster county 
clerk's office, to Artsen, Roosa and Elton; 
and by a paper writing 1 , not of record, but 
still in existence, to Hendrick Kip, all the land 
along the river, west of the two creeks, after- 
wards called Kip and Landsman kills, from 
Vanderburgh cove on the south to a line run 
due west from where a traveled path or trail, 
running north and south, that in 1703 became 
the Kings highway, and in 1789 the post road, 
crossed the upper creek (Kip's kill) on the 
north. The place is now known as Hog 
bridge. This crossing was then a ford, and 
what is now the road, a trail. 

A royal patent, covering and confirming 
this sale by the "natural owners and posses- 
sors of the same," as therein stated, bears 
date June 2, 1688. The owners are described 
in the deed of record as "young Indians," 
and some evidently had family names. Aran 
Kee, Kreme Much, and Korra Kee sold to 
Artsen, Roosa and Elton the south parcel, 
while Ankony, Anamaton and Calycoon sold 
to Kip the north parcel, and are described in 
their deed as Esopus Indians and Sachems; 
they had only a single name. The first three 
each made a mark between the two words 

The Start; When; Where; by Whom 5 

Hendrick and Jacob Kip buying " Kipsbergen-Rhine- 
beck " from the Indians at Esopns. There is Ankony ; at 
his side, Calycoon ; behind Jacob Kip, Anamaton. 

6 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

forming" the name ; the last three each made 
a mark before the name.* They are unique. 

"A quitt rent " was reserved in the patent 
for "his most sacred Majesty," of "the quan- 
tity of eight bushels of good, sweet merchant- 
able winter wheat," to be delivered annually 
at the city of New York. 

The patentees, as appears by deeds on 
record, in Ulster county, in May, 1702, divided 
the lands into five portions, made up of eight 
nearly equal parcels to cover their individual 
shares as agreed upon, and the whole tract 
received the name of "Kipsbergen." It con- 
tained about 2,200 acres. f 

Following the purchase and patent they 
engaged in clearing their land and preparing 
it for occupancy. They were home makers. 
In religion they were "Reformed Dutch" 
and strict churchmen. 

In 1700 the first house on the patent was 
erected by Hendrick Kip on his south lot. It 
is of stone and still standing, though since 
much enlarged and improved. It now bears 
the name of the "Heermance house." In 
1728 it was the residence of Col. Henry Beek- 
man, and thence enjoys a noted colonial and 
revolutionary history. 

*For these, deeds and royal patent see Appendix. 
t See map, page 13. 

The Start; When; Where; by Whom 7 

This first house was a small affair and is 
on the east end of the present structure. The 
sashes, heavy and ungainly, and the window 
panes, ill-shaped and obscure, are still in evi- 
dence, carrying- one hack to the colonial days, 
confirming the age of this part of the house, 
and giving the whole place an old-time ap- 
pearance. Two port holes near the roof, on 
the river front, at one time existed ; one of 
them is still there, and many stories are told 
of their origin and their object, but there is 
nothing authentic in any of them.* On the 
east side is a stone lintel inscribed " Ao 1700 
HK AK." These are the initials of the names 
of the owner and his wife. 

They had five children. A daughter mar- 
ried Mattys Sleight. He bought of his father- 
in-law in 1718 a portion of the land and built 
a house a short distance to the south and 
west, but nearer the river. This is now the 
Radcliffe farm. The Sleight dock, now spelled 
" Slate," is on this land. This dock gets its 
present name from the slate quarry on the 
Clinton side of the town line. It became a 

*The noted author, Cooper, is authority for the state- 
ment, that " It is a matter of history that the settle- 
ments on the eastern shores of the Hudson," from 
Poughkeepsie north, "were not regarded as safe as 
late as 1745 from Indian incursions," and that houses 
were erected with " loopholes constructed for defense 
against the same crafty enemy." 

8 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

public dock when the shipment of slate from 
it was considerable. This was after 1805. 
For many years following- it was the prin- 
cipal dock in the town. It was Sleight's 
landing", though, long before it was christened 
" Slate dock." It was also Radcliffe's. 

The eldest son, John Kip, married in 1703, 
Lysbet Van Kleeck. He built a stone house 
near the fork of a path leading east and 
south from the river on his father's north lot. 

The other Kip patentee, Jacob, had nine 
children. He built a stone house on the west 
side of his lot, in 1708, near what became the 
ferry landing, in 1752, and afterwards the 
Long dock. It is there now, owned and occu- 
pied by F. G. Cotting; "Century home." 

The Kips are still on the ancestral estate, 
named by ex-Supervisor William Bergh Kip, 
the father of the present owner, "Ankony," 
after the Indian first mentioned in the old 
Kip deed. 

Log huts, or dugouts roofed over, might 
have preceded these stone buildings during* 
the period of clearing. Frame and brick 
structures came later. 

The houses erected at this time were usually 
square in form, one story in height, with two 
rooms and a garret. The ceilings were low, 
generally not exceeding seven or eight feet. 

The Start; When; Where; by Wliom 9- 

The fireplaces and ovens were the most 
important adjuncts. These, with a broad - 
throated chimney, which rose from a gable 
end, were built of stone, brick and mortar. 
An oven, extending- out and beyond, was usu- 
ally built on one side of the house. The floor 
beams were well selected, clear of knots,, 
dressed with the adz to a smooth surface, 
frequently polished, and in some instances 
ornamented with carving. The upper floor 
planks were dressed, tongued and grooved on 
the lower side, to make the ceiling of the 
lower room. Shingle covering- was used for 
the roofs. A dormer window lighted the gar- 
ret. Round glasses, called bull's-eyes, were 
placed in the upper part of the outer doors. 
The beams in the living rooms were made 
useful for hanging' baskets and buckets on, 
and usually held many articles of ordinary 
use, such as the tools and arms of the burgh- 
ers, and many household utensils. The win- 
dows had shutters of wood, turning- on heavy 
iron hing-es. The front door was cut in two 
in the middle, and had a knocker of brass or 
iron. The hinges, latches and nails were usu- 
ally made by the home blacksmith. 

Such houses were easily enlarged as required 
by the addition of more rooms constructed on 
the same plan. These houses made comfor- 

10 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

table homes, and received the assiduous care 
of the Dutch housewives and their daughters. 
Many of these houses were objects of admira- 
tion and pride in their day, and those still 
standing- are to-day. 

Artsen, Roosa and Elton, as well as the 
two Kips, were burghers of good repute, and 
each had some means. The following "Cer- 
tificate of Character," translated from the 
Dutch, was given the father and mother of 
Annetje Gerritsen, the mother of Gerrit Art- 
sen, on their departure, with their children, 
for America in 1660. 

"We, Burgomasters, Schepens, and Councillors of 
the city of Wagennin, declare, by these presents, that 
there appeared before us Hendrick Elissen and Jordiz 
Speiers, citizens of this city, at the request of Gerrit 
Gerritsen and Anna Hermansse his wife. That they 
have testified and certified, as they do by these 
presents, that they have good knowledge of the above- 
named Gerrit Gerritsen and Anna Hermansse his wife 
as to their life and conversation, and that they have 
always been considered and esteemed as pious and 
honest people, and that no complaint of any evil or dis- 
orderly conduce has ever reached their ears ; on the 
contrary they have always led quiet, pious, and honest 
lives, as it becomes pious and honest persons. They 
especially testify that they govern their family well, 
and bring up their children in the fear of God, and in 
all modesty and respectability. As the above-named 
persons have resolved to remove and proceed to New 
Netherlands, in order to find greater convenience, they 

The Start; When; Where; by Whom 11 

give this attestation, grounded on their knowledge of 
them, having known them intimately, and having been 
in continual intercourse with them for many years,, 
living in the same neighborhood. 

" In testimony of the truth, we, the Burgomasters of 
the city, have caused the secret seal of the city to bp- 
imprinted on this paper. 

"Done at Wagennin, 27th November 1660. 

" By the Ordinance of the same. 

(Seal.) "J. Aquelin." 

" A correct translation from the Dutch of the orig- 
inal document. 

(Drawing of Seal.) "Thomas DeWitt." 

Similar certificates were given by Burgo- 
masters to other reputable emigrants. ' 

Gerrit Artsen was the son of Aart Jacob- 
son, who was also from Wagennin, and An- 
netje Gerritsen. He was born in 1662. His 
grandfather was Jacob Aart. Combining the 
names of his parents as his father had done, 
he became Gerrit Artsen. This was the cus- 
tom in those days. Pronunciation controlled 
the spelling. Artsen brought with him, in 
1702, when he came to live upon and culti- 
vate his land, ten children. They took, when 
they settled in "ye olde town," as the family 
name, Van Wagenen, because the parents 
came, as the certificate states, from a place 
in Holland, called Wagennin. This was also 
a Dutch custom. 

Gerrit Artsen married, in 1681, Clara Pells, 

12 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

a daughter of Evert Pells, of Esopus, who, in 
1G51, was a tenant of Anneke Jans on her 
farm on Manhattan Island. A brother-in- 
law, named Evert, also came upon this land 
with him. He brought the name of Pells into 
the town. 

One of Artsen's daughters married Hen- 
drickus Heermance, a relative of Grand- 
mother Gerritsen, and another Jacobus Van 
Vradenburg-h ; both sons-in-law located on 
this land. These names are still with us. 
The Heermance portion of the Artsen lot 
(No. 3) is now the main part of the beautiful 
estate called " Ellerslie." 

On lots Nos. 1 and 4, with Roosa, who was 
a brother-in-law of Artsen, having: married 
Maria Pells, another daughter of Evert, and 
who was in 1T00, and continued to be for sev- 
eral years, captain of a sloop, came six chil- 
dren ; his son-in-law, Laurens Osterhout; also 
a Van Etten and an Ostrander, each related 
to him by the marriage of sons. Part of the 
Roosa lot (No. 1) is the "Linwood" of early 
times. Dr. Thomas Tillotson, a surgeon on 
Washington's staff during- the revolution, and 
a statesman of note afterwards, lived there. 
It is still known as "Linwood." 

Accompanying- Elton on lots Nos. 2 and 5, 
came five sons and four sons-in-law, Newkirk, 

The Start; When; Where; by Whom 13 

170 0, 


Map of the partition of Kipsbergen, made by 
deeds in May, 1702. See reference to same on 
page 6, and farther disposition thereof on pages 
12 and 14. The Kips divided their two-fifths as 
shown on map. 

14 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

Wynkoop, Paulding and Du Bois, Among 
them the Elton portion was partitioned. The 
ever-to-be remembered "Wildercliff " is on 
Elton's lot No, 2. " Ferncliff " is on the Kip 
north lot. These and other country seats of 
ii ye olde town," their history and owners, are 
entitled to more extended description. They 
make a separate chapter. 

Parts of lots Nos. 5 and 6 form the 
present village of Rhinecliff. On lot No. 6 
was "Schatzel's dock," for many .years a 
public dock. It is the present landing of the 
Rhine beck and Kingston ferry. Van Wag- 
enen farms of colonial days were on lot No. 6. 
One became the Hutton place, and is now a 
home for convalescent children. 

The river was the only highway; traders 
followed it, and settlers kept near the water. 
The river bank then, as now, was the most 
desirable land. The sloop or sailboat was the 
principal means of transit. These were nu- 
merous. The river was dotted with sail. 
The "aquatic Dutch" appreciated its value 
and profited by it. 

Esopus was the trading point for the early 
settlers in Kipsbergen, and was easily reached 
by them with scow and skiff. They attended 
church there. It was the home of their 
friends. It had regular communication, as 

The Start; When; Where; by Whom 15 

wind and weather permitted, with New York 

and Albany by sloops as frequent as necessary. 

This advertisement in the New York Gazette 

in April, 1734, is interesting- in this connection: 

" These are to give notice that Evert Bogardus now 
plys in a boat on the Hudson River, between JSew 
York and Esopus. If any gentlemen or merchants 
have any goods to send to Ryn-Beck or Esopus, he 
will carry such goods as cheap as is usually paid for 
carrying to Esopus. He will be at New York once a 
week, if wind and weather permits and comes to Coen- 
ties Slip." 

This slip runs from Pearl street to the river, 
and at its foot are piers 6, 7 and 8 on the East 
river. It still bears the name of Coenties. 

Capt. Evert Bogardus was the grandson of 
the " dominie," the husband of Anneke Jans, 
and was the father of Everardus, who settled 
on "the flatts" in 1769, and was the tavern 
keeper, in what is now the "old hotel," dur- 
ing the revolution. 

Esopus, * in 1700, had several large stores 
well stocked with merchandise of the period. 
Manufacturing was carried on. Homes were 
numerous and comfortably furnished. It was 
a business centre; the shire town of both 
Ulster and Dutchess counties. 

*In 1669 the English tried to change the name to 
Kingston, but the Dutch preferred Esopus, and it was 
still so called in 1700, and for many years after. 

1G Historic Old Rhinebeck 

These counties, in 1691, formed one Assem- 
bly District and elected representatives to the 
first General Assembly. 

What was needed for every ordinary pur- 
pose could be procured in Esopus. Barter 
was, as the rule, the method of buying" and 
•selling-. It was, prior to 1700, the only im- 
portant village on the river between New 
York and Albany. Ministers, doctors, teach- 
ers, lawyers, artisans and laborers lived there 
and followed their vocations. This was the 
fortunate condition of affairs when the first 
Kip house was erected. 

These early settlers were not far from the 
conveniences of the period, the necessaries of 
life, or separated from their old homes and 
friends. The ways and means to make a new 
settlement were at their hand. 

In reviewing- the past and giving- proper 
credit to the pioneers in "ye olde town," we 
-cannot withhold full meed of praise to Artsen, 
Roosa, Elton and the Kips, the ancestors or 
the precursors of the old Rhinebeck families 
of Bergh, Barnes, Bog-ardus, Brown, Bates, 
Carroll, Curtis, Cross, Cotting-, Champlin, 
Cooper, Cowles, Cramer, Cox, Crapser, Du 
Bo is, De Lamater, De Witt, Drury, Elting-, 
Elmendorf, Fox, Fowkes, Gardener, Hoag, 
Heermance, Hagadorn, Holdridge, Houghta- 

The Start ; Where; When; by Whom 17 

ling-, Hendricks, Hanaburgh, Jacques, Jen- 
nings, Judson, Lorillard, Landon, Lewis, Kier- 
sted, Kissam, Marshall, McCarty, Newkirk, 
Nelson, Noxon, Ostrander, Osterhout, Pot- 
tenburgh, Paulding, Piatt, Pells, Potter, 
Quick, Radcliffe? Peed, Russell, Shields, Sey- 
mour, Sleight, Schell, Sprague, Schoonmaker, 
Styles, Teller, Tomlinson, Tremper, Tapping", 
Van Auken, Van Wagenen, Van Steenbergh, 
Van Etten, Van Vliet, Van Vredenburgh, 
Van Keuren, Van Hovenburgh, Welch, Wil- 
son, Wynkoop, and others. 

It has been well said that : 

"It is a task of pleasing* curiosity to trace 
the history of their families and posterity, and 
singular to find how generally beneficial they 
were to the neighborhood in which they set- 
tled ; how distinguished many of them were 
lor exalted virtues and rare endowments." 



" Who keeps one end in view, makes all things serve." 


THE name of Beekman is inseparable from 
Rhinebeck. Judge Henry Beekman, the 
patentee, was a son of Wilhelmus Beekman, 
who was born in Hasselt in 1623, and came to 
New Netherlands in 1647, when Peter Stuy- 
vesant was governor. He was in the employ 
of the West India Company. He married 
Catherine, a daughter of Capt. De Boagh, a 
trader on the Hudson river, in 1649. He died 
in 1701. He was a man of ability, wealth and 

Judge Henry, his son, was born in 1651, 
and was forty-four years of age when, in 1695, 
he applied for "a patent for land in Dutchess 
county, lying opposite Esopus creek, and 
known by the name of Sepeskenot." The 
Indian name was "Sepasco." He obtained 
this patent April 22, 1697, nearly nine years 
after the Artsen, Roosa, Elton and Kip 

He was also antedated by the Pawling pur- 
chase, which covered Staatsburgh, now m the 


The Beekman Epoch 19 

town of Hyde Park, and by the patent of Col. 
Peter Schuyler, which covered in part what 
is now the town of Reel Hook. The southern 
boundary of the Schuyler patent on the river 
was a small brook called "Steen Valetje."* 

The Beekman patent covered the land north 
of Jacob Kip's to Schuyler and east of the two 
creeks (the easterly boundary of the Artsen, 
Kip and Company patent) to a " certain pond 
called by the Indians " Waraughkeemeek " 
(Pine swamp) and south to the Pawling 
(Hyde park) line. He had only a small front- 
age on the river between Kip and Schuyler.f 
South of him was the Pawling- purchase owned 
by Henry Pawling in his lifetime. 

Pawling died in 1695, the year Beekman 
applied for his patent. His will was made 
in 1691. He left this property to his wife, 
Neetlje Roosa, a sister of Arie Roosa, for her 
lifetime, or until she should remarry, with 
remainder to their children. This property 
joined that of Arie Roosa on the south. 

On May 26, 1701, the widow Pawling and 
her children sold it to Samuel Staats and Dirck 
Vanderburgh, of the city of New York, for one 
hundred and thirty pounds. A combination of 
" Staats" and " burgh" gave the region the 

* Little Stone Falls. 

f " Mills" dock was on Beekman's land. 

20 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

name of Staatsburgh. This locality attracted 
settlors along- the river bank soon after Staats 
and Vanderburgh became the owners.* 

The Schuyler and Pawling lands, as well as 
those of Beekman, formed with Kipsbergen in 
1737 the "RynBeck" precinct, as established 
by Chapter 652 (passed Dec. 16, 1737), Colonial 
Laws. Prior thereto this precinct was the 
North ward of Dutchess county. The Beek- 
man part was about one-fourth of the whole. 

Judge Henry Beekman came with his father 
to Esopus in 1663. He married Joanna De 
Lopes. He had four children, two sons and 
two daughters. The eldest son, William, died 
when eighteen years of age. The second son, 
Henry, junior, was born in 1688. The eldest 
daughter, Catherine, born in 1683, married 
John Rutsen ; they had four children. Cor- 
nelia, born in 1690, married Gilbert Living- 
ston, son of Robert the "Lord of the Manor,' 7 
by whom she had fourteen children. These 
constituted the Beekman family of Esopus 

Henry, junior, the first Beekman who made 
his residence in Rhinebeck, married Janet 
Livingston in 1721. This was after the death 
of his father, the patentee, which occurred in 
1716. The elder Henry, the judge, should be 

* For a description of Staatsburgh when it was part 
of Rhinebeck, see Appendix. 

The Beekman Epoch 21 

described as a man "who keeps one end in 
view." He did make "all things serve" his 
purpose. An earnest, plain, practical, far- 
seeing- business man. He lived in Kingston ; 
never in Rhinebeck. He was a county judge, 
a colonel of the militia, and held other offices 
in Ulster county. 

Judge Beekman was not satisfied with his 
first patent, and six years later, on June 25, 
1703, he obtained another. This later patent 
covered all of the Artsen-Kip patent, called 
Kipsbergen, and much of Col. Peter Schuy- 
ler's. He soon had trouble about boundaries, 
for Schuyler forced him down from the Saw- 
kill (Quaningquious) on the river, to "Steen 
Valet je," the small brook below, for his north 
line ; this is the present division boundary be- 
tween the towns of Rhinebeck and Red Hook. 
It does not appear that he ever asserted any 
claim to Kipsbergen, but on March 19, 1726, 
Col. Henry, the son, executed a formal re- 
lease and quit claim of his paper title. 

On the 9th day of August, 1715, Col. Henry, 
the son, bought of Peek De Witt and Maritje, 
his wife, then owners, five thousand five hun- 
dred and forty-one acres of the Col. Schuyler 
land on the north of the Beekman patent.* 
This gave the Beekmans title to all the land 

*For Beekman release and DeWitt deed see Appendix. 

22 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

in the present town of Khinebeck except Kips- 
bergen; also part of Red Hook.* 

The elder Beekman early sought settlers for 
his lands. He saw the need for, as well as 
the advantages of, a grist and saw mill near 
the river, accessible from the settlements on 
Artsen, Roosa, Elton and Kip's lands and 
below. Location was very important. The 
settlers' convenience had to be considered. 
There were a number of them by 1709 ; thirty 
or more families. The place he finally se- 
lected, however, was not on his land. It was 
on the land of Capt. Arie Roosa. He bought 
the land required of Roosa about 1710, built a 
dam on his land adjoining, and a saw and 
grist mill and dock on the Roosa land, which 
was on the river front, on what is still known 
as Vanderburgh cove. 

These mills were well located. Grain and 
logs could be taken to them by water as well 
as by land, and flour, feed and timber away 
as desired. They were serviceable to settlers 
on both sides of the river, above and below. 
The judge deeded this mill property to his son 
in 1713. 

During the fall of 1714 Judge Beekman, 
with a surveyor named John Beatty, assisted 

* For a description of Red Hook when it was part of 
Rhinebeck, see Appendix. 

The Beekman Epoch 


Judge Beekman, Surveyor John Beatty and Cham- 
bearer Tunis Pier making survey in October and JNo- 
vembpr, 1714, of Beekman's land in Rhinebeck. -brom 
this survey John Beatty made the map dated Novem- 
ber 29. 1714. 

M Historic Old Rliinebeck 

by a young- man named Tunis Pier, as chain- 
bearer, laid out lands "for the High Butch- 
ers/' as the Palatines were called, and made 
a map of the Beekman patents of 1697-1703 in 
the present town. 

About 1715 the promises of father and son 
brought many Palatines to Khinebeck. Liv- 
ingston influence helped. Henry, junior, was 
"a chip of the old block. ,r His sister had 
married a Livingston, and this made it a 
family affair. Thereafter "ye olde town " 

Communication by sloops was established 
from the dock on the cove about 1716, with 
New York, Albany and other places along 
the river, by Col. Henry Beekman, Jr. Boat 
building- was also engaged in. 

Among the Palatines were several ship 
carpenters and an aquatic German, named 
Progue; he entered the Beekman service and 
became a sloop captain. Craftsmen of dif- 
ferent trades appeared and soon found profit- 
able employment. 

The creek (Landsman) that furnished the 
water to turn the wheels at the mill was the 
western boundary of Judge Beekman's land, 
and is called in the Roosa-Beekman deed the 
" mill creek." These mills were probably the 
first erected in Dutchess county, and in 1710 

Tlie Beekman Epoch 25 

they were, says the local historian (Smith), 
"on the borders of a wilderness whose very 
few white settlers were confined to the shores 
of the river." 

This section, with its woods, hills, valleys, 
lakes and streams, must have been for the 
Indians and early settlers hunting* and fish- 
ing- grounds that would have excited the 
envy of anj^ Nimrod or Walton, savage or 

Judge Beekman brought to his assistance, 
in the erection of these mills and the devel- 
opment of his land, two sturdy, energetic, 
capable men, who proved valuable acquisi- 
tions to the neighborhood. One was Casper 
Landsman, soon installed as the miller. He 
gave his name to the creek, which he sub- 
sequently explored and selected mill sites 
on. The other was William Traphagen, the 
artisan, who planned and built these and 
other mills and buildings in the early days. 

Soon after the post road was opened Trap- 
hagen purchased a large tract of the elder 
Beekman, who described it in the deed dated 
February 17, 1711, as a "plain." It was about 
a mile in length, starting from the junction 
of the two kills below the sand hill, and 
bounded south and west by Kip's (Rhinebeck) 
and Landsman kills. The easterly boundary 

26 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

was along the post road, near to Hog bridge. 
This bridge gets its name, because in 1715 and 
afterwards, the Ostranders allowed their hogs 
to wallow in the mud on the borders of the kill 
about the roadside. 

Traphagen called his purchase "the flatts," 
by which name it was known for more than 
a century. He settled upon it four or five 
years before he got his deed and built in L709 
a stone house which served as a tavern, and 
in later years was known as the "old state 
prison." Why, is a conundrum. This house 
was on the north side of the Sepasco trail or 
path to the river, now West Market street, 
and between Garden and Oak streets, in the 
village; it was torn down about 1882. Trap- 
hagen founded the village. 

In 172G Col. Henry Beekman, Jr., became 
the owner, through an exchange of property, 
of the Kip house (Heermance), near the river, 
and moved into it. He enlarged and im- 
proved it, and lived there until his death in 
1776. He was eighty-eight years of age at 
the time of his death. He had been twice 
married. His first wife, Janet Livingston, 
died in 1724 ; by her he had two children, one 
a son, who died in infancy, and the other a 
daughter, Margaret, who married her cousin, 
Robert R. Livingston, the grandson of the 


Daughter of Col. Henry Beekman, Jr.. and Janet Livingston; wife 

of Robert Livingston; the mother of four great 

men and six noted women 

The Beekman Epoch 27 

lord of the manor.* Col. Henry subsequently 
married Gertrude Van Cortlanclt, his second 
wife ; she became, in 1728, the mistress of his 
Rhinebeck home. She had no children. 

It very soon became famous as the Beek- 
man mansion, and until the revolution was 
well under way, the g*reat men of the period 
were cordially received and entertained there. 
Col. Henry and his accomplished wife were 
lavish entertainers. They and their relatives 
were in every sense "first citizens." They 
were patriots and leaders in the continental 

Within the walls of the Kip-Beekman-Heer- 
mance house frequently gathered notables 
from every section, and the decade before 
the Lexington-Bunker hill battles witnessed 
many conferences of patriot sons under its 
roof to formulate plans in the interest of the 

Margaret Beekman Livingston had ten chil- 
dren, and not the least of the Beekman equip- 
ment of "ye olde town" was their progeny 

* Their son, Robert R., was the Chancellor Livingston 
who administered the oath of office to Washington as 
first president ; he was a member of the Continental 
Congress and one of the committee that drafted the 
Declaration of Independence. He was also Minister 
to France, and made the Louisiana purchase. As the 
financial backer of Robert Fulton he aided in build- 
ing the first steamboat. 

28 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

and folio win st. The Livingstons, Schuylers, 
Montgomery s, Rutsens, Garrettsons, Tillot- 
sons, Suckleys, Armstrongs, Lewises, Astors, 
Duers, and many others, whose names are 
written indellibly on the pages of our coun- 
try's history, became identified with Rhine- 
beck, directly or indirectly, because of their 
relation to Col. Henry Beekman, Jr., who, 
succeeding his father at his death in 1716, led 
the line, and was, until 1776, the guiding 
spirit in town affairs. The pages of history 
show that Rhinebeck can justly count with 
pardonable pride among its founders and chil- 
dren many memorable families and not a few 
illustrious ones. In this respect it is without 
a rival . For nearly two centuries the Beek- 
man-Livingston-Schuyler alliance and their 
descendants kept these names on the rolls 
of the Empire State by ability, worth and 
patriotism, by remarkable gifts in legislation 
and administration and generous devotion to 
the public welfare. 

When Ulster and Dutchess formed one col- 
onial assembly district, from 1691 to 1713, 
Henry Beekman, the elder, and Jacob Rutsen, 
were the representatives. In 1713 Dutchess 
became a separate district, and Leonard 
Lewis, a relative of Gen. Morgan Lewis, was 
its representative. In 1725 Col. Henry Beek- 

The Beekman Epoch. 29 

man, the son, became a representative from 
Dutchess, which office he continued to hold 
until 1759 when Robert R. Livingston, his 
son-in-law and Henry Livingston, his nephew, 
became the representatives. The death of Col. 
Henry Beekman, in 1776, carried away the 
name of Beekman from the town, but left that 
of Livingston instead. This name was a fix- 
ture for nearly one hundred and fifty years. 
The death of Lewis H. Livingston, in 1893, 
eliminated it. Bearing old names of old fam- 
ilies, from the Beekman source, only Col. 
John Jacob Astor and Mr. Robert B. Suckley, 
as heads of families, survive. Descendants, 
however, bearing other names, of the Beek- 
man-Livingston blood, remain. " Grasmere," 
of colonial memory, once the property of Gen. 
Richard Montgomery, and after the revolu- 
tion the residence of Gen. Morgan Lewis, be- 
came the Livingston homestead in "ye olde 
town." It is on the Beekman patent. In the 
making of the state and nation its occupants 
bore from the start a conspicuous part. 

"The Grove," the residence of Col. Philip 
J. Schuyler, who married Sarah Rutsen, of 
Beekman-Livingston ancestry, and built the 
mansion, now the property of a descendant, 
Dr. George N, Miller, is also on the Beekman 
patent. Col. Philip was the son of Gen. Philip 

30 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

Schuyler. " Ye olde town " in its Livingstons 
and Schuylers made valuable contributions to 
our country's fame. 

In his political history of the State of New 
York De Alva Stanwood Alexander says : — 
"What Caesar said of Gaul used to be said 
of the Empire State, that all New York was 
divided into three parts — the Clintons, the 
Livingstons and the Schuylers." Parton said, 
" The Clintons had power, the Livingstons had 
numbers and the Schuylers had Hamilton." 

Rhinebeck had the Livingstons and the 



" Who hath not own'd, with rapture smitten frame, 
The power of grace, the magic of a name?" 


FROM time immemorial places, persons and 
things have had names. Simply as a mat- 
ter of convenience names are desirable. The 
selection of an appropriate name for a loca- 
lity is not easy. In most cases chance is re- 
sponsible for the first choice. Names cer- 
tainly preceded the advent of the white man 
on the east bank of the river opposite the Re- 
dout (Rondout) creek. This creek was also 
known as "Esopus." 

In the "Calendar of Land Papers" it ap- 
pears that the land Judge Beekman obtained 
his patent for, "lying- opposite the Esopus 
creek," had the name of Sepeskenot. The 
Dutch balked at Sepasco. 

Beekman's patent is rich in names. Quan- 
ingquious, Waraughkeemeek, Metambesem, 
are attached to this land, and from other old 
land papers of about the same date we find 
those of Tanquashqueak, Quanelos, Mansak- 
enning, Sepasco applied to it somewhere. 

32 Historic Old Bhinebeck 

These, with others now lost, were Indian 
names, pertinent to places, brooks, meadows, 
woods, etc. They were certainly euphonious, 
and undoubtedly appropriate and descriptive. 

Indian names most likely confounded and 
confused the Dutch. They were beyond their 
understanding". Quaningquious was sacrificed 
for Vanderburgh cove ; Waraughkeemeek for 
"Ferer Cot" or Pine Swamp; it is about 
three miles east of Upper Ked Hook; Me- 
tambesem for Sawkill, a creek in Reel Hook 
once of some local importance. Tanquash- 
queak became first Schuyler's and next Rad- 
cliffe's fly. Quanelos fell to Sleight's kill, be- 
cause it was Hendrick Kip's southern bound- 
ary, and it became his son-in-law's, Mattys 
Sleight's, in 1719. Mansakenning was trans- 
formed into Jacomyntie's fly. Sepasco alone 
remains to testify that the Indian with an 
" untutor'd mind," in his simple nature, recog- 
nized the eternal fitness, power of grace and 
magic of an appropriate name. 

The first appearance of a name made by the 
white man for the lands on the east bank of 
the river, opposite Esopus creek, on county 
records, was in 1712, in a deed wherein Laurens 
Osterhout describes himself as a resident of 
" Kipsbergen in Dutchess county." This name 
covered the Artsen, Roosa, Elton, Kip pur- 

The Name 33 

chase, and must have been applied to the 
locality soon after they entered into occu- 

It does not appear that Judge Beekman con- 
cerned himself much about a name for his land 
prior to 1712. He was apparently contented 
with "Sepeskenot." "We find him using- the 
name "~Ryn Beck" in a letter for the first 
time in 1713. In a deed dated November 29, 
1714, of one hundred and twenty-four acres of 
his land which he had sold to two brothers, 
Peter and William Ostrander, of Esopus, he 
says that the land is in "Ryn Beck." This 
land was on the east side of the Kings high- 
way, now the post road, where Kip's kill 
(Rhinebeck creek) crosses it, near the present 
Hog bridge. A map made by John Beatty, 
bearing the same date as the Ostrander deed, 
November 29, 1714, has this endorsement, "on 
ye bounds of ye said Col. Beekman, called 
Reinebaik, in Dutchess County." The Os- 
trander land in after years was known as the 
William Van Steenbergh farm. The well- 
known "Cooper house," where Dr. Ananias 
Cooper lived before and during the revolu- 
tion, was on this farm. It was a short dis- 
tance north of the land bought by W T illiam 
Traphagen, in 1706, for which he obtained a 
deed in 1711, and which he named "•' the flatts." 

34 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

On the 28th of February, 1715, three months 
after the Ostrander purchase, Judge Beek- 
man sold to " Jacob Kip, of Kipsbergen," 
eighty-nine acres of land "at Ryn Beck," 
which he describes as "all the high land that 
lies between ye said Jacob Kip's east bounds 
or lyne to ye southern bounds of Peter and 
William Ostrander." This later became the 
Cramer farm, and with twenty-four acres Kip 
bought of Traphagen the Champlin farm. 
These farms are on the northwest corner of 
the present village, and are the proper t3^ of 
Col. John Jacob Astor. Other remembered 
owners are John Van Wagenen, Henry B. 
Welcher and Griffen Hoffman. They are south 
of the creek and west of the road. In the 
Ostrander deed reference is made to lauds, 
made their northeast boundary, laid out for 
the "high Dutchers." Judge Beekman was at 
this time seeking the dissatisfied Palatines as 
tenants, and had laid out lands, making the 
vicinity of the present "stone church" a 
"dorf " for them. He offered inducements to 
influence their coming. He probably thought 
a home-sounding name might allure them to 
it. They were the "high Dutchers" referred 
to. In religion they were mostly Lutherans, 
but some were Calvinists or Reformed Dutch. 
During 1715 they arrived. 

The Name 


The first church in the town and county. The 
German church at Kirchehoek in Rhinebeck. 
Built in 1716. Used in common by the Luther- 
ans and Calvinists until 1729 ; then by the 
" Reformed Protestants " until about 1800-2, 
when it was removed. As the Rhinebeck church 
it stood a monument to the name. 

36 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

On October 8th of that year these Palatines., 
through Rev. John Frederick Hager, John 
Cast and Godfrey de Wolven, who claimed to 
represent sixty or more families, petitioned 
Gov. Hunter for a license to build a church in 
"Kingsbury/' the name Hager selected for 
this locality. The church came, but for some 
reason the name did not stick. The "Kirche- 
hoek" answered the purpose of the "high 
Dutchers" for many years. The first church 
was built in 1716 on the corner which bore 
that name. The Palatines, the name and the 
church made a happy combination. After 
the removal of the church, about 1800, and two 
or three changes in name, it became and is still 
known as " Pink's Corner." A family named 
Pink, father and son, kept a store there for 
seventy or more years. 

A claim has been made that the name Rhine- 
beck is a combination of "Rhine," in honor of 
the river of that name, and "Beek," tor the 
owner of the land. To accept this conclusion 
facts must give way to fancy. The Palatines 
are the reputed sponsors for this absurd joint- 
ure. They are innocent. 

Josh Billings, a Dutchess county celebrity, 
was asked if a certain writer of some note 
was a reliable authority. He replied : " He 
ought to be ; he knows so much that ain't so." 

The Name 37 

Reading- Peter A. Jay, Martha J. Lamb, and 
«ven Holgate and Lossing-, we find that in 
writing" about Rhinebeck and the inhabitants, 
they know " so much that ain't so," that they 
ought to be reliable from Josh's standpoint. 
For example, Holgate places the " Manor of 
Kipsbergen" with four miles of river front 
and several miles in the interior in "ye olde 
town." It "ain't so." There were no man- 
orial grants in the town. The Kips owned 
two-fifths of 2,200 acres between them. Two 
g-ood-sized farms of 440 acres each. 

Martha J. Lamb says : " William Beek- 
man purchased all the region of Rhinebeck 
from the Indians and built a small stone house 
in 1647, which is still standing-." This was 
ten years before Kingston, where William 
Beekman lived for several years, was settled. 
It was, in fact, the year he arrived in New 
Netherlands, now New York, a young- man 
twenty-four years of age. Lossing repeats 
this 1647 story, perhaps because Mrs. Lamb 
said so. He could not have looked the matter 
up or he would have found that "ain't so" 
spoiled it. So would Jay and Mrs. Lamb. 

Peter A. Jay and Mrs. Lamb agree as to 
the origin of the name. Rhine for the river 
of that name; beek for the judge. Rhine- 
beek. One gives Judge Beekman, a man of 

38 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

great common sense, the credit for the com- 
pounding. The other says the Palatines did 
it. Oar own respected local historian, Ed- 
ward M. Smith, accepted the later theory- as 
to the origin of the name. He took issue as 
to several other plain errors made by these 
writers. He consulted the records, county, 
church and family. He transcribed them cor- 
rectly. The others could and should have 
done the same. 

Both Jay and Mrs. Lamb settled the town 
with "poor germans" seventy years before 
they left their old homes and twenty years 
before Judge Beekman, the patentee, was 
born. Jay seriously makes Col. Henry Beek- 
man, Jr., his own father. Applying our old 
friend Josh's " ain't so " reasoning, several 
so-called historians ought to be reliable author- 
ity of a high order. 

The name is here, however. Whence did it 
come? It is clear that "Ryn Beck" ante- 
dated the arrival of the Palatines. Names 
did not trouble these poor, unfortunate im- 
migrants. They sought homes, not names. 
"Rhine" is certainly the name of a famous 
river. The spelling is not always the same. 
Rhein is German, Ryn is Dutch, Rhin is 
French. We see that the Dutch spelling is 
first used. The Palatines would have used 

The Name 39 

the German. The Hudson and the Rhine have 
similar attractions. The first is still called 
the American Rhine. The use of that name 
in 1714 or earlier by Judge Beekman does 
not seem strange. It was appropriate. 

Now as to the last sylable: it was never 
"beek." So far as the records are authority 
it is "beck." This is the Dutch name for 
brook, or a plain adjacent to brooks. There 
were several brooks and plains on Beekman's 
land to which "beck" might appropriately 
have been applied, and the river with the 
brook would make "Ryn-Beck," in Dutch, if 
that were the origin of the name intended to 
be given the locality. 

We find also persons in "ye olde town" 
before 1715 by the name of Beck, immigrants 
from near the river Rhine ; but Rhinebeck 
can trace its name to a more certain source 
than either of the ones mentioned. 

The name most likely intended and, in fact, 
given the locality, is "Rheinbach." This is 
the name of a small village in Rhenish-Prussia, 
about fifty miles south of the noted city of 
Cologne, and some eight miles back of the 
river Rhine.* It is in the Palatinate. Sev- 
eral of the early settlers came from this 

* For further information in regard to this German 
village, see Appendix. 

40 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

locality. Karl Neher, a list master, was- 
one of them. He was a leader and had con- 
siderable following. 

Judge Beekman may have had this in mind 
in laying- out the land for the "high Butch- 
ers. " Spelling 1 it Ryn Beck did not change 
the actual name. Beatty, the surveyor, pre- 
sumably a man of some education, in 1714, 
spelled it "Rainebaik." The pronunciation 
of the name, regardless of spelling, has from 
the first been Rhinebeck. The Beekmans 
fathered the name, if they did not originate 
it, and they did not neglect to make it apply 
to the North ward of Dutchess county as 
opportunity offered. 

On December 16, 1737, an act to divide 
Dutchess county into seven precincts passed 
the colonial legislature, and Rynbeck is named 
as one of these precincts, "to contain all the 
lands purchased of the Widow Pawling and 
her children, by Dr. Samuel Staats, deceased ; 
all the lands granted to Adria Roosa and com- 
pany. That land patented to Col. Henry 
Beekman, deceased, and the lands granted 
by patent to Col. Peter Schuyler, commonly 
called Magdalens Island purchase.'' 

Thus Rhinebeck became the lawful name of 
all of the present town ; all of Red Hook and 
that part of Hyde Park described as the Paw- 

The Name 41 

ling- purchase, called "Staatsburgh." Col. 
Henry Beekman served as a member of this 
colonial legislature. 

The Beekmans, by a law which was made 
at their behest, named the town. That does 
not admit of question. Whatever power of 
grace or magic there is in the name, they are 
entitled to the credit of it. It was a sensi- 
ble selection. So was Kipsbergen. There was 
a reason, and a good one, perhaps, for each. 

" Rhinebeck "* has a charm for, and is oft 
repeated when recollections to memory dear 
are awakened, by thousands of worthy scions 
scattered throughout the land. The call" of 
"ye olde town " is heard by many in distant- 
places, who, "with rapture smitten frame," 
affectionately acknowledge " the power of 
grace, the magic of a name." So be it ever. 

* About the year 1760 quite a number of Palatines 
left Rhinebeck, and removed to and settled in the town 
of Seward, Schoharie county. They named their " dorf " 
" New Rhinebeck," and built a church which was called 
the Rhinebeck church. Among them were persons 
named Haines, Brown, Sommers, Strobeck, Engle, 
Stall, Petrie and others. They were of the 1722 arri- 
vals. The church was called " St. Peters." Adjoining 
the church was the cemetery. To complete the resem- 
blance there were also near by a slate hill, a gold mine 
and a cave, not far away. After a more or less event- 
ful history, covering a hundred years, the name of 
Rhinebeck passed from Schoharie county records It 
is still remembered there. 



" Kind hearts are more than coronets, 
And simple Faith than Norman blood." 


INVALUABLE as the Palatines proved to be 
to "ye olde town," they were not the first 
settlers, and th«°y at no time comprised a ma- 
jority of its inhabitants. They came from the 
east camp on the Hudson river in 1715, and 
among- the heads of families were Karl ISTeher, 
Adam Eykart, Bastian Treibor, Barent Zip- 
perly, Josef Reichart, Alburtus Screiber and 
Johannes Escher,* names now more familiar, 
as Near, Ackert, Traver, Sip perly, Rikert, 
Schryver and Asher. 

For twenty-five years before the advent of 
these Palatines the white man had been 
engaged in subduing the forest, tilling the 
soil and overcoming obstacles incident to 
the making of homes in a new country. He 
had succeeded. Kipsbergen was here; "the 
flatts" had a start; the Beekman mills on 
the cove were busy. Sloops sailed back and 
forth to the city. The Dutch were in control. 

*For other old names, see Appendix. 

The Palatines 43 

They were extending- north and east. Judge 
Beekmau had made sales of land on his pat- 
ent to Traphagen, Ostrander and Jacob Kip. 
Traphagen had sold parcels to Jacob Kip and 
Arie Hendricks. Beekman had given his land 
its name, Ryn Beck. The Kings highway was 
laid out through it. The post boy and ped- 
dler used it ; also the traveler. 

The Palatines came from a country of vine- 
yards, gardens and small farms, called the 
Lower Palatinate of the Rhine. They were 
mostly farmers, but all trades, professions 
and occupations were represented. The cli- 
mate there was mild. The ruler was styled 
the Palatine. Until the Reformation his sub- 
jects were a happy, contented people, living 
in comfort, if not abundance. They followed 
their ruler when he championed the cause of 
Luther. Fierce religious wars soon unsettled 
and impoverished them. The edict of Louis 
XIV of France made them in 1689 homeless 
and exiles. Their kind hearts and simple faith 
sustained them as they turned their faces in 
confidence towards England in their search 
for a possible haven. 

In 1708 one Joshua Kockerthal, a Lutheran 
minister, devoted to the interests of his peo- 
ple, petitioned the London Board of Trade, 
" in behalf of himself and the poor Lutherans, 

44 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

to be transported to some of ye Matys plan- 
tations in America." This was the beginning 
of a great exodus. The time was ripe for it. 
England needed emigrants in her colonies. 
The opportunity to secure them presented 
itself. She embraced it. To people her pos- 
sessions in America with the homeless Pala- 
tines she is said to have "sent agents through- 
out the Palatinates to induce them to emigrate 
here." It is claimed that alluring promises 
were made and broken. The story is a sad 
one. Dominie Kockerthal was instrumental in 
bringing the Palatines to America. He sought 
to better their condition. In 1708 he induced 
"fifty-one poor Lutherans from the Lower 
Palatinate " to emigrate. They came from 
Neuberg on the Rhine, and settled at New- 
burgh on the Hudson. He returned to Eng- 
land in 1709, and with the co-operation of the 
government marshalled three thousand more. 
These were transported to the Hudson river 
by Col. Robert Hunter, who had been ap- 
pointed governor of New York in 1710. 

The Palatines had signed a contract agree- 
ing to settle on such lands as should be allotted 
them, and not to leave without permission of 
the governor. They were to engage in the 
making of naval stores. The proceeds were 
to be used to pay advances made. 

The Palatines 45 

The government agreed to transport them 
to New York and subsist them for one year 
after their arrival. When they had paid the 
cost of this, each was to have forty acres of 
land, free of tax or quit rent for seven years, 
and necessary seed and implements. The 
prospects were inviting. Ten vessels were 
required to transport them. After twenty 
years' wandering, the end was to be homes. 

Three thousand people — men, women, chil- 
dren, babes in arms — representing nearly all 
crafts, professions and conditions, gathered 
on the pier, all placed on a level by one 
hard condition — biting poverty. There were 
handshaking and mutual farewells, then the 
heave-ho of the sailors, the filling of sails, and 
the fleet moved slowty out of the harbor. 
The voyage was long and disastrous, but 
finally ended. 

The stated daily stipend had been fixed at 
sixpence for adults and fourpence for children 
before leaving England. The contract for 
supplying them was given to Robert R. 
Livingston, the lord of the manor. The 
rations furnished, according to the terms of 
the contract, which is still in existence, were 
a third of a loaf of bread a day, the loaves of 
such size and sort as were sold in New York 
for fourpence halfpenny, and a quart of beer 

46 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

from his brew-house. The first act of the 
settlers was to build rude log houses for shel- 
ter; their next, to clear the ground. 

It was not long before the poor Palatines 
discovered that they had sold themselves into 
a virtual slavery. The clause in their con- 
tract which granted them their lands only 
when they should have repaid the cost of their 
transportation was fatal to their liberty. 

It soon became apparent that naval stores 
could not be produced on the Hudson so 
cheaply and of such quality as the British 
ministry had predicted. When sold in open 
market they could not compete with the 
Swedish article. After the big salaries of 
instructors, commissaries, overseers, agents, 
and clerks were paid, very little was left to 
the credit of the Palatines. The prospect of 
discharging their debt by these means in that 
century seemed hopeless. The condition of 
the immigrants soon became pitiable ; they 
were looked upon as paupers depending only 
on the bounty of government, and treated 
accordingly. The neighboring white settlers 
regarded them as interlopers, and had little 
intercourse with them, and then only to fan 
their discontent. 

Good Pastor Kockerthal spent most of his 
time with his afflicted brethren, leaving the 

The Palatines 47 

little flock at Newburg-h to the care of local 
elders. He attended the sick, and knelt at 
the bedside of the dying- with prayers and 
words of consolation. He counseled patience 
and moderation, cheered them with the hymns 
of the Fatherland, and was until death the 
g-uide and comforter of his people. 

Pastor Kockerthal, writing 1 of them at this 
period, says: "All are at work and busy, 
but manifestly with repugnance and only tem- 
porarily. They think the tract intended for 
them a Canaan, but dang-erous to settle now ; 
so they have patience. But they will not 
listen to tar-making-." In the fall of 1712 the 
g-overnor informed them that they must de- 
pend upon themselves for subsistence there- 
after, as his funds were exhausted. The win- 
ter passed in not very successful efforts to 
keep the wolf from the door. 

Discontent, distrust, disappointment worked 
up to disruption by 1713, and in 1714 the 
breaking- up of the camps on the river was 
well under way. Gov. Hunter had concluded 
to make the Palatines shift for themselves. 
Juclg-e Beekman and his son were alive to the 
situation. They were friends of Living-ston ; 
also of the g-overnment. They opened nego- 
tiations, with the result, as reported by Gov. 
Hunter under date of Aug-ust 7, 1718, to the 

48 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

British government, as to the disposition he 
had made of the Palatines, settled on the 
Hudson river in 1710, that he "placed thirty- 
five families containing- one hundred and forty 
persons, besides widows and children, in Ryn 

This name from the start was applied to all 
of the Beekman patent. The farms laid out 
for the Palatines were small. Some, only 
twenty-five acres; a few, one hundred acres; 
more, fifty acres. Along" the Kings highway, 
from the German church north and south, we 
find Neher, Bearinger, Teder, Bender, Wolle- 
ben, Ziperley, Hainor, Polver, Backus, Drum, 
Stickell, Shever and others taking leases. On 
the south end of the patent Stephen Froelick 
(Fraleigh), under a lease dated in 1719, had a 
farm. It was on the Kings highway, and 
soon after came a small church and burying 
ground, known as Fraleigh's. The names 
Bearsmarket and Hardscrabble attach to the 
locality. As neighbors he had Ackert, Bergh, 
Brown, Burger, Hegeman, Ostrom, Schultz, 
Schryver, Uhl and others. Adam Eckhart 
(Ackert) built a stone house on his farm in 
1719. It is remembered now as Abraham 
Brown's house. To the east skirting, and on 
the Wurtemburgh hills, leases were held early 
on farms by Traver, Progue, Moore, Cook- 

The Palatines 49 

ingham, Pier, Teal, Marquart, Pultz, Eighmie, 
Lown, Markel, Westfall and others. 

In 1722 a third immigration Drought more 
to "ye olde town" seeking friends and rela- 
tives who had left the old country in 1710 for 
the new. This, in brief, is the Palatine story 
so far as it relates to their coming to Amer- 
ica and entry into Rhinebeck. Kirchehoek, 
Wurteinburgh, Schooterhook, Ackerthook are 
pleasant reminders of a people of simple faith 
and kind hearts who have left an impress for 
good enduring in character stamped upon the 
town and its people. 

Judge Beekman intended to scatter the 
thirty-five families over his land. It reached 
the river north of Kipsbergen. A road was 
opened from the Kings highway, at the Ger- 
man church, east, over the Wurtemburgh 
hills, making a connection with a road leading 
to the mills on the river, meeting the Kings 
highway at Monroe's corner and the Sepasco 
road near Dr. Miller's. Part of it is popu- 
larly known as "pilgrims progress." 

For agricultural purposes the location was 
admirable, and this the settlers recognized 
and appreciated. The tenants at once en- 
tered upon the land under life leases requiring 
them to make all improvements and to "pay 
an annual rent of a schepel of wheat to the 

50 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

acre/' and to lose the fruit of their toil at 
the expiration of their leases. 

It was a general notion that the Palatines 
were a mild, inoffensive, pusillanimous peo- 
ple, who would submit to any injustice rather 
than break the peace. This was not so. It is 
true that they were slow to anger, but once 
aroused they were strong in defense. The 
women were Amazons and as full of fight for 
the right as the men. Strong daughters of 
the hoe and plow, bare-armed, scant of skirt, 
stout of limb from frequent journeys to Beek- 
man's mills, bearing the bag of grain to be 
floured, they were capable of holding their 
own at all times. Both men and women were 
courageous. Their lands were, perhaps, the 
richest ever tilled, and with their simple, 
economical habits a generation was sufficient 
to make them comfortable with every want 

They were independent farmers, handi- 
craftsmen, joiners, masons, carpenters, shoe- 
makers, tailors, blacksmiths, and the like, 
and at all times proved themselves compe- 
tent, industrious and prosperous. They early 
ranked as useful and, in many cases, eminent 
members of the community, and their numer- 
ous descendants, wherever dispersed, perpet- 
uate their virtues. 

The Palatines 51 

The immigrant of the early times was, in 
most cases, a home seeker. The Palatines 
were of this class. Most of them were agri- 
culturists. Since the world became sufficiently 
civilized to cultivate the fields, build houses 
and clothe itself, the farmer has had prece- 
dence. The economic greatness of our coun- 
try is, in the main, due to him. Mills and 
manufacturing- establishments follow in his 
wake. The product of the farm continues to 
be the chief sustaining* force of the country. 
Yet, in "ye olde town, 7 ' farming* is not what 
it once was. The farms remain; the farmer 
is wanting. 

The Palatines were the ancestors of, and 
bore names now spelled, Ackert, Asher, Bur- 
g-er, Cookingham, Dederick, Drum, Eighmie, 
Elseffer, Fraleigh, Frost, Fellows, Hainor, 
Hegeman, Hyslop, Lasher, Lown, Lambert, 
Moore, Myers, Markel, Marquart, Near, 
Ostrom, Pultz, Pulver, Rikert, Rynders, Ring, 
Sagendorf, Stickle, Sipperley, Schultz, Shook, 
Schryver, Smith, Schaffer, Traver, Tator, 
Teal, Uhl and Westfall. 



"A business with an income at its heels 
Furnishes always oil for its own wheels. ,r 


BUSINESS was brisk in "ye olde town ' r 
from its earliest days. Its streams, mills 
and docks, in connection with its farms, made 
business and produced the income for its 
inhabitants to do business with ; the sloops 
carried away marketable produce and wares 
as fast as necessary to the very best market 
within reach, New York. Water power was 
the first requisite. Mills near the river the 
next. A dock on the shore, easily accessible 
from farm, mill and store, the next. Rhine- 
beck soon possessed all these. It also had the 
sloop to carry the freight, and it was along- 
side the dock. Among* the early sloop cap- 
tains we find the familiar names of Bogardus, 
Roosa, Kip, Pells, Staats, Schermerhorn, De 
"Witt, Progue, Knickerbocker, Elmendorf, 
Ackert, Jacques, Ackerly, Schultz, Mills, 
Briggs and Depew. 

Coenties slip was the destination in the 
city. This dock was the cornerstone of the 

The Streams, Mills and Docks 53 

commerce of the great city of to-clay. It was 
the starting point of its forty miles of piers. 
It was built by the Dutch West India Com- 
pany, whose quaint, round-bottomed, high- 
pooped vessels first used it. The Hudson 
river sloop and open boats gathered the 
grain, lumber, pelts, herbs and produce along 
the river bank and carried them to this mar- 
ket place. They brought back hardware, 
groceries, household goods, brick, farm imple- 
ments, and occasionally "cow calves" and 
"ewe milk sheep" for the new farm. They 
moved slowly; their methods were primi- 
tive, but they laid an enduring foundation for 
business success. Then, as now, supply and 
demand were controlling factors. Valentine, 
in his history of Old New York, mentions 
the Rhinebeck boats as sought for by mer- 
chants at Coenties slip after 1710. 

Landsman kill is not the same busy brook 
to-clay that it was when it turned the first 
mill wheel in the town, if not in the county, 
in 1710. This kill has several falls, and has in 
the past turned many wheels. It always 
furnished its own oil for these wheels. It 
made business with an income at it its heels. 
It is the principal stream in the town, but 
water power is no longer reliable. Steam and 
electricity have taken its place. 

54 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

Kipskill, or Rhinebeck creek, is ornamental 
rather than useful. It represents ease and 
tranquility as it unobtrusively glides along* in 
indolence to its intersection with the once 
busy Landsman. Watering stock is one sat- 
isfactory purpose it has served. It sleeps 
amid wide fields of growing grain and meadow 
grass, incapable of furnishing power at any 
point to turn a spindle, grind corn or saw 

There are numerous other brooks in the 
town, but all except Landsman too small to 
drive a mill. For fishing and farm- watering 
purposes they are adequate and valuable. 
They run mostly through level meadow land. 
Below the junction of Landsman and Kip's 
kills is Buttermilk falls, once called High falls. 
Here the waters pour over a steep, rocky 
cliff, sixty feet in height, and flow through a 
romantic and picturesque ravine on a graceful 
incline, making a charming picture from the 
road side. It is a delightful spot. Its natural 
beauties remain unmolested. 

Landsman kill is partly sheltered by woods 
and hillsides ; its banks are covered with clus- 
tering foliage. On the east of the post road, 
and south of the old Sepasco road in the vil- 
lage, a dam above a natural fall makes 
"Crystal Lake" an attractive and useful 

X o 

The Streams, Mills and Docks 55 

sheet of water, covering* about seven acres, 
adapted in summer for fishing", bathing - and 
sailing-, and in winter for skating. It fur- 
nishes annually the crop of ice required for 
local use during the year. It was once 
vulgarized with the sobriquet "mill pond." 
The mill is only a memory now. Two islands 
in the lake are ideal spots for an outing on 
summer days. 

Grist and saw mills are a necessity in a new 
country. Artsen, Roosa, Elton and the Kips 
understood this, and in their partition deeds 
provided that if either of the partners "shall 
see cause to build a mill or mills, on ye above 
mentioned creek on either of said lots of 
ground, that then, and in such case, there shall 
be and remain two acres of ground in general 
to ye proper use and benefit of such mill or 
mills, wherein all ye above said five partners, 
their heirs and assigns, are equally to be con- 
cerned." The creek referred to was first 
known as Mill creek and afterwards Lands- 
man. Neither partner built a mill on this 

Many mills form an interesting part in the 
history of this kill. Beekman-Tillotson grist 
and saw mill on the river ; Beekman-Livings- 
ton mills below "the flatts," grist, woolen, 
saw and paper; Gov. Lewis' mills in Fox 

56 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

hollow, grist, saw and woolen; Gen. Mont- 
gomery's mills at the junction of the kills 
below the sand hill, oil, saw and grist; Trap- 
hagen's grist mill west of and in the hollow 
below the highway on "the flatts." Isaac 
Davis' mills on the turnpike east of "the 
flatts," saw and grist ; Schuyler mills farther 
east, saw and woolen ; Rutsen mills still fur- 
ther east, saw and grist; Sylands-Hogan 
paper mill at the falls. In addition there was 
a still or two, and at least one cooperage and 
one chair factory. This stream was a potent 
.factor in the upbuilding of Rhinebeck. Its mill 
rights were controlled and developed by en- 
terprising, far-seeing men. 

The Beekman -Livingston mills below the 
junction of the Sepasco road and the Kings 
highway on "the flatts" were erected about 
1715. They were followed by the Rutsen 
mills in 1742 and the Traphagen mill in 1750 
and the Gen. Montgomery mills in 1774. 
These comprise the mills erected in the present 
town prior to the revolution. They all did a 
thriving business. The farmers supplied the 
grist, the miller took his toll, and the landlord 
his rent, with old-fashioned regularity. 

Gov. Lewis erected mills about 1800 on 
Landsman kill above the Tillotson mills. He 
took the name " Wurtemburgh " for his mills 

The Streams, Mills and Docks 57 

and his landing. The reason was a good one, 
but the names changed with later owners. 
The mills became the "Fox-hollow/' and the 
landing, "Kelly's dock." With his grist mill 
he had a woolen factory for weaving woolen 
fabrics. A family named Morrison operated 
it, and in later years "Daddy " Morrison ran 
his loom in his home near the present ceme- 
tery entrance. A man named Coyle was at 
one time the miller, and his large family — 
boys and girls — helped populate the town. 

Dr. Thomas Tillotson purchased the Beek- 
man mills and a considerable portion of lot 
No. 1. He built a residence. He gave the 
mills the name of Linwood. They flourished 
under his management. The Lewis' mills also 
prospered. Between the governor and the 
doctor there was considerable friendly rivalry. 
The governor's mill dam sometimes took the 
water from Tillotson's mill, a short distance 
below ; and sometimes Tillotson's dam raised 
the water so high at the governor's as to 
obstruct the action of his great over-shot 
wheel ; then there was " trouble in the camp," 
and the operatives threatened "to cut down 
Tillotson's dam." 

Dr. Tillotson brought the Marshall family to 
the town. Robert J. L., William, James and 
George, are remembered as worthy citizens. 

58 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

William Scliell was the occupant of the 
Tillotson mills during- the last war with Eng- 
land. There was a saw mill and a whiskey 
distillery included in the premises, and all 
were in the use and occupation of Mr. Scliell, 
as lessee. 

A map of the farm purchased by Major 
Andrew Kip, when he sold the Ellerslie farm 
to Maturin Livingston, in 1814, made in 1795, 
shows an "Oil Mill " on the site of the present 
Ellerslie grist mill, and gives a quantity of 
land on the west side of the creek to Henry 
B. Livingston. This was the mill erected by 
Gen. Montgomery. 

When Col. Henry B. Livingston returned 
home from the war he brought with him two 
old soldiers of the revolution, Henry Doyle 
and Daniel McCarty. Doyle was set at work 
on Grasmere, and was the father of a large 
family. William B., Andrew J. and "Dr." 
William were descendants. McCarty became 
the miller at the lower mill on "the flatts." 
He was the father of Stephen McCarty, who 
was one of the leading citizens of the town, 
and the father of Andrew Z., John T. and 
James C. McCarty, and of the wives of Capt. 
William S. Cramer, Peter Barnes, John 
Cramer and Edwin Styles, and of another 
daughter, who never married, Emma Jane 

The Streams, Mills and Docks 59 

McCarty. No family did more in the up- 
building* of the town and village. McCarty 
was succeeded at the mill by James Hobbs, 
and under his name it made fame. He was 
there for over thirty years. After him came 
Peters G. Quick, who was followed by John 
Ansel. In 1832 both mills became the prop- 
erty of Peter R. Livingston, who w T as then, 
and since 1812, living at Grasmere. The 
upper mill did not prosper. It had been 
changed from a grist mill to a woolen mill 
and then to a paper mill. Peter R., as 
he was known, died in 1847. The mills 
were for sale. 

The Quick family was a valuable one. S. 
Francis, Charles W., Peter R. and Edwin A., 
the sons ; Misses Anna, Cornelia and Mrs. 
Elmore Rikert-Fraleigh, the daughters of 
Peters G.; also those of another branch, all 
having* the same grandfather; Smith, Wil- 
liam, Garret, and the sons of these sons, 
Woodward F., Adolphus F., Augustus M., 
have clone, and those living* are still doing 
much for "ye olde town." 

In 1850 Richard R. Sylands and James 
Hogan settled in Rhinebeck and became the 
owners of the paper mill, and about the same 
time John Ansel took charge of the village 
grist mill. A new era dawned. 

60 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

Sy lands & Hogan were successful paper 
mill men. They brought with them Timothy 
Baker, a practical paper maker. The mill 
made a fine grade of white paper, and the best 
grade of tissue paper in many colors. 

They kept the village teamsters, John Hege- 
man, David Norris, Philip Barahart, John R. 
Rynders, John Traver, Lewis Asher, busy 
hauling- material to the mill and taking- the 
paper away. The Sylands family was large. 
Philip R., Enos B. and John, sons, and Mrs. 
James Hog-an, Mrs. Timothy Baker and Mrs. 
Frank T. Van Keuren, daughters. 

They built a mill at the falls and made paste- 
board. James Gandolpho afterwards experi- 
mented at the falls mill in an effort to make 
paper from bamboo. The cost of material at 
the mill made his venture a failure. A com- 
pany was formed by Stephen Leroy, George 
Lorillard, Ambrose Wager, John N. Cramer 
and James Van Keuren. They purchased 
the falls mill, and under the firm name of 
"Leroy & Co." kept the mill in operation 
with varying success until it was destroyed 
by fire. The village paper mill was operated 
in its last years by James Hogan ; it burned 
down in 18G8. The village grist mill, best 
remembered as "Ansel's," burned December 
1, 1869. It was then operated by Darwin G. 

The Streams, Mills and Docks 61 

Marquart. These mills were never rebuilt. 
The only mill rebuilt after destruction by fire 
was the Montgomer}', or Ellerslie, mill below 
the sand hill. Louis Lueddeke, its then owner, 
erected a modern mill on the site, and it is still 
standing-. It is now the property of Van 
Steenburgh brothers. 

The docks in the present town were all on 
the Kipsbergen river front, with the exception 
of Schultz or Mills clock, which was on the 
Beekman patent, and on that portion of it that 
fell to Catherine Beekman-Rutsen-Pawling, 
the name of her last husband on its partition 
in 1737 between Col. Henry and his two sis- 
ters. This dock was built by a man named 
Schultz, who sailed a sloop from it. Harry 
Mills became its owner and it took his name. 
He lived there for many years. Three sons, 
John, Walter and Rufus, and two daughters, 
Susan and Mary, are remembered. This dock 
was for the accommodation of the northern 
and eastern part of the town. Wurtemburgh 
dock, built by Gov. Morgan Lewis, but better 
remembered as Kelt's. Schatzel's dock, now 
Rhinecliff, the main public dock in the town. 
This dock is the present ferry dock and steam- 
boat landing. Kip's landing, now called the 
Long dock, but for many years past used for 
ice houses. Slate dock, first Sleight's, tlien 

62 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

Radclitfe's. This was for nearly a century 
the principal dock. A large freighting, coal 
and lumber business was conducted there. A 
tavern and cooperage was on it. The popular 
barge moored here. It was the first station of 
the Hudson river railroad. The names of 
Raclcliffe, Bergh, Schell, Piatt, Cramer, Wil- 
son, Tremper, Heermance, Keese, Fellows, 
Traver, Affleck, Baldwin, Utter, Hoffman, 
Tripp attach to it. A freighting business was 
at one time carried on from the Long dock, 
which was then the ferry landing. A hotel, 
blacksmith shop, cooperage and store were on 
this dock. The names of Kip, Elmendorf, 
Knickerbocker, Fowkes, Cooper, Ring, Jen- 
nings and others are recalled in connection 
with it. A barge moored at it. Steamboats 
landed there. There was a lumber and feed 
business above, on the turn of the road, man- 
aged for many years by Peter Fellows. The 
Schatzel, Slate and Long docks are each on the 
terminus of public highways, and are exten- 
sions of the highway out into the river to deep 
water. The Schultz-Mills dock was at one 
time the busiest dock in the town. It was 
reached from a road starting on the Kings 
highway north of Walter L. Ten Broeck's 
residence, and running west to what is now 
the Barry town or inside road. On the corner 

The Streams, Mills and Docks 63 

of the King's highway was a store kept first 
by Kyer Schermerhorn and afterwards by 
Henry Shop. Above was a tavern. Its land- 
lords are known as Backus, Smith and Moul. 
It is now the residence of James E. Wey. It 
was the town hall ; that is, the place where 
town business was transacted in early times. 
Farmers above and below, and from the east, 
did their freighting at Mills clock. It had a 
storehouse, store and blacksmith shop. It 
was then and since a good fishing ground. 
When the slate quarry was opened, about 
1795, it was the first shipping point of the 
slate. The Beekman dock on the cove was 
also a busy place. From the south end of the 
town it controlled the trade. 

On August 5, 1752, a charter for a ferry 
was granted to Abraham Kip on the east side 
of the river, Rhinebeck, and to Moses Contine 
on the west side, Kingston, "to run a ferry 
across the Hudson between the landing place 
of said Kip on the east shore of said river, 
and the landing place of said Contine on the 
west shore of said river, exclusive of all others 
within the space of tw T o miles above and two 
miles below the said- landings, and to take 
tolls." The grant was perpetual on condition 
that two sufficient ferry boats were to be 
kept, one on each side of the river. 


Historic Old Ehinebeck 


Col. and Mrs. Beekman sending letters and messages 
to Kingston by Capt. Kip and his ferryman at Kip's 
landing ( Long dock), and giving instructions. This was 
about 1760. 

The Streams, Mills and Docks 65 

The Kips owned this ferry until 1790,, when 
it passeci into the hands of the Elmendorfs. 
This family came into the town prior to the 
revolution. Samuel, Cornelius, Jacob and 
John signed the revolutionary pledge. Capt. 
Elmendorf introduced first the open horse boat 
and later the steam ferry boat. Prior to the 
horse, the boat was propelled "by the "arm- 
strong- motor." Sail was also used when 
wind w T as right. The first steam ferry boat 
was named the "Knickerbocker," after Capt. 
Knickerbocker. It was followed by the Rhine, 
Osceola, Lark and Transport. The Elmen- 
dorfs sold the ferry in 1851 to the present 
company. The Knickerbocker Ice Company 
bought the Long dock. The ferry landing 
was moved first to the Slate, then to Schat- 
zePs dock, where it now is. The names 
of Kip, Knickerbocker, Elmendorf, Hester, 
Schultz, Ramsclel, Wells, are recalled as boat 



" All roads lead to Rome." 

Old Proverb. 

DURING colonial days almost anything- 
passed for a road that could be traveled on. 
The Indian trails or paths were often taken 
and used as roads. Thus, the Sepasco trail 
from the river east became the first road in 
"ye olde town." In old times the road led 
to the mill or tavern. To get to the one or 
the other was the only reason for the road. 
Rhinebeck had no roads prior to 1700. 

In 1703 the Colonial Assembly passed a 
" Publick Highways " act, from which we take 
the following: "Publick and Common Gen- 
eral Highway to extend from King's Bridge 
in the County of Westchester through the 
same County of Westchester, Dutchess County 
and the County of Albany, of the breadth of 
four rods, English measurement, at the least, 
to be, continue and remain forever, the Pub- 
lick Common General Road and Highway 
from King's Bridge aforesaid to the ferry at 
Crawlier over against the city of Albany." 

Commissioners were then appointed for each 

Roads 67 

county to do what was necessary to lay out 
and open this highway. Baltus Van Clifft, 
Johannes Tarbus and Robert Livingston were 
selected for Dutchess county. In "ye olde 
town " Judge Beekman fixed the route, and 
the road is entirely on his patent. Naturally 
it should have been laid out near the river. 
He forced it over "clay hill" and east of the 
two kills. This brought it through "'the 
fiatts," and is the reason why the present vil- 
lage is two miles back from the river. 

This highway was an important factor in 
the development of the country through 
which it passed. It connected the tw T o cities 
of the colony one hundred and fifty miles 
apart. It parallels the Hudson river, which 
was then the one artery of travel. Wind and 
weather made it uncertain during all seasons, 
and for three months or more of the year the 
ice closed it. Travel at all seasons, and in 
most any weather, was possible on the high- 
way. The man on horseback, or on shanks' 
mare, could and did travel upon it. The ped- 
dler with his pack followed it to the habita- 
tions he wanted to reach. 

The dust of this highway was first stirred 
by the moccasin of the "Indian post," who, 
as early as 1705, carried the mail on land be- 
tween New York and Albany. In 1730 "foot 


Historic Old Rhinebeck 

posts" performed this service in winter. It 
was a solitary journey. This, from an old 
paper, is pertinent : 

" Cornelius Van Denberg as Albany post designs to 
set out for the first time this winter on Thursday next. 
All letters to go by him are desired to be sent to the 
post office, or to his house near the Spring Garden." 

About 1740 a service by "mounted post' 7 
was established. The system then became 
more regular, and something- similar to the 
rural free delivery of to-day, except it was a 
pay service and the charges were considera- 
ble. The outfit required were horses, "post 
mantles" and bags, for "small portable 
goods." Traphagen's tavern on " the flatts " 
was a post station, and here a change of 
horses was made by the carrier. 

-^_ .„ ^ _ • v , - - The post- 
rider usually 
carried "spe- 
cial deliv- 
ery" mes- 
sages to Col. 
B ee km an . 
He would 
leave his out- 
fit at Trap- 
hagen's and 
ride at breakneck speed to Col. Beekman's on 

Bonds 09 

his mission. The qualifications for the posi- 
tion of a post-ricler were good health, vigor, 
strength, courage and honesty. He was re- 
quired to be polite and obliging. He was to 
report occurrences and happenings and watch 
keenly for fugitive servants. It was half a 
century before the snap of the stage driver's 
whip was heard. 

The post-rider, with an eye to business, and 
he had considerable to do, kept a notice posted 
in the mills and taverns when he was riding 
his route. 


" The Post Rider wishes to inform the Publick that 
he is riding his Route regularly. All commands in his 
Line will be received with Thanks, and executed with 

Leave letters and Commands at Traphagens tavern. 

He returns his sincere Thanks to his former Cus- 
tomers ; and intends by unabated Diligence to merit a 
Continuance of their Favours. 

December 15, 1769." 

This notice indicates that he was "riding 
his route " only during the winter months. 
The sloop was depended upon for the service 
he performed during other seasons. 

The first main traveled road in "ye olde 
town " was the Sepasco trail. It was a 
well-beaten path when the white man first 
appeared. It has continued to be a thorough- 

70 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

fare ever since. From the river east it pene- 
trated the interior, passing through what is 
now the village at the Kings highway cross- 
ing. With this highway it was for several 
years all the road required. 

Up to 1722 there was only one road desig- 
nated as such in the ward, and that was the 
Kings highway. Hendricus Buys, Hendrick 
Kip and Gerardus Lewis were its overseers. 
They appear to have held office for several 
years. In 1732 Hendrick Shever, Wendel 
Polver and Goosen Van Wagenen were 
elected. No further record is found until 
1749, when Isaac Kip, Peter Tieple, Joseph 
Craford, Michael Siperlie, Godtvret Hendrick, 
John Maris, Lawrens Bysdorf, Petrus Velie 7 
Johannes Van Wagenen and Christian Deder- 
ick were elected. More officers indicate more, 
if not better, roads. There were ten districts 
and one overseer for each district. In 1750 
we find eleven districts, as follows : 

1. From the mill on "the flatts " to Col. 
Beekman's residence; Isaac Kip, overseer. 
He lived on the Sepasco road near the flat 
rock. His district covered this road. 

2. From Cole's bridge to Hog bridge ; Nich- 
olas Bonesteel, overseer. This was the Kings 
highway, north. 

3. From the mill on " the Halts " to Staats- 


Roads 71 

burg- ; Jacobus Van Etten, overseer. This 
was the Kings highway , south. 

4. To Leija Van Wagenen's; Peters Van 
Aaken, overseer. 

5. To Mathew Van Etten's ; Jan Van Etten, 
overseer. This was the river road, south from 
Col. Beekman's residence. 

G. From Albany line to Cole's bridge; Wenclel 
Jager, overseer. This was the Kings highway. 

7. From Upper Red Hook to Milan line ; 
Jacob Jager, overseer. 

8. To Hoffman's; Peter Pitcher, overseer. 

9. To Rutsen's; Peter Schot, overseer. 

10. To the Hooke; Johannes Feller, overseer. 
This was the road around "pilgrims progress." 

11. From Staatsburg to end of precinct; 
Peter Schryver, overseer. This was the Kings 

District No. 9 was over the Sepasco road, 
from the church corner, east, to Rutsen's mills. 
The inside river road, from the flat rock, 
north, was laid out in 1764. A road running 
south, from the Sepasco road, starting at the 
turn leading to Kip's ferry, was laid out prior 
to 1750, and was district No. 5. These two 
roads, north and south, nearly parallel with 
and near the river, ran through Kipsbergen, 
from the mills on the cove to the hoek road, 
and also to Barry town. Overseers changed 

72 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

from time to time, but the roads remain. 
Two or three others have been added. 

Col. Beekman was well nigh inseparable 
from his steed ; traveling", hunting 1 , fishing, 
visiting his tenants, inspecting his lands, even 
going to church, were clone on horseback. 
Others, who could, followed his example. 
Wheeled vehicles were almost unknown, ex- 
cept the most primitive, in Rhinebeck until 
after the revolution. William Traphagen and 
Carel Ohel made crude carts and yokes. Foot 
travelers traversed brooks by means of tree- 
trunks felled across them ; the wider streams 
could be crossed only by finding a canoe at 
some place upon the bank. At main points 
on the river, like Rhinebeck, there were reg- 
ular ferries, where the traveler might count 
on getting over in a boat provided he could 
find the ferryman ; but he could only get his 
saddle-horse over by leading him, swimming 

The badness of the roads made travel irk- 
some, if not dangerous. The taverns, whose 
signs hung on "a kind of gallows" over the 
road, bearing the portrait of some animal, 
bird or great man, were almost as formidable 
obstacles to travel as the rough roads and 
uncertain ferries. Innkeepers, in many cases, 
persisted in lodging two strangers in the same 



bed, probably without changing 1 the linen used 
b}^ its previous occupants, and the beds for 
guests were generally all included in one large 

• The decade preceding the revolution post- 
riders, scouts and rangers, the Indian traders, 
lawyers, surveyors, doctors, parsons and ped- 
dlers were all mounted. Comparatively few, 
except peddlers, ever journeyed by land so far 
as to reach a neighboring province or colony. 

The roads in "ye olde town" were no bet- 
ter, and certainly no worse, than elsewhere. 
As teaming and traveling increased the roads 
improved. The demand for good roads came 
soon after the revolution, and for a, century 
the town has enjoyed fame for its roads. 

The ox- 
team and 
cart was Hie 
first load 

method. -~ ' 

The lands in all directions are undulat- 
ing, the hills not over prominent, but of suffi- 
cient elevation to produce an artistic effect, 
and with the rippling streams, old trees, 
attractive farms, well-kept gardens and fruit- 
ful orchards, make the scenery picturesque. 
The highest elevation in the present town is a 

74 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

short distance east of Burger hill ; it is (100 
feet. The hill itself is 502 feet. Boice hill, 
just over the line in Milan, is 749 feet. Wur- 
temburgh is 389 feet. Lake Sepasco 322 feet. 
Mt. Rutsen and Stone church 200 feet. The 
village 208 feet. The town is noted for the 
beauty and variety of its drives. The roads 
climb the knolls, dip into the valleys, cross 
the levels, and, regardless of distance, follow 
the lines of least resistance. The objective 
points of the early settlers were, first, the river, 
next, the mill and then taverns. The river and 
tavern remain — objects of interest. The town 
attracts many visitors during the vacation 
season. Summer boarders flock to the farm- 
houses and enjoy brief periods of delightful 
recreation, returning year after year, adding 
to their number and giving the locality a 
deserved reputation for home comforts, rest- 
ful surroundings, invigorating pleasures and 
health-restoring opportunities. A former pas- 
tor of the "old dutch church," Rev. Dr. 
Suydam, describing the locality, says : " East- 
ward one sees the rocky half-mountains 
which mark the line of separation from New 
England ; on the west he is charmed by the sil- 
ver flow of the Hudson, while beyond, form- 
ing an amphitheatre, are the rugged ranges 
of the Shawangunk and Catskill mountains. 


Extending' North and South for scores of 
miles on the river's bank are the elegant 
'seats' of millionaires." 

The one-horse dray was 
the predecessor of the chaise 
and buggy. It could be 
fitted with seats so as to 
carry four. It was clumsy, 
slow and convenient. Style 
was not important. 

In 1802 the Ulster and Saulsbury turnpike 
was established, and it followed the Sepasco 
road from the river to the post road, and then 
continued east through what is now East 
Market street in the village, which was laid 
out as far as Mulberry street in 1791, and 
was continued by the turnpike company 
through the church lands until it again 
reached tin*, Sepasco road on the east em\ of 
the village. A toll-gate was placed on this 
turnpike west of where the creek crossed it 
below Teller's hill. 

This was a frame structure. On the north 
end was the gate-keeper's living rooms with a 
yard on three sides. A narrow-roofed shed 
covered the road, and a gate hinged on the 
east front at the south end opened and closed 
the road when necessary. "Pay toll" was 
the open sesame for the gate. 


Historic Old Rhinebeck 

When the toll-gate was removed the house was 
turned so the side faced the road; it was made into a 
dwelling. A family named Dixon lived there at one 
time; also Mrs. C." A. De Lamater, and then David 
Norris. Col. Astor finally bought the property and 
tore the building down. 


i i 

On the side beneath the windows wooden 
benches offered the leg-- weary traveler a seat 
for rest. The gatekeeper had his stool near 
the door. He was an information bureau for 
the neighborhood. Many peddlers carrying" 
their packs stopped to rest and gossip. Stroll- 
ers, young men and maidens, and older ones 
too, visited the garrulous but interesting and 
sympathetic gatekeeper to while away an idle 
hour listening to his fund of gossip and phil- 
osophic diatribes. 

On the toll-gate house was a board on 
which was lettered the rates of toll to be paid. 
The list was long, but the selection of a few 
items will suffice to show the toll exacted. 



Horse and rider. 3 

One horse and cart 5 

Ox-team and cart 5 

Sheep — flock of cen 3 

Hogs — herd of ten 3 

One cow 1 

One horse 1 

One mule 1 

Team and wagon 5" 

The turnpike was abolished in 1815, and 
Henry F. Talmage was made pathmaster in 
1816 from the Long dock to the Milan line. 
This covered the abandoned turnpike. 

78 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

Horseback riding was very popular in the 
early times. A horse would carry two, some- 
times three. A pillion was put upon its back, 
and this made it comfortable for two, a man 
and woman, and especially a young man and 
his girl, to ride. Traveling and visiting was 
done in this way for many years. 

The roads of "ye olde town " are one of its 
principal attractions to-day. Few localities 
can boast of better. Recent improvements, 
notably those made by Col. Astor and the 
State road officials, and the personal atten- 
tion given to roads adjacent to their prop- 
erty by Gov. Morton, Mr. Ruppert, Mr. 
Merritt, Dr. Miller, Mrs. Crosby, Mr. Kip, 
Col. 01 in, Mr. Dows, Mr. Finck and others, 
tends to maintain them in good condition. 
The townspeople believe in good roads and 
pay liberally to have them. 



" For forms of government let fools contest, 
Whate'er is best administered is best." 


DUTCHESS county was in the first county 
division of the province or colon^y of New 
York. This was made in 1683. It was then 
practically uninhabited except by Indians, the 
natural owners of the soil and its appurten- 
ances. It was large in territory, extending* 
from Westchester county on the south to 
Roelof Jansen kill on the north. 

Neither Artsen, Kip or Beekman were free- 
holders in it at that time. It was virgin 
territory as the white man knew it. So far 
as it could be given political status it was 
attached to Ulster county. Esopus (Kings- 
ton) was made the county seat. No question 
arose as to the form of government. It was 
simplicity simplified. 

This condition as an Ulster annex continued 
until 1720, when the county had become in- 
habited by white men in sufficient number to 
warrant a county government independent of 
Ulster. The county was in the following 

80 Historic Old Mhinebeck 

year divided into three wards, North, Middle 
and South. 

The North ward was Rhinebeck. It ex- 
tended from the south line of the Pauling- 
purchase to the south line of Albany county. 
Livingston manor had been added to Albany 
county in 1717. It became Columbia county 
in 1786. Each ward had a supervisor, two 
assessors, three overseers of the Kings high- 
way, two surveyors of fences, a constable and 
a collector. They held office for two years. 
Taxes were collected biennially. 

The first election was held in Kipsbergen in 
1722. The following officers were elected : 
Supervisor, Hendricus Beekman (this was 
Col. Henry, Jr.) ; assessors, Barent Van 
Benthuysen, Hendricus Heermance; overseers 
Kings highway, Hendricus Buys, Hendrick 
Kip, Gerardus Lewis; surveyors of fences, 
Dierk De Duyster, Tunis Pier ; collector, 
Roelof Kip ; constable, William Schot. All 
Dutchmen and freeholders ; the supervisor, 
probably a non-resident, though a large land- 
owner. No Palatines among them. 

The first assessment roll was made in 1723, 
following the election of the above officers.* 
Several Palatine freeholders were on this 
list. It will be seen by reference to this roll 

* For this assessment roll, see Appendix. 

County ; Ward; Precinct; Town 81 

that in 17*22 the North ward, which comprised 
the present towns of Red Hook and Rhine- 
beck, contained more taxable people than both 
the others, paid very nearly twice as much 
tax as the South, which contained the town 
of Fishkill, and was assessed £276 15s. more 
than the Middle ward, which contained the 
town of Poug'hkeepsie. The North ward con- 
tained the thirty-five families of Gov. Hun- 
ter's Palatines, found there in 1718 ; and, as 
the list of names shows, quite a number 

The elections in the North ward were held 
in Kipsberg-en "at the usual place." This 
was probably Jacob Kip's house. On the 7th 
of April, 1724, the officers following- were 
chosen : Constable, William Schot ; super- 
visor, Parent Van Wag-enen ; assessors, 
William Traphag-en, Jacob Ploeg-h, Maty as 
Sleig-ht ; surveyors of fences, Tunis Pier, Roe- 
lof Kip, Jacob Ploegii ; collector, Arie Hen- 
dricks; poundman, Tunis Pier. In 1732 the 
last ward election was held in Kipsbergen, at 
the usual place and time ; the following- were 
the officers chosen : Constable, Laurense Tiel ; 
supervisor, Barent Van Benthuysen; assess- 
ors, William Schot, Jan Vosburg-h ; collector, 
Isaac Kip ; surveyors of the King-s hig-hway, 
Hendrick Shever, Wendel Polver, Goosen Van 

82 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

Wagenen; pounder, formerly for cattle and 
horses, Johannes Kip ; surve t yors of the fences, 
Mathys Sleight, Laurens Osterhout, Evert Van 
Wagenen. The book in which these records 
are contained also gives premiums awarded to 
different persons for wolves and bears cap- 
tured in the county.' The head of the ticket 
then was the constable ; now this office is at 
the bottom. 

Rhinebeck was organized as a precinct on 
the 16th of December, 1737. (See page 40.) 
The precinct extended from the Columbia 
county line on the north, and included Staats- 
burgh on the south, and from the river to the 
nine partners' line on the east. When the 
name Rhinebeck was thus legally applied to 
this territory there was an end of Kipsbergen. 
A census of the county was taken in 1740. 
It is of the county as a whole, not by pre- 

The clerk's records commence in 1748. In 
this year eight justices of the peace, of whom 
one was Arnout Velie, held a court of general 
sessions at Poughkeepsie, and "ordered that^ 
all and every precinct clerk in this county, to A 
be chosen yearly on every first Tuesday in 
April, do, within ten days thereafter, make 
due return of the election of their respective 

* For list of freeholders in Rhinebeck, see Appendix. 

County j Ward ; Precinct ; Town 83 

precincts of the officers chosen, on the said 
first Tuesday in April, unto the clerk of the 
peace, under the penalty of* thirty shilling's to 
be paid by every such precinct or town clerk 
omitting, the same to be recovered by the 
clerk of the pea^ce, who is hereby empowered 
to sue for and recover the same." 

Dutchess County, ss. After a true copy 
• signed, 
pr. Henry Livingston, clerk, 
pr. Johannes A. Ostrander, precinct clerk. 

The first election in the precinct of Rhine* 
beck, under this act, was thus recorded : 

Dutchess County, ss.: Att the election 
held in Rynbeck precinct on the first thurs- 
day in Aprill, and in the year Anno Dom. 
1749, Pursuant by an act of General Assem- 
bly Made in the third year of the reign of the 
late Majesties, King William and Queen Mary, 
to the freeholders of said count}^ and pre- 
cinckt, on behalf of themselves and others, 
for electing of officers for said precinckt of 
Rynbeck, the following officers of this present 
year New Elected, viz.: 

"Supervisor, Jan Van Dense; Assessors, 
Gerret Van Wagenen, Philip Feller ; Consta- 
bles, Johannes Seever, Jacob Oostrander, 
Frederick Haaver; Masters of the Poor, 
Frederick Strydt, Roelof Kip; Pound Master, 

j>4 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

Johannes Kip ; Fence Viewers, Jacob Sick- 
enaer, Joeannes herkenburg, Gerret Van 
Wagenen ; Surveyors of the Highways, Isaac 
Kip, Peter tiepel, Joseph Craford, Michael 
Siperlie, Godtvret Hendrick, John Maris, Law- 
rens Rysdorp, Petrus Velie, Johannes Van 
Wagenen, Christian Dederick. pr. Johannes 
Ostrander, Clerk. 7 ' 

Slavery existed in the colony, and in 1755 
there were fifty-two slaveholders and one 
hundred and sixteen slaves in the precinct of 

The first census of the State was taken in 
1790. Samuel Augustus Baker was census 
marshal for Dutchess county. 

The names of the heads of all the families 
in the State were reported, together with 
answers to questions as to the number of 
free white males under sixteen years of age, 
free white females, including all other free 
persons and slaves. 

The first census was taken with consider- 
able difficulty, because many of the ancient 
forefathers, looking upon the questions of 
the census taker as preliminary to increased 
taxation, refused to furnish information. A 
smaller section of the population held relig- 

* For names of slave owners and number of slaves 
owned by each, see Appendix. 

County ; Ward; Precinct ; Town 85 

ious scruples against the numbering- of the 
inhabitants. When, with infinite labor, the 
census of the State was all complete, it was 
carried to Washington by a messenger who 
was eig-ht days on the way.* 

The statistics show there were 21,129 slaves 
held in the State, but this number does not 
include the many persons who were bound 
to service for a certain period of time and 
had resigned their liberty to their masters 
during that time. 

In the New York Gazette of October 2, 
1752, is the following : 

" A Parcel of healthy Palatine servants, Men, 
Women and Children, among which are several 
Tradesmen ; to be disposed of on board the Snow, 
Capt. Pickeman: Any Persons inclining to purchase, 
may apply to Richard Tide near the Old Slip Market, 
or to said Captain on board." 

The apprentice system covered a long period, 
and was a "time service" of a similar char- 
acter. Runaway apprentices and servants 
were sought for the same as runaway slaves. 

Only six questions were asked by the census 
takers in those days. Desire to ascertain the 
number of men who were fit for military serv- 
ice was one of the questions in the first census. 

* For details of this census as to Rhinebeck, see 

Historic Old Rhineba 

The officers of the ward, precinct and town 
were the leading- citizens of the time, elected 
by popular vote, because of their fitness for 
the position. Justices of the peace were 
appointed prior to 1800. Arnout Velie, Mar- 
tinus Hoffman, Gerrifc Van Wagenen, John 
Van Deusen, Gerrit Van Benthuysen, Isaac 
Kip, Jr., Isaac Stoulenburgh, Jr., Jacob Heer- 
mance, William RadcMffe, David Van Ness, 
Henry Lyle, appear to have served as just ices 
between 1749 and 1800. Earlier than 1749 
there is no record, and others may have served 
between the dates mentioned. The first pre- 
cinct supervisor was Jan Van Deuse, elected 
in 1749, and he was succeeded by Gerrit "Van 
Benthuysen in 1752, and he by Petrus De 
Witt in 1756 ; Van Benthuysen again in 1758, 
and De Witt again in 1761. Then came Peter 
Van Benthuysen, in 1762 ; Peter Ten Broeck, 
in 1763 ; John Van Ness, in 1767 ; James 
Smith, in 1772; John Van Ness, in 1775: 
Peter De Witt, in 1776 ; Anthony Hoffman, 
in 1781. He held office until 1785. De Witt 
and Hoffman served during the revolution. 
In 1786 Peter Contine was elected, and while 
he was in office the town was organized under 
the laws of the State of New York, March 7, 

In the edition of the laws of the State of 

County ; Ward ; Precinct; Town 

New York, published in 1802, the following- 
persons from Rhinebeck are named as sub- 
scribers : Aaron Camp, Anthony De Lamater, 
John Cox, Jr., John Fowkes, Jr., John A. Kipp, 
Asa Potter, John Radcliff, Philip J. Schuyler, 
Thomas Tillotson, A. Thompson, B. B. Van 
Steenbergh ; and the following- from Red 
Hook : Henry Lyle, Philip Spencer, Jr., David 
Van Ness. This was the second volume. The 
first had Aldert and Isaac Roosa, Cornelius 
E. Wynkoop, Luke Keirsted, John Du Bois 
and Anthony De Lamater as subscribers. 

From 1749 to 1794 Johannes A. Qstrander, 
Peter Ostrander, Abraham Glimph, William 
Beam, Lodowick Elsever, David Elsever, Wil- 
liam Radclift, Jr., Henry Lyle and John Cox 
served as precinct and town clerks, and from 
1794 to 1816 Henry Shop was town clerk.* 

It is said that Godfried Geisselbracht was 
the first physician in Dutchess county, and 
that he was located in Rhinebeck. The fol- 
lowing-, from the New York Gazette, revived 
in the Weekly Post Boy of March 23, 1752, 
refers to the doctor : 

"The much famed Genuine Nuremburg Plaster, is 
made and prepared in this city by G. Gyselbrecht, 
Surgeon and Practitioner in Physick, and to be sold to 

* For supervisors arid town clerks sipce 1800, see 

88 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

at his house near Oswego Market at 2s 3d. the largest 
box ; Is. 2d. the second sort, and 7d the smallest ; with 
allowance to Shop Keepers, who purchase a Quantity 
to sell again." 

This must have been the original Dr. G. y 
as Dr. Ananias Cooper was in the town a few 
years later. 

In the stirring* revolutionary times Rhine- 
beck precinct was patriotic, and the people, as 
a rule, followed Col. Beekman, the Livingstons 
and Schuylers, Gen. Montgomery and others 
in support of the colonies. Dr. Cooper circu- 
lated a revolutionary pledge.* 

Henry B. Livingston, the fourth child of 
Judge Robert R. Livingston and Margaret 
Beekman, was the first Livingston to live in 
the now town of Rhinebeck. Among the 
warrants issued by the Provincial Congress in 
June, 1775, to persons in Dutchess county to 
recruit for the revolutionary army, was one 
to Henry B. Livingston, captain; Jacob 
Thomas, first lieutenant ; Roswell Wilcox, 
second lieutenant. 

In Holgate's genealogy of Leonard Bleeker, 
we read that on the 1st of January, 1777, 
the army being newly organized, he was 
appointed first lieutenant in the Fourth New 

*For a copy of this pledge and the names of the 
signers, see Appendix. 

County; Ward; Precinct; Tenon S9 

York regiment under Col. Henry B. Liv- 
ingston. Col. L. did good service. 

Mrs. Delafield says : " Congress voted him 
a sword in compliment to his bravery. He 
was a fine-looking man, and not even his 
brother, the chancellor, surpassed him in the 
manly courtesy of his address. He married 
Miss Ann Horn Shippen, niece to Henry L^e, 
president of the first Congress. The pecu- 
liarities of this unhappy lady, which led to her 
separation from her husband, became in time 
insanity." His only child by this wife, Mar- 
garet B., inherited the old Beekman home- 
stead and farm, and leased them to Andrew 
J. Heermance, in 1832, for ten years. Before 
the expiration of this lease she sold them to 
her cousin, John Armstrong, Jr., who was a 
lawyer practising in Rhinebeck, who, in turn, 
sold them to Mr. Heermance, the lessee. She 
died in Philadelphia in 1864. Colonel Harry 
died in 1831, and his remains were deposited 
in the vault in the rear of the Reformed Dutch 
church in the village. 

Colonel Harry was also the owner, from 
1796, of the two grist mills on the south of the 
village, and also of an oil mill on the site of 
the grist mill below the " Sand hill." 

When Margaret Beekman gave to her son, 
Henry B., the land, including the mills below 

90 Historic old Rhinebeck 

the village, she made a deed to cover sixteen 
hundred and thirteen acres in lot No. 16 in the 
Beekman grant in the south of the county ; 
also four acres of meadow land at the Buco 
bush, reserved in a former conveyance for the 
use of the Miller and Kelcler farm ; also a piece 
of laud on the west side of the road, near 
the house formerly occupied by Wm. Van 
Vredenburgh, containing about four acres. 
On the Rhinebeck premises she reserved the 
rents to herself during her life. He also 
received from his brother, the chancellor, 
a deed for 3,000 acres in the Harden burgh 
patent (on record in Poughkeepsie). Yet lie 
died poor and in debt. 

Another tavern was built in the precinct, 
in • 1754, by William Gillant, on the Kings 
highway, nearly opposite what is now Liv- 
ingston street in the village. About 1800 it 
was given the name of "Tammany Hall," 
because it was then the headquarters of the 
anti-federalists, or democrats of to-day. A 
Masonic lodge named "Montgomery," after 
the general, held its meetings at this tavern. 
The building, or a part of it, is now the resi- 
dence of John J. Williams. Its history is as 
follows: In 1740 Col. Henry Beekman gave 
a life lease to Jacob Van Ostrancler, linen 
weaver, for two acres of land bounded and 

County; Ward; Precinct; Town 91 

described as follows: "Lying- on the west- 
erly side of a plain, easterly to the Kind's 
road that leads from the said Beekman's grist- 
mill to Rynbeck ; northerly to the lot of 
ground belonging- to Peter Van Ette ; west- 
ward to the land of Arent Traphage, deceased, 
by a line N. 21° 45' W.; and so southerly so 
far as to make this lot of ground to contain 
two acres, or thereabouts." The rent re- 
served was "one couple of fat hens" per 
year, for five years ; after that, twenty shil- 
lings per year. It was, therefore, probably 
a lease for land in a primitive state. By this 
description it appears that the Kings highway 
was originally as far west of its present loca- 
tion as Garden street. It was also west of 
or near the present "old hotel " site. 

Jacob Ostrander sold the lease to Johan 
Christover Armburster, tanner, in 1753, for 
£21. Armburster sold it, as a tavern keeper, 
to William Gillant, tavern keeper, in 1762, for 
£135. It is apparent, from the increase in 
price, that the old stone house was built by 
Armburster between 1753 and 1762. William 
Gillant sold the property, as a tavern keeper, 
to J. Jury Cremer, tailor, in 1763, for £145. 
J. Jury Cremer sold it, as a tavern keeper, to 
Henry Schopp, saddle maker, in 1767, for 
£200. Henry Shopp sold it, as a saddler, to 

92 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

Johannes Van Steenbergh, gunsmith, in 1769, 
for £200. Johannes Van Steenbergh, who 
was the grandfather of John A. Van Steen- 
bergh, the well-known harness maker of 
Rhinebeck, and the great grandfather of 
the prominent lawyer, William Herman Van 
Steenbergh, now located in New York city, 
sold it, as a gunsmith, to David Van Ness, 
merchant, in 1783, for £300. David Van Ness 
sold it to John Wilson, in 1784, for £325. 

John Wilson thus lived in Rhinebeck in 
1784, the year in which his daughter, Hannah, 
the wife of John Drury, was born. John Drury 
was the ancestor of the Drurys of Rhinebeck. 
Judge John Wilson, Stephen, Alfred, Samuel 
and Rev. John B., are descendants. In 1798 
this property was in possession of John A. 
Kip, Mrs. John Wilson's second husband. 
In 1809 Janet Montgomery gave him a lease 
of it, to continue during the life of John G., 
the son of his brother, Abraham A. Kip, a 
lad eight years of age. 

In 1804 the great political battle between 
Gen. Morgan Lewis of Rhinebeck and Col. 
Aaron Burr of New York for the office of 
governor occurred. The election was held in 
April. Burr was accused of faithlessness to 
his party, having been elected vice president 
wiien Jefferson was elected president, and 

County ; Ward; Precinct; Town 93 

betrayed him. Still he managed to control 
Tammany Hall in the city, and his head- 
quarters in Rhinebeck was at the Kip tavern, 
bearing- that name. Gen. Lewis had his head- 
quarters at Potter's tavern, now the "old 
hotel." The campaig-n was long- and excit- 
ing-. Gen. Lewis was elected by a small 
majority. For months before and after the 
election Rhinebeck was the mecca of politi- 
cians of the Lewis faction. Very bitter feel- 
ing- prevailed among- the partisans of Burr 
and the g-overnor. It culminated in the duel 
between Burr and Alexander Hamilton, the 
brother-tn-law of Col. Philip J. Schuyler, who 
lived at "The Grove" east of the flatts. 
This duel was foug-ht on July 11, 1804, and 
resulted in Hamilton's death. In 1806 Gov. 
Lewis was a candidate for re-election, but was 
defeated by Daniel D. Tompkins. Among- 
Gov. Tompkins' supporters was Tunis Wort- 
man, city clerk of New York, and father of 
Tunis Wortman, supervisor, town clerk and 
justice of the peace of Rhinebeck, a very tal- 
ented and worthy man. 

The historical reminiscences of "ye olde 
town " would be incomplete if the town pump 
was not included in the list of old-time relics. 
It came early, about 1765, and remained until 
1895. It was a cup-bearer to the thirsty, man 

V)4 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

and beast, conveniently located on the corner 
of the two main highways, a short distance 
from the Traphagen tavern, where stronger 
beverages could be procured, but none so 
sparkling and bright, clear and healthful. 
The town pump was for nearly one hundred 
and twenty-five years the watering place 
and wash-tub of the neighborhood. It was 
the waterworks of the vicinity. The sexton 
of the Old Dutch church obtained the supply 
for drinking, baptismal and other purposes, 
required at the church, from its spout. Its 
waters have sprinkled innumerable young- 
sters; its drops resembling liquid diamonds, 
as they fell upon the upturned faces of the 
infants, whose christening and baptism was 
under way, and to whom in old age it is a 
treasured memory. From one generation to 
another it had its "ups and downs," serving 
all alike. When the first pump, the handi- 
work of Wm. Traphagen, Jr., decayed, it was 
replaced by another, which, in good time, was 
followed 03^ another, and so on until modern 
improvements, through an enterprising cor- 
poration, furnished another supply of water. 
There still remains a charm in the recollec- 
tions surrounding the old pump. It was a 
trysting place for young and old for many 
years. "Meet me at the pump" was a fre- 

County ; Ward ; Precinct ; Town 95 

quent request. It was always there, day and 
night, and it stuck to its business of quench- 
ing- thirst ; while in its trough hands and faces, 
and ofttimes feet, were washed and cleansed. 
It has earned and well deserves a place in 
historic annals. It would not be amiss if, on 
the venerated spot where it stood for so many 
years, faithful to its purpose, a suitable foun- 
tain, ornamented and decorated with proper 
devices, should be erected to occupy its place 
and perpetuate its memory. 

Rhinebeck has been shorn of much of its 
territory since it formed the North ward of 
Dutchess county in 1720. It is now bounded 
on the north by Red Hook, which until June 
2, 1812, was part of "ye olde town." On the 
east by Milan, named by Gov. George Clarke, 
one of the nine partners, who became the 
owner of most of its land, after an Italian 
cjty, and Clinton, named after Gov. George 
Clinton, also one of the nine partners. On 
the south by Hyde Park, named after Gov. 
Edward Hyde, or Lord Cornbury . The Staats- 
burgh section of Hyde Park was also part of 
"ye olde town." Rhinebeck now contains 
21,353 acres of land. It is still a good-sized 
town ; about four thousand population. It has 
two railroads. The New York Central and 
Hudson river, with eight and fourteen-one- 

96 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

hundredths miles of road-bed, and a fine depot 
building- at RhineclilT, and the Central New 
England, formerly Rhinebeck and Connecti- 
cut, with five and five-sixteenths miles of 
road-bed and a depot at Hog - bridge. 

Rhinebeck, as ward, precinct and town, can 
boast of many noted men identified with it. 
From them we select a few : Morgan Lewis 
was the son of Francis Lewis, who was a 
member of the Continental Congress in 1776, 
and one of the signers of the Declaration of 
Independence. He was aide to Gen. Gates 
and quartermaster general in the revolution. 
He was a lawyer, a member of Assembly in 
1789-90-92; attorney general, 1791; chief 
justice, 1801-4; governor, 1804-6; senator, 
1811-12-13-14 ; a major-general U. S. A., 
1813. He died April 7, 1844, in his ninetieth 
year, and was buried in Hyde Park. He was 
also Grand Master of Masons of the State qf 
New York. 

Richard Montgomery, a revolutionary hero. 
A major-general ; he lost his life in leading" 
the assault on Quebec, Dec. 31, 1775. He 
became a resident of Rhinebeck in July, 
1773. One of the streets in the village bears 
his name. He built the "Grasmere" man- 
sion and the mill below the sand hill. An 
honored name. 





County j Ward; Precinct; Town 97 

William Alexander Duer, born at Gras- 
mere in Rhinebeck in 1780 ; for many years 
president of Columbia college ; son of Lady 
Kitty Duer, daughter of Lord Sterling-. He 
read and practised law in Rhinebeck, and was 
a member of Assembly for Dutchess from 
1814 to 1817. A great scholar and educator. 

Thomas Tillotson, a surgeon by profession, 
served on Washington's staff during the rev- 
olution. He came to live in Rhinebeck in 
1779. He was a state senator from 1791 to 
1800 ; then secretary of state to 1805. Was 
elected again in 1807. He died in May, 1832. 
One of his daughters married Judge James 
Lynch of New York city. A grandson, 
Gouvenuer Tillotson, was a prominent law- 
yer, and practised in Rhinebeck for several 
years. He had the confidence and respect of 
its people. 

Rev. Freeborn Garrettson came to Rhine- 
beck to live in 1793. He was a Methodist 
minister of note. He had preached several 
times in 1791-2 in the old stone house on the 
post road south of Landsman kill and oppo- 
site the road leading to Grasmere, Ellerslie 
and Linwoocl. He founded the Methodist 
church on the flatts. He had a nephew of the 
same name ; also a prominent citizen of the 
town. Francis T. Garrettson, a distinguished 

98 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

New York lawyer, was his son. So were 
Rutsen, Richard J., Robert L. and Lytleton 
G. The father and son, Richard J., were 
members of Assembly from Dutchess. Robert 
L. was supervisor. Garrettson and Rhine- 
beck have much in common. 

Gen. John Armstrong, graduate of Prince- 
ton, aide-de-camp, secretary of state; adju- 
tant-general and member of Congress of his 
native state, Pennsylvania, prior to 1787. A 
resident of Rhinebeck in 1799 ; United States 
senator from New York, 1801 ; Minister to 
France, 1804-11 ; brigadier-general U. S. A., 
1812 ; secretary of war, 1813. His daughter 
married William B. Astor. In 1801 he built 
" Rokeby " and sold it to his son-in-law. It 
is still in the family. He died April 1, 1843, 
in the eighty-fifth year of his age. A great 
man in every sense. John Armstrong, Jr., 
a well-known Rhinebeck lawyer, was his son. 
Armstrong Post, 104 G. A. R., was named in 
honor of the general. 

Edward Livingston, born in Rhinebeck in 
1764, became a lawyer, was member of Con- 
gress from 1794 to 1800. United States attor- 
ney and mayor of New York city. Moved to 
New Orleans. Elected three times a member 
of Congress from Louisiana. United States 
senator, 1829 ; secretary of state (U. S.), 1831 ; 

County; Ward ; Precinct ; Town 98 

minister to France, 1833. Died May 23, 1836. 

Robert R. Livingston, the chancellor. In 
addition to the foot-note on page 27, it is 
proper to add : His is one of the two statues 
erected by the State of New York in the cap- 
itol at Washing-ton of its most eminent citi- 
zens. He is represented as standing erect, 
his form mantled by his robe of office, which 
falls in graceful folds from his shoulders ; in 
his right hand he bears a scroll inscribed, 
*' Louisiana." 

Egbert Benson, a member of the first and 
second Congress from 1789 to 1793. He 
served his country well. 

Col. Martinus Hoffman, with a revolution- 
ary record, was a town officer for many years. 

Isaac Bloom, who served as a member of 
the eighth Congress. 

Col. Philip J. Schuyler, member of the fif- 
teenth Congress, 1817-18, came to reside in 
Rhinebeck in 1796. Was a colonel U. S. A. 
in 1812. A worthy son of a distinguished 
sire. The name is part of Rhinebeck history. 

William Radcliffe, a general in the War of 
1812; a member of Assembly; for many 
years a leading citizen of Rhinebeck. He 
died in 1831. 

Jacob Radcliffe, son of the general, born in 
Rhinebeck, a lawyer of repute ; judge of the 

100 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

supreme court ; mayor of New York city, 1810 
to 1817 ; a leader among- men ; prominent in 
Tammany Hall. Khinebeck can well be proud 
of the Radcliffes. 

The Du Bois family came early. In 1710 
there was a Solomon Du Bois in the ward. 
He was related to Jan Elton. His wife 
was Tryntje Sleight, Jan's step-daughter. 
Descendants of this couple bore the names 
of Abraham, Koert, Stephen, Henry, Isaac, 
John, Jacob, etc. They held man}' town 
offices, and Koert was member of Assembly 
in 1810-11 and 1820-21. They were merchants 
and professional men. Before the days of the 
bank Koert and his brothers did the banking 1 
business of the town. 

A writer on Huguenot settlements in Ulster 
county, named Frank W. Ballard, gives this 
interesting incident in the history of this old 
Rhinebeck family of Du Bois : 

" A Mr. and Mrs. Dubois with others were returning 
from Kingston, in a sleigh, and, while crossing the 
Hudson, the ice gave way, plunging the whole party 
into the river. Mrs. Dubois, with great presence of 
mind, threw her infant, an only son, upon a floating 
cake of ice, which bore him down the stream to a place 
of rescue, while all the other occupants of the sleigh 
were drowned. This child was the only male member 
of the Dubois family, and but for his escape the name 
would have been extinct." 

County ; Ward; Precinct; Town 101 

One of the fine burial plots in the beautiful 
Rhinebeck cemetery is the "Du Bois plot," 
and it contains many artistic monuments to 
the deceased of that renowned family. 

The Suckleys— George, the father, Rutsen 
and Thomas, sons, successful merchants, men 
of integrity and worth, identified with "ye 
olde town " for a century or more. Robert 
B. is the present head of the family residing 
in the town. "None name them but to 

The Berghs, a noted family, commencing 
with Christian, in Rhinebeck in 1723, and fol- 
lowing with a long and worthy line to the well- 
known Henry Bergh, founder of the Society 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. 

The Schells— the head of the family settled 
in Rhinebeck soon after the revolution. Chris- 
tian Schell; he married the Widow Pope. 
They had eight children. Emily, Richard, 
Julius, Robert, Augustus, Edward, Francis 
and Julia. In 1805 he kept a store on the 
post road, a place known as " Bear Market." 
In 1812 he bought the mill property at the 
junction of Landsman and Rhinebeck creeks, 
of Col. Henry B. Livingston. In 1816 he was 
on the flatts, and built the stone store and 
dwelling called the "white corner," and con- 
tinued his prosperous mercantile business 

102 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

therein to the close of his life. He died or. 
the 18th of March, 1825, aged forty-six years . 
his wife died July 16, 1866. His son, Augus- 
tus, was graduated at Union college, and 
bred to the law, commencing his studies with 
John Armstrong, Jr., in Rhinebeck. He was 
collector of the port of New York, and widely 
known as a lawyer, financier and politician. 
Robert was president of the Bank of the 
Metropolis, and Edward of the Manhattan 
Savings Bank. Richard, born May 29, 1810, 
died November 10, 1879. He was elected State 
senator in 1856, and representative in Con- 
gress from New York in 1875. He served 
several terms. 

Gen. John A. Quitman was born in the par- 
sonage of the "Stone Church "in Rhinebeck, 
September 1, 1798. His father was the pastor 
of this church and an eminent clergyman. 
The son was well educated under the direction 
of his father. At the age of twenty he was 
a school teacher in "ye olde town." He 
became a lawyer, commencing his studies 
with Francis A. Livingston on the flatts. He 
removed to Mississippi, became chancellor of 
State, president of the Senate, major-general, 
governor, and was prominent as a candidate 
for president in 1852. He gained distinction 
in the Mexican war. He visited Rhinebeck in 

County ; Ward ; Precinct; Town 103 

1850, and the stone church postoffice was 
named " Monterey " in his honor. The lower 
part of the village was given the name of 
"Texas," the general and his family occupy- 
ing a house there for a short period. Henry 
S. Quitman, his brother, was supervisor in 

It was from such material, interlaced with 
the strong fiber of the families of Heermance, 
Bogardus, Kiersted, Ten Broeck, Elmendorf, 
Hyslop, Teller, De Lamater, Piatt, Cowles, 
Van Keuren and others of equal worth, that 
the web and woof in the making of "Historic 
Old Rhinebeck" was spun. This writer has 
not attempted to cover genealogical matters 
to any extent. It was unnecessary and inex- 
pedient. There are now very complete family 
records in book form of most of the important 
colonial and revolutionary families, which, 
with the "New York Genealogical and Bio- 
graphical Record," a copious work in many 
volumes, can be found in any good reference 
library. To any family needing a correct, 
up-to-date record the author recommends 
" The Grafton Press," of No. 70 Fifth avenue, 
New York city. 

The colored people of Rhinebeck, in the old 
times, cut something of a figure. There was 
Pete Johnson and his wife Lydia, their sons, 

204 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

William and George, otherwise known as 
"Chalk;" Jim Pierce and his wife Jennie; 
Harry Williams, Tune Keifer, and wives and 
children, with others too numerous to mention 
here. The redoubtable " Pete " Johnson used 
to tell of Gen. Washing-ton visiting- Dr. Til- 
lotson at Linwood when he or his father was 
a boy working- on the place. The time must 
have been about 1796. Here is Pete's story : 

' ' Well, mebbe 'twasn't me, 'twas my ole 
dad who saw Gen. Washing-ton. But he used 
to tell de story so plain dat any one hearin' 
him thoug-ht he'd been there hisself. The 
Gen'l, he rode on a white hoss, with green an r 
g-old trimmin's. He wore a big- yaller hat. 
He used to take off dat hat to a cullud pusson 
same as to a white pusson. Lawsy, 't made 
no difference to him. He was a real gen'le- 
man, de Gen'l was. My ole dad, he run an y 
fetched a bucket o' water foh dat same w'ite 
hoss. Yessir, he did, foh a fact. My ole dad 
was a boy at de time, an' de Gen'l he spoke 
toe him, true as Gospel. De Gen'l says toe 
him: 'Youse a brigiit boy. Go git him 
anudder bucket.' Yep, dat's w'at big- Gen'l 
Washington says toe my ole daddy. 

"Den de Gen'l got on his hoss an' went toe 
de ole Bogardus tavern on de flatts. He'd 
see Gen'l Armstrong and Gen'l Lewis and 

County ; Ward ; Precinct; Town 105 

fab wid 'em. He stayed ober night, an' de 
nex' mawnin' he was off agin foh New York.'" 
The colored people were mostly house ser- 
vants. Some had trades. "Tune" was a 
blacksmith. "Chalk" was the town fish 
peddler. "Aunt Lyd " and her daughters, 
washwomen. Jennie Pierce was the pop- 
ular stewardess on the old barge "Milan." 
Three or four were coachmen. Others were 
stablemen, drivers and choremen. Stagecoach 
days were their harvest time. A portion of 
the cemetery is set apart for the colored peo- 
ple. The Savoys, Fraziers, "Sylvia," Aunt 
Dinah, are entitled to mention. 



" Scarce steals the winds, that sweep his woodland tracks, 
The larch's perfume from the settler's axe, 
Ere, like a vision of the morning air, 
His slight framed steeple marks the house of prayer." 


PROBABLY the first church in Dutchess 
county was the "Old German Church/' 
at Kirchehoek, on the Kings highway, in 
Rhinebeck. The early settlers were all relig- 
ious people. Those along* the river attended 
the Kingston church for many years. The 
Palatines erected this first church. (See page 
35.) It was a union church, because both 
Lutherans and Calvinists were among them. 
The families of Shever, Treber, R3 7 kart, Eck- 
hart, Ziperly, Scrieber and Neher were Luth- 
erans, while those of Kelcler, Bearinger, 
Drum, Polver, Stickell, Westfall and Wol- 
leben were Calvinists. This old German 
church was erected early in 1716 on land of 
Judge Beekman. A license to build it was 
applied for on October 8, 1715, by John Fred- 
erick Hager, a minister of the Reformed 
Dutch church, and John Cast and Godfrey 
de Wolven. It was granted soon after by 

Churches 107 

Gov. Hunter. Permission to erect it on the 
corner must have been verbal. As a union 
church the record is vague. We know that 
Rev. Johannes Spaller was a Lutheran min- 
ister there and Hager a Calvinist. 


The "Reformed Protestants" established 
the first separate church organization in 
Rhinebeck. What had been a union church 
since 1716, called the "Old German Church" 
at Kirchehoek, became their house of worship. 
On the 10th day of December, 1729, the 
Lutheran people sold out to the Reformers, 
receiving for their interest in the church and 
four acres of ground, "twenty-five pounds 
current money of New York." The money 
Avas paid Hendrick Shever, Joseph Rykart, 
Berant Siperly and Karell Neher, for the 
Lutherans, by France Kelder, Ceenradt Bear- 
inger, Wendell Polver and Jacob Wolleben 
for the Reformers. In the transfer bond 
given by the Lutherans to the Reformers, 
they say : 

" In a deed from Henry Beekman, son of Col. Henry 
Beekman, deceased; John Rutsen and Catherine, his 
wife, daughter of Col. Henry Beekman ; and Gilbert 
Livingston and Cornelia, his wife, another daughter of 
Col. Henry Beekman, to Barent Siperly, Jr., for a farm 

108 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

at Rhynbeck,on the fifth day of March, 1721, containing 
fifty-six acres of Land, was reserved four acres of land 
whereon the Church of Rhynbeck then stood, for the 

use of a church and church-yard, and so to remain for- 
ever for that use;" and, a 1st), that "Gilbert Livingston 
and his wife, with the consent of the said Barent Sip- 
erly, Jr., did, on the first day of August, 1724, lease the 
said farm unto Hendrick Ream, with the said reserva- 
tion of i he said four acres for the church.'" 

On llio 4th of December, 1747, "Catherine 
Pawling, of Rinebeck Precinct, in Dutchess 
County, Province of Now York, widow," 
gave to Nicolas Stickell, Jacob Sickener, 
Philip More, Hendrick Berringer, Jacob Ber- 
finger and Jacob Drum, "being the present 
Elders and Deacons of the High Dutch 
Reformed Protestant Church of Rinebeck," 
a deed for this church and lands, in which she 
again recites the leases to Siperly and Beam, 
and says : 

" Whereas, by the above recited leases there is no 
provision made or liberty given to the inhabitants of 
Rinebeck aforesaid to lett. ride or make use of any 

wood on the commons of Rinebeck aforesaid; and 
whereas, the farm above mentioned is lying in lott 
number two (in Rinebeck patent) belonging unto the 
said Catharine Pawling, who has caused the said four 
acres for the use of the Church aforesaid to be sur- 
\l, and is beginning on the west side of the King's 
road, next to and bounding on the land of Zacharias 
Smith, by a stone set in the ground; from thence south 
twenty-six degrees easi , twelve chains and forty-four 

Church 109 

Jinks Id a Bfc ij oortfa fifty 

degn ad nine links; then north, 

■ ty-two degrees west, three chains fifty-nine J i i i k r~ ; 
then north, thirty-four de| 
eighty-eight links; and then north, sixty -eig] 
west, three chains and twenty in* 1 place of 

beginning, containing four acres, the breadth of the 
road being first deducted.'' 

The four acres thus described were de< 
to the elders and dea< d, with the 


"to CUtt, ride and carry away ail sorts of wood and 
si one for the use of said ground, and for fire-wood for 
the minister and the church, on the round or 

tnons, or unimproved lands of the said Catharine 
ing, her heirs and assigns, for the only proper use 
and benefit and behoof of the inhabitants residing in 
Binebeck professing and practising the Protestant 
religion (according to the rules and method ai 
agreed and concluded by the Synod National field at 
Dortreght in the year 1618 and 1019;. as it is now used 
to ex< beir worship in said church, and to bury 

their dead in the cemetery or burying-place forever ; 
and also for the use of a minister, when one shall be 
called H. foresaid, and that the >und 

and premises and privileges shall be converted to no 
other use or uses whatever," 

signed by Catharine Pawling", December 24, 

1.47, in presence of Alida Butsen and Henry 
Livingston. When the church was discon- 
tinued on these premises, in 1800, the land 
reverted to the heirs of Catharine Pawling, 

110 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

or to the sole use of the cemetery. A book 
of records was kept by the Reformed church. 

The title-page to the book, in German, is 
in the hand- writing- of George Michael Weiss, 
and is as follows, in English : " General 
Church Book of the Reformed Congregation 
in Reyn Beck, Organized and Established by 
G. M. Weiss, Preacher for the time being for 
the Two Low Dutch Congregations at Kats 
Kill and Kocks Hocky. Ao. Christi, 1734, 
May 23d." 

From this period on to 1742, there were 
one hundred and forty baptisms by George 
Michael Weiss and George Wilhelm Mancius, 
a large majority by the latter. On the 27th 
of June, 1742, the record is again in the 
unmistakable hand of Dominie Weiss, and this 
is the beginning of a pastorate of four years 
in the German church in Rhinebeck and the 
Dutch church on the flatts ; the churches being 
a joint charge during this period. His record 
in the German church terminated on the 22d, 
and in the Dutch on the 29th of June, 1746. 
He baptized two hundred and thirty -three 
children in the former and one hundred and 
twenty in the latter. 

Casper Ludwig Schnorr, of the Camp 
Reformed church, installed the officers of 
the Rhinebeck church on the 2d of May, 1747, 

Churches 111 

and presided at the reception of members 
therein on the 26th of April. The baptisms 
from 1746 to 1748 are in his hand. He evi- 
dently served both churches during' this period, 
and thus established a union which endured 
for a century. 

At the close of Schnorr's labors Mancius 
resumed the charge of the church, and did 
all its work until February 15, 1755. He 
recorded one hundred and seventeen baptisms 
in this period and added eighty members to 
the church. 

Johan Casper Rubel came into the pastor- 
ate of the Camp and Rhinebeck churches in 
1756. He recorded his first baptism in Rhine- 
beck on the 18th of May, 1755, and his last on 
I the 30th of September, 1759. He baptized two 

i hundred and twenty children, and added eighty 

members to the church. His records are those 
\ of an easy and rapid writer, and the most 

orderly, in a well-kept book. He always wrote 
"Rein Beck " for the name of the precinct. 

At the close of RubePs pastorate Mancius 
again came to the help of the church ; and, 
with the exception of three baptisms in the 
hand of Johannes Casparus Fryenmoet, of 
Livingston's manor, on the 25th of October, 
1761, he did all the work of the church to 
May 31, 1762. 

112 Historic Old Bhinebeck 

On the 27th of September, 1764, there was 
a single baptism recorded by Rubel ; and on 
the 25th and 26th of October there are six 
baptisms and four additions to the church 
recorded in the hand of Dominie Fryenmoet. 
On the 25th of June, 1763, Rubel recorded 
thirteen baptisms and four additions to the 
church. And this is the last entry in his 
hand in the records of the church. Cor win 
says he was on Long- Island from 1759 to 
1783, a violent Tory, calling- the American 
soldiers " Satan's soldiers ; " he was deposed in 
1784 and died in 1797. 

Gerhard Daniel Cock came to America on 
invitation of the Camp church in November, 
1763, and at once took charge of both 
churches. He recorded his first baptism in 
the Rhinebeck church on the 11th of Decem- 
ber, 1763, and his last on the 24th of July, 
1791. In this pastorate of twenty-eight years 
his record is unbroken— kept in a legible hand, 
and in a clear and orderly manner. He bap- 
tized one thousand eiglit hundred and nine- 
teen children, seven hundred of them between 
the years 1775 and 1785, the period which em- 
braced the seven years of the Revolutionary 
war. In his list of baptisms there were ten 
pairs of twins, and eight children born out of 
wedlock. He died at the Camp, now Ger- 

XJhurches 1 L3 

mantown, in Columbia county, and was buried 
under the pulpit of the church there. The 
balance of salary due him was paid to his 
widow, who gave the receipt which follows: 

" Received German Karap, October 9th, 1790, from 
Johannes Schmid, Gered Halsabel, Elders and Drostis 
of the Reverend Church of Rineheck, the sum of Thirty 
seven pound Eith shillings Tenn Pens in full upon all 
Demands for Dominie Gered Daniel Fvoock Sellere. 

I say Received By Me, 

Hendrick Benner. Christina Cox." 

At the close of Cock's pastorate, between 
July, 24, 1791, and June 15, 1794, there are 
twenty-four baptisms in an unknown hand. 

Johan Daniel Schefer came into the pastor- 
ate in 1794, and kept an orderly record in 
German. He recorded his first baptism on 
the 26th of August, 1794, and his last on the 
9th of October, 1799. He baptized two hun- 
dred and nineteen children, of whom the fol- 
lowing- were twins : Johannes and Jacob, 
children of Jacob Berringer and Elizabath 
Reinhard, his wife ; Elisabeth Martha and 
Catharine Ann, children of Ezecheal Valen- 
tine and his wife, Catherine. 

We find Henry, son of Thomas De Lamater 
and Christina Pulver, his wife, among Sche- 
fer 's baptisms, on July 2, 1798. This was the 
Rhinebeck merchant and bank president of 

114 H 

later years. Whil< 

church, remained ia Rhinebeek it seemed 

matter of indi 

Van Keurens. Van Vradenburgs, 
. Van Hovenburgs, Du 1 - - 

S, Tell Bi 

heir children were baptized in 
the man church. The servic - 

in this chui all in German. 

Pri< - . . new church 

d Red Hook village,, and the "Old 
German Church" at Kirchehoek soon 
out of existence. 


:he 4th day of November, 1729, Francis 
r and Michael Bonestell, farmers, for the 
Lutherans residing in that neigh borho 
applied to Gilbert Livingston, the husband of 
Cornelia Beekman, for a lot for a church and 
cemetery near Kiirchehoek. the location of 
the "Old German Church." Mr. Living- 
granted the reqi 

"Memorandum. day of November, 

have Francis Near and Michael Bonesreel asked of me, 
in behalf of the Lutheran c _ ■ . :ion in Rhine' 
Dutchess Counry. a piece of ground for the purpo- 
building a church and the 

. which ground, so said. - rent 

Bipperly's. For the encour. . - - A a work 

I pi d in niy _ and 

- _ _ ■ _ - - 

r 1 - Lai { 

ry Beekman. I: 

BOf 1 - - . ■ . • ■ - 

-: L 

t ranslated from the 
pmd Lov I 

£. "! ^ L85< 


church lot and _ 

three roods an <. _ _ - are 

ton . » 

- niODg 
hurch : 


- ! 

- rar deal 
58- ] 


7 - farm o: i one-half 


116 Historic Old Khinebecfc 

man heirs, on the 20th of October, 1718, was 
sold by Frederick to Barenfc Sipperly on the 
1st of April, 1726, for lifteen pounds, New 
York money. On the 1st day of May, 1768 y 
Michael Sipperly, the son of Barent, sold this 
land to Henry Tator, Loedewick Else iter and 
Philip Bonesteel, trustees of the Rhinebeck 
Lutheran church, forever, for two hundred 
pounds, New York money. 

On the 1st day of May, 1768, Robert G. 
Livingston of New York gave the same parties 
a life lease for two pieces of ground; both 
pieces to contain seventeen acres, subject to a 
rent of six bushels of wheat a year, and to 
continue during- the term of the lives of 
George Tator, Jr., David Elshever and Fred- 
erick Sipperly, the son of George Sipperly. 

On the 1st day of June, 1798, John C'rooke 
deeded to Peter Traver, Jost Neher, Frederick 
Pister, John Seaman, David Lown, Jr., and 
George Elsheffer, trustees, and their succes- 
sors, forever, two acres of land for fifty 
dollars, subject to an annual rent of three 
pecks of wheat. 

On the 8th day of December, 1807, Robert 
G. Livingston of Clinton, and his wife Martha, 
sold to Nicholas Bonesteel, Zacharias Traver, 
Johannes Simmon, Zacharias Feller, Andries 
Teal and John F. Feller, of the town of Rhine- 

Churches 117 

beck, trustees of St. Peter's church, for the 
sum of fifty dollars, three acres aud three 
roods of land, for a parsonage lot. 

There is a map of the church lot for five 
acres, three roods, eighteen perches; and a 
map of seven acres, two roods, five perches, 
on the east side of the road, for a parsonage 
lot. They were probably made in 1760. 

A lease dated May 1, 1797, given by the 
trustees of the church to Charles Reinold, 
says he is to have all the lands lying* on the 
east side of the post road, belonging to the 
church, aud the house, until the 1st day of 
May next, for which he must pay the rent to 
the landlord, keep the fence in good repair, 
and transact the business of a clerk of said 
church. But he is not to cut or carry away 
any timber or wood from said land, except to 
make or repair the fence ; and when he shall 
have brought a receipt from the landlord for 
the rent, he shall have the liberty to cut and 
carry away such grains as he sows, "provid- 
ing it be no more than one-third part of the 
land : " that is, providing not more than one- 
third part of the land has been put in grain. 
The church now owns no lands on the east 
side of the road. 

On the 8th January, 1808, the church lands, 
independent of the church lot, were the prop- 

FT8 Historic Old RMnebecJc 

erty of Robert G. Livingston and his wife, 
Martha, and they disposed of them in a con- 
veyance bearing this date to Samuel Hake. 
They are described as being in the posses- 
sion of the church and containing thirty-two 
acres. The church held these lands by a per- 
petual lease, and paid an annual rent of ten 
bushels and twenty-eight quarts of wheat. 
On the 1st day of May, 1857, this rent was due 
to James De Peyster, Frederick De Peyster 
and Robert G. L. De Peyster, heirs and devisees 
of Samuel Hake; they released this land 
from this incumbrance at this date, in a deed 
of absolute ownership to Henry Cottingv 
Michael Traver, John A. Traver, Stephen 
Traver, Jacob Teal, Philip Sipperly, John H. 
Rikert, Henry A. Cramer and Lewis D. 
Elsetfer, trustees of the church, for two hun- 
dred and seventy-five dollars. 

The first church edifice was built in 1730. 
In the archives of the church are the follow- 
ing memorandums or receipts: "Anno. 1730, 
cost of glass for the Lutheran church, four 
pounds twelve shillings, Received from Carl 
Nier two pounds." This is in the handwriting 
of Petrus Bogardus. "Kingston, June 14, 
1731, Received from Carl Nier three pounds 
eight shillings in part payment for plank for 
the church in Dutchess county. For Juryan* 

( 'Imrche: 


"Tappen, G. Hends. Slecht," "September 21, 
1731, Received from Carl Nier the sum of 
forty golden for hinges for the church. Ben- 
jamin Van Steenburgen." This is the Eng- 
lish of papers written in Dutch. They show 
that the Carl Neher, whose tombstone gives 
the date of his death as the 25th of January, 
1733, and is the oldest in its burying ground, 

was actively employed in the erection of 
the church edifice about 1730. -The Stone 

r;n Historic Old Rhinebecft 

Church," the name by which it has been dis- 
tinguished for nearly a century and a half, 
was built some time before the revolution- 
In 1824 it was remodeled and enlarged, and 
embellished with its present tall and hand- 
some tower. The expense of this improve- 
ment was about three thousand dollars. 
Philip Schuyler, Esq., was one of the building* 
committee and Stephen McCarty the builder. 
In 1843 it was stuccoed and improved at an 
expense of some eleven hundred dollars. 

The present parsonage house was built in 
1798 for Dominie Quitman. It is, therefore,, 
one hundred and ten years old. It is a com- 
modious dwelling, well preserved for its years. 
When Dominie N. W. Goertner added the 
Ked Hook church to his charge, or soon after,, 
he took up his residence in that village, and 
the church let the parsonage until the two 
churches became independent charges. It was 
at one time let to Koert Du Bois; at another 
to Rev. Stephen Schuyler, Cornelius Nelson 
and others. The following receipt was found 
among church papers : 

"Received Red Hook, 12th April, 1793, of the Rev. 
(reorge Henry Pfeiffer seventeen and a half bushels 
wheat on account of back rent due before the death of 
Robert G Livingston (the elder), Esq. 

" 17 I -2 Ru. Wheat. Jno Reade." 

Churches 121 

Among" its pastors, from 1729 to 1784, were 
Rev. Johannes Spaller,* Christoval Hag-adorn, 
Johan Christoval Hartwig- (or wick), William 
Christov Berkenmeyer and Johannes Fred- 
erick Reis. Dominie Berkenmeyer has left 
this receipt, showing payment of salary. 

" Reynbeck, 1744, June 6. 

" Received from ye vestry of Rynbeck two pounds 
tenn and six shillings, in behalf of ye money for ye 
minister and ye assurance ; I say Received by me. 

"£i: 16: 0. W. C. Berkenmeyer." 

George Henrich PfeiiTer succeeded Reis in 
the pastorate. He recorded his first baptism 
on the 17th of May, 1784, and the last on 
January 29, 1798, serving the church fourteen 

*A deed to Johannes Spaller, dated 1723, for land 
formerly the farm of Samuel Ten Broeck, calls him 
"minister at the Kamps and Rinbach." 

On page 594, the Documentary History of New York, 
it says that William Christov Berkenmeyer was a 
protestant Lutheran minister " in ye city and county 
of Albany in 1746." 

John Christover Hartwick obtained a grant of 21,500 
acres of land from the government in 1754. He died 
at the residence of Mrs. Judge Livingston, in Clermont, 
on the 17th of July, 1796, aged eighty-two years and six 
months, and was buried at the Camp Lutheran Church. 
His remains were subsequently removed to Albany 
and buried under the pulpit of the Ebenezer Lutheran 
Church of that city. Hartwick Seminary is named in 
his honor ; was erected and is largely supported with 
means left for that purpose in his will. 

Rev. J G Traver, D. D., a Rhinebecker,is now prin- 
cipal of this seminary. Many sons of " ye olde town " 
are graduates. 

122 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

years. He baptized six hundred and sixty 
children and recorded the marriage of three 
hundred and thirty-eight couples. He wrote 
a legible but peculiar hand and kept a com- 
plete record. A tombstone in the Rhinebeck 
churchyard closes his history, as follows : 

"Sacred to the memory of Geo. H. Pfeif- 
fer, a native of Germany, pastor of the 
Lutheran congregation in Rhinebeck, who 
died Oct. 26, 1827, aged about 80 years." 

Frederick Henry Quitman succeeded Pfeif- 
fer in the pastorate in 1798. He recorded his 
first baptism on the 18th of February, 1798, 
and his last on the 23d of August, 1830. The 
last in his own hand bears date September 21, 
1826. Between this date and the former 
there is a record of sixty-nine baptisms, evi- 
dently by him, but entered by another. There 
are thus one thousand five hundred and twenty 
baptisms to his credit. His marriag-es num- 
ber seven hundred and eight couples. Among- 
these were that of Rev. Augustus Warker- 
hagen to Mary Mayer, and that of Rev. Fred- 
erick G. Mayer to Margaret Kirk. Among* 
the baptisms were those of Robt. Clermont, 
and Edward, sons of Edward ; and Fitz Wil- 
liam Pitt, son of Philip Livingston ; George 
Bethune, son of Benjamin Schultz \ and Wal- 
ter, son of William Scott. Under the head of 

Vhurehes 123 

"Solemn Interments," he records that on the 
27th of September, 1809, Philip Coopernail 
died from a fractured skull, occasioned by 
being- thrown from a horse; and that on the 
21st of August, 1809, Jane Van Keuren, wife 
of Frederick Berringer, was instantly killed 
by a stroke of lightning. He was buried in 
the cemete^ of the Rhinebeck church, and 
his tomb bears the following- inscription : 

"Frederick Henry Quitman, bom in the 
Dutchy of Cleves, Westjihalia, Aug. 7, 1760. 
Died at Rhinebeck, June 26, 1832. 

A tablet in the church tells us that his wife,. 
Elizabeth Hueck, died February 24, 1805, 
ag*ed thirty- seven years. 

After Dominie Quitman were : 

William J. Eyer, 1828 to 1836 ; N. W. Goertner, 1837 
to 1845; Charles Shaefifer, 1846 to 1850; William D. 
Strobel, 1851 to 1859; Frederick M. Bird, 1860 to 1862; 
George W. Schumacker, 1862 to 1871 ; Charles Koerner,. 
1871 to 1880; Samuel G. Finkel, J. A. Earnest, Ches- 
ter H. Traver, C. L, Barringer and D. W. Lawrence. 


During- the summer of 1730 ; the efforts of 
the early Dutch settlers and their descendants, 
residing- in Kipsberg-en and on and about the 
flatts, represented by Laurence Osterhout, 
Jacob Kip and William Traphag-en, who for 
themselves and "the rest of the inhabit ants 

124 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

of the North Ward of Dutchess County," 
petitioned Col. Henry Beekman, who then 
resided in the Kip-Beekman house on the 
river front, and who had built a grist mill on 
the Kings highway on the flails, for land for 
church purposes. The flatts at this time had 
earmarks of a coming- village. Traphagen 
was active, and the Kings highway and 
Sepasco road made his tavern, with the Beek- 
man mill, a centre that had possibilities. Col. 
Beekman was willing-. He gave them a deed 
as follows : 

"To all Christian people to whom this present writ- 
ing shall or may come, Henry Beekman, of the city of 
New York, gentleman, sends greeting : Know yee that 
the said Henry Beekman for the love, good will and 
affection which he hath and bears toward the inhabi- 
tants, and those that shall hereafter be the inhabitants, 
of the North Ward in Dutchess County and province 
of New York, hath given, granted, and by these presents 
doth freely, clearly and absolutely give and grant unto 
the said inhabitants, being of the profession as is prac- 
ticed in the Reformed Church of Holland, all that cer- 
tain lot of land in Dutchess County, in the north ward, 
situated on the southwesterly side of a large plain 
near the now gristmill of the said Henry Beekman, 
lying in the corner of the King's road, and that which 
parts therefrom easterly to the neighborhood of Sepns- 
cot, where now Simon Westfall lives, being the south- 
westerly corner of the arable land now in the occupa- 
tion of said Henry Beekman, to contain there, in one 
square piece, two acres of land ; and also another tract 

Churches 125 

of land, situate, lying and being in the north ward, in 
Dutchess County aforesaid, on the north side of a cer- 
tain creek, called Landsman's Kill, near the house of 
William Schut, beginning at a stone put in the ground 
on the north side of the said creek ; from thence, run- 
ning north twenty chains, to a stone put in the ground ; 
then east, one degree south, nineteen chains, to a white 
oak sap'l in, marked ; then south twenty chains to the 
said creek ; then along the same as it winds and turns 
to the first station ; being bounded to the south by 
the creek, and on other sides by land of the said Henry 
Beekman ; containing forty and four acres, two quarters 
and thirty and seven perches:— To have and to hold 
the said two parcels of land to be hereby granted, and 
every part and parcel thereof, unto the inhabitants 
aforesaid, which now are, or hereafter forever shall be 
the inhabitants of the said ward, for the use and in the 
manner following : that is to say, that two elders and 
two deacons shall annually be chosen and appointed 
by majority votes of the said inhabitants being of the 
profession aforesaid, and shall be approved of by the 
Dutch Reformed minister, elders and deacons of the 
Dutch Reformed Church of Kingston, in the county of 
Ulster, every year, to act as trustees until they shall 
be in quality to call a minister of their own, who then, 
with the other two elders and two deacons so chosen 
and appointed as aforesaid, shall and may act accord- 
ing to the establishment of the Reformed Church of 
Holland ; and that the said congregation may in the 
meanwhile, and likewise hereafter, erect and build on 
said two acres of land, such church or meeting house, 
and other buildings as to them shall seem meet and 
convenient; and that the remainder of said two acres 
of land they may appropriate for a common burying 
place according to the custom and discipline of the said 

126 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

church and such lands, and not otherwise ; and the 
other tract shall be Imployed to the benefit and behoof 
of the church forever ; and the said congregation shall 
maintain and keep the said two acres of land, or such 
part thereof as they shall think convenient, in a good 
and sufficient fence, and shall build thereon some or 
one building as is hereby intended, within the space 
of three years now next ensuing, and in neglect 
whereof, or that any time hereafter the said two acres 
of land and premises hereby granted or intended to be 
granted, shall be neglected and abolished, contrary to 
what it is intended to be given for, that in any such 
case or cases, the before recited tracts or parcels of 
land to Revoline its property to the said Henry Beek- 
man, his heirs and assigns, as if such instrument as 
these presents had never been made. And the said 
inhabitants being of the profession as aforesaid ; or 
such minister, elders and deacons as shall hereafter be 
called, chosen or appointed, shall have liberty to cut, 
break or carry away any stone, or wood, or timber 
from any part of the unimproved lands of said Henry 
Beekman : that is to say, for the use of said land and 
premises, and toward the building of such buildings 
as shall be erected and made on the said land, or any 
part thereof. 

" In witness whereof, the said Henry Beekman put 
his hand and seal, this 26th day of August, Anno. 
Dom. 1730. 

" Provided, nevertheless, and it is the true intent 
and meaning of these presents, and of the parties to 
the same, that nothing herein contained shall extend, 
or be construed to grant to any person or persons 
whatsoever, the liberty or lysense to cut or carry away 
any timber, wood or stone, or other things whatsoever, 
on or off from the wood called Book Boss, or any other 

Churches 127 

of the lands of said Henry Beekman, but where the 
same shall be necessary or convenient and used for 
building a church, school house, chapel, meeting house, 
or building on the lot of ground aforesaid, and for no 
other use or purpose whatever; neither shall any 
person sell any wine, rum, brandy, beer, cider, or other 
spirits, nor peddle, trade merchandise on the hereby 
granted premises, or any part thereof; and in case 
anything shall be done contrary to the meaning of 
these presents, this deed to be void, and the estate to 
revert to the said Henry Beekman, his heirs and 
assigns, as if the same had never been made. 

Henry Beekman, [l. s.] 
" Witnesses, 

" Barrent Van Wagenen, 
" Albert Pawling." 

The first election of church officers under 
this deed was held on the 28th of June, 1731. 
The elders chosen were Hendricus Heermance 
and Jacob Kip, and the deacons, Jacobus Van 
Etten and Isaac Kip. The elders and two 
deacons were thence elected annually and 
approved by the minister and consistory of 
the Kingston church, as required by , terms 
of this deed, until 1742, when the church on 
the flatts found itself " in quality " to support 
a minister in connection with the German 
Reformed church at Rhinebeck. The records 
for this space of eleven years of the election 
and installation of church officers are in the 
handwriting of Dominie Petrus Vas of Kings- 

128 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

ton. Besides these there are receipts for 
money paid him, over his own signature, for 
every year from 1733 to 1742; and there were 
persons received into the membership of the 
church here in every year in the same period,. 
A record made of their names is in every 
instance in the hand of Dominie Vas. There 
is a record in the same period of one hundred 
and twenty-five baptisms; also thirty-eight 
marriages. Of the baptisms ninety-two are 
in the hand of Dominie Vas, twenty-eight in 
that of Dominie George Wilhelm Mancius, 
also of Kingston, and five written by Dominie 
Cornelius Van Schie from Poughkeepsie. Of 
the marriages a large majority are, also, in 
the hand of Dominie Vas. 

A house was built as early as 1733. The 
deed required it to be built by this time. Old 
monuments, still standing in its graveyard, 
show that the ground was appropriated for 
burial purposes in this year. 

The first meeting of the consistory on record 
was held on the 11th of July, 1741, and its 
proceedings, recorded in the Dutch language, 
were as follows, in English : 

"Proceedings of a meeting of the consis- 
tory of the church on the Flatts, by coll. 
Henry Beekman's mill, in Dutchess county, 
July 11, 1741. 

Churches 129 

<l After mature deliberation, we now have 
thought good for weighty reasons that the 
men should purchase their seats for each fam- 
ily for one pound ten shillings each place. 
The four places on the left hand of coll. Beek- 
man's Bench, near the door, shall be let for 
two shillings yearly, each place, as long as 
the consistory think right. The justices of 
the peace shall be next. When it happens 
that the gallery shall be made in the church, 
then the males in the two first pews in the 
right and left hand in the church shall leave 
their places for women's benches, and shall 
have their places again in the gallery. All 
the first comers in the benches must make 
room for the next." 

The elders at this time were Andries Heer- 
mance, Roeloff Kip, Gose Van Wagenen and 
Gysbert Westfall; the deacons, Juyre Trem- 
per, Jan Van Etten, Hendrick Kip and 
Mathews Ernest. They held a second con- 
sistory meeting on October 1, 1741, the pro- 
ceedings of which were as follows: 

" Proceedings in a meeting of the consistory 
of the church on the Flatts by coll. Henry 
Beekman's mill, in Dutchess county. 

''After mature deliberation, we now have 
thought good for weighty reasons that the 
females shall have their places for life for six 

130 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

shilling's,, and at their deaths their daughters, 
or any of their near relatives, shall have their 
places for the same price of six shillings. 
Moreover, the first comers in the bench must 
make room for the next. We have thought 
good that no women let any man sit in their 
places, or they shall forfeit their- seats." 

George Michael Weiss came into the pas- 
torate of this church in 1742 and served it 
in connection with the German Reformed 
church until 1746. In this period there is a 
record of one hundred and twenty-six bap- 
tisms and one hundred and fifteen additions 
to the church membership. 

From the 15th of April, 1746 to 1750, there 
is apparently no settled pastor. There were 
in the meantime sixty-one baptisms ; fifty-five 
of these were by George Wilhelm Mancius, 
and six by Dominie Goetschius. There were 
in this period thirty marriages recorded in a 
strange hand ; but since nearly all the bap- 
tisms were by Mancius, the marriages were 
probably also by him, and recorded from slips 
by the church clerk. There were six additions 
to the membership of the church in the same 
time. Their names are recorded in the unmis- 
takable hand of Mancius, who seems to have 
stood this infant church in good stead, as he 
had the German church at Kirchehoek. 

Churches 131 

Eg'g'o Ton kens Van Hovenburg came into 
the pastorate of the church, it appears, on 
the 23d of December, 1750, and continued 
therein to the 20th of February, 1763. There 
are eight hundred and sixteen baptisms and 
seventy-six marriages recorded in bis hand. 

From the close of Van Hovenburg's pas- 
torate to March 26, 1769, there was no settled 
pastor, the church being- served at intervals 
by Gerhard Daniel Cock of the Camp and 
German Reformed churches, Johannes Cas- 
parus Freyenmoet of Livingston's manor and 
Isaac Rysdyk of Poughkeepsie and Fishkill. 
There was but one marriage in all this time, 
and that recorded in the hand of Freyenmoet, 
the parties being- Tunis Turpenning and 
Breehje Van Akin ; there were forty-five bap- 
tisms and twenty-six additions to the mem- 
bership of the church. 

On the 26th of March, 1769, Warmaldus 
Kuypers came into the pastorate, and remained 
therein until September 29, 1771. He mar- 
ried twelve couples, baptized one hundred and 
seven children, and added fifty members to 
the church. 

From the termination of Kuyper's pastor- 
ate in 1771 to 1776, the church was again 
without a settled pastor. At this period the 
country was in the struggle of revolution; 

132 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

and it is interesting to note the condition of 
the church. The officers in this church were 
regularly elected in 1772 and 177 3, and 
installed by Gerhard Daniel Cock, still of the 
tnp and Rhinebeck German Reformed 
churches. On the 2d of August, 1772, the 
elders elected were Jan Van Etten and Tunis 
Van Benschoten, and the deacon Petrus Stou- 
ten bur i>\ 

In 17 73 Johannes Van Wagenen and 
Johannes Krepser were elected elders, and 
Christoval Weaver and Jacobus Kip, deacons. 
On the 19th of June, 1773, Isaac De Lamater 
was received into the church, and on the 20th, 
Jacomintje Turck, wife of Wilhelm Sehep- 
mus, both by. Dominie Cock. There were six 
baptisms on the 31st of August also by him. 
This is all the work done until December 
12, 1774, when there were twelve baptisms, 
apparently in the handwriting of Stephen 
Van Voorhees. He was the first candidate 
licensed by the American Synod in 1772. On 
the 2d of June, 1776, one month before the 
Declaration of Independence, he was the pas- 
tor, and continued until December 18, L785, 
one year after the close of the war. During 
this pastorate of nine years he recorded two- 
hundred and ten marriages, three hundred 
and sixty-four baptisms, and a Large addition 


to the membership of the church. His records 
are in English and very orderly. 

Looking- backwards to 1776 we know that 
the country was then in the throes of revolu- 
tion. Capt. Livingston bad raised bis com- 
pany of patriotic sons and departed with 
them. Still "ye olde town " continued in the 
even tenor of its ways. It was far removed 
from the scenes of actual conflict. Wedding's 
did not need to wait; children came as usual 
and were properly baptized ; converts were 
made in due and ancient form: funerals were 
bad when death claimed a member, as if that 
memorable struggle was not under way. It 
was a beautiful Sabbath morning in May, in the 
year 1776, the 26th day, when Rev. Stephen 
Van Vorhees, the pastor, arriving- at the 
church saw young men and women approach- 
ing along; the Kings highway and the Sepasco 
road, carrying in their bands without prudery 
or affectation their Sunday shoes. Some 
stopped at the pump, others at the kill to 
wash their- dusty feet and put on their shoes. 
Then they moved on to the church, joining 
the older ones gathered near the entrance. 
Dominie Van Vorhees salutes right and left 
as lie leads the way into the building. The 
>n, with some difficulty, are at last 
Led in :i proper manner. The choir is 


His tor ic O h / / .* // i > i e bee ft 

ready, and the service commences 
arrives late. There is 
some confusion as Jaco- 
bus Kip and his good wife 
Elizabeth Frazier r carry- 
ing- an infant, and accom- 
panied by two or three 
friends, enter. At the 
proper time an invitation 
is extended for the pre- 
sentation of children for 
baptism. The sexton has 
provi d e d the requ i red 
water from the pump as 
usual. Jacobus Kip, bis 
wife and friends take 
places in front of altar. 
So far the proceed ing-s 
have been regular. The 
dominie takes the child 
out of her mother's arms 
and proceeds, "Clarissa, 
I baptize thee/' when a 
murmur of surprise- is 
heard. Good Lord de- 
fend us, the States-Gen- 
eral of Holland defend 
us, the Synod of Dor- 

trecht and everything that is Dutch clef 



us. Dominie Van Vorhees baptized Jacobus 
Kip's baby Clarissa in English. From thence 
English gradually displaced the Dutch in 
church service. Dominie Van Vorhees used 
to tell of this occurrence with great gusto. 
On February 22, 1779, he married Dr. Thomas 
Tillotson to Margaret Livingston, using the 
English service. 

From December 18, 1785, to October 28, 
1787, there was no pastor. In 1786 there are 
nine baptisms by Gerhard Daniel Cock, still 
of the Camp and Rhinebeck German churches. 
On the 28th of October, 1787, Dominie Petrus 
De Witt commences his record in Dutch, as 
follows : 

"Children baptized by Do. Petrus DeWitt, 
preacher at Rhinebeck Flatts and Red Hook 
New church." This Red Hook church was 
the Dutch Reformed church in the village 
of Upper Red Hook, founded in 1785. He 
recorded the baptism of two hundred and 
seventy-one children in the Rhinebeck Flatts 

On the 7th of March, 1788, the Legislature 
of the State of New York passed an act mak- 
ing alterations in the act for the incorpora- 
tion of religious societies, rendering it more 
convenient to the Reformed Protestant Dutch 
congregations. On the 6th day of June, 1 789, 

136 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

this church took the steps required to become 
a body corporate under this new act, and took 
the name of "The Reformed Protestant Dutch 
Church of Rhynbeck Flats." 

John Broadbead Romeyn succeeded DeWitt, 
coming- into the pastorate in 1799 and going 
out in 1803. He served the church three 
years and nine months, baptizing one hundred 
and two children. 

On the 1st day of October. 1801. Mrs. Mont- 
gomery presented the church with an acre of 
ground, to take the place of that taken by the 
extension of East, Market street through the 
church lands, which was done in this year. 

This acre of ground lies on the north side 
of East Market street, opposite the Catholic 
Church; and this is why the church land 
extends farther west on the north than on the 
south side of the said street. This acre is all 
the land ever* given to the church by Mrs. 
Montgomery. The other lands were a gift 
from her grandfather, Henry Beekman, the 
son of Henry the patentee, twelve years before 
she was born, and seventy years before the 
lands of the village fell to her lot on the 
death of her mother. (See deed, pages 124-7.) 

It was during the pastorate of Dominie 
Romeyn that the church lands were released 
from the restriction forbidding their occu- 

( 'hurches 

pancyby liquor sellers, shopmen and peddlers, 

in an indenture bearing- date September 2, 
1801. A tavern was building- on the land. 
This document is sealed for fourteen signa- 
tures, and fourteen persons are named therein 
as the parties of the first part. The signa- 
tures of Chancellor Livingston and his sister. 
Mrs. Montgomery, alone were obtained. The 
document was not at once put on record. 
Mrs. Montgomery having- fallen heir to the 
lands on the flatts within the limits of which 
the church lands are included, her signature 
alone was necessary to give the release desired. 
The" church lands'' was the dominie's farm 
or "bowerie." This land is still known as the 

Excepting the Catholic church property, on 
the corner of East Market and Mulberry 
streets, and the'ad joining- premises south, all 
of the village of Rhinebeck lying east of Mul- 
berry street and south of Chestnut street, is 
built on church land. It is traversed by 
South, East Market, Livingston, Parsonage 
and Beach streets. On the opening- of these 
streets this land was laid out in village lots. 
These lots have ail been sold under durable 
leases, subject to a yearly rent. On some the 
rents are low. and on others higher, accord- 
ing to the prices paid for the leases, and the 

138 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

time of purchase. There are more than one 
hundred houses on this land. On the church 
and cemetery lot of two acres three houses on 
Mill street pay rent to the church. 

The fine residences of Ad olph us F. Quick, 
president of the village, Augustus M. Quick, 
chief engineer of the Fire Department, and 
George Tremper, postmaster, are on the 
church land. There are many other pleasant 
homes. It is a residence section. 

The cemetery on South street was aban- 
doned in 1845, not because it was full, but 
because it lies near the centre of the village, 
and interments were prohibited by the author- 
ities.* There is a tradition among the people 
of this church that Col. Henry Beekman, the 
donor of the church lands, was buried in its 
cemetery near the old church, and that the 
new edifice was built over his grave. His de- 
scendants have no knowledge to the contrary. 
There is no monument to mark his grave. 

John Broadhead Romeyn was succeeded in 
the pastorate by Rev. Jacob Broadhead, who 
served the church from 1804 to 1810. His 
first baptism was dated August 20, 1804, and 
his last April 3, 1809. He recorded the bap- 
tism of forty children and five adults, three 
of the latter being slaves. 

*For lisi of old graves, see Appendix. 

Churches 139 

The present substantial church edifice was 
built in 1807-8 and, therefore, during the min- 
istry of Rev. Jacob Broadhead. The building* 
committee were Jacob Schultz, William Rad- 
cliffe, Abraham Van Keuren and John Van 
Etten. The work was done by contract, the 
church furnishing- all the material. John 
Coddington of New York did the mason work, 
and Cornelius C. Welch the carpenter work ; 
John Cox built the window frames; John 
Wilson and Robert McCarty built the sash; 
John W T ilson, Stephen McCarty, Daniel Titte- 
more, Henry Teal and Robert McCarty did 
the joiner work, according to the plan made 
by John Wilson ; James Dunham burnt two 
hundred thousand brick on the lot of Abra- 
ham De Lamater, at $2.50 per thousand ; and 
Aaron Camp superintended all the work at 
ten shillings a day and found himself. The 
largest subscriptions to the building fund 
came from the heirs of Henry Beekman, the 
children of his daughter Margaret. Janet 
Montgomery gave 8200; Thomas Tillotson, 
$200 : Morgan Lewis, $200 ; John R. Living- 
ston, $100 ; Peter R. Livingston, $100 : Robert 
R. Livingston. $50; Philip J. Schuyler. $100; 
William Radclifl'e, Jacob Schultz, Henry Pells, 
Aldert Smedes -and Abraham Adriance, $100 
each : Peter Brown, $70; and, seemingly, the 

140 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

whole community 1;ook an interest in the enter- 
prise and the subscriptions were generally 
liberal. It was at this date the only church 
in the village, and six miles distant from the 
German Reformed church, rebuilt in what is 
now Lower Red Hook. 

Among' those who took pews at the comple- 
tion of the church, we find the names of Gov 7 . 
Lewis. Chancellor Livingston', Mrs. Mont- 
gomery, Peter R. Livingston, Thomas Tillot- 
son, John R. Livingston, Philip J. Schuyler, 
Henry Beekman Livingston. These people 
are long since dead, and their descendants are 
no longer found among the members and pew 
holders of this church. 

Dominie Broadhead had William McMurray 
for his successor in 1812. Then came David 
Parker in 1820; then the eminent divine, 
George W. Bethune, in 1827. The pi- 
parsonage was built for Dr. Bethune. He 
laid out the grounds, planted the trees and 
directed the interior a rrangement of the house. 
He kept a span of good horses and a colored 
groom to care for them. He took no one's 
dust when out driving. He was an eloquent 
preacher, won a name as a pulpit orator, and 
was weil liked by the people. After him Rev. 
James B. Hardenburgb served from 1830 to 
L836. Then Dr. James Lillie, from 1831 to 



The names of Beekman. Kip, Livingston, Tillotson, Montgomery, 

Schuyler, Armstrong, Drury, Schell. Piatt, etc.. 

attach to this old church 

Churches 141 

1841. Mr. Smith describes him as "a Scotch- 
man and a graduate of the Edinburg Uni- 
versity, a profound scholar, and, warmed by 
his theme, an eloquent and magnetic speaker. 
He had a good body and a large brain, and 
was thus by nature a strong man. He; was 
self-conscious, and nob always politic, but 
thoroughly honest. He never quailed before 
an antagonist, and, of course, when he met a 
Greek 'there was the tug of war.' His con- 
troversies with the agent of the Dutchess 
County Temperance Society, on the Wine 
Question in his own church, and with the 
champions of the Ladies' Benevolent Society, 
when they diverted their funds from the sup- 
port of the missionary, Thompson, to the 
repair of the church and parsonage, are events 
never to be forgotten in the history of Rhine- 
beck by those who witnessed them. He held 
that the wine commended in the Bible was 
fermented, and that the husbands of pious 
wives who were not themselves members of 
the church, put Mintempered mortar in the 
walls of Zion,' when permitted to meddle in 
its affairs." Later in life he became a Bap- 
tist and a strong advocate of water in large 
quantity as a saving ordinance. 

In 1841 Rev. Brogan Hot!' entered upon an 
eventful term of nearly ten years of verv 

L -L;^ Historic Old Hhinebeck 

; ve service. Like his predecessors he was 
orthodox, but perhaps more forcible in uphold- 
ing unpalatable doctrines, or had more "free 
thinkers" to deal with. Foreordination, pre- 
destination, election, hell fire and the like 
were never mildly handled by him. He was 
always in earnest and administered his relig- 
ious fiats as doctors did nauseous medicine 
for the good expected to follow. Daring- 
Dominie Holt's term the parsonage was in all 
its glory when the annual donation party 
came around ; popular with everyone, there 
came church officers contributing a well- 
filled purse; young men of the village with 
packages of groceries; young women with 
their handy needlework ; thrifty farmers, from 
all parts of the old town, with poultry, hams, 
sides of beef, cider galore, butter, lard, 
nuts, potatoes ; indeed, all fruits of the soil ; 
housewives with pies, cakes, crullers, biscuits, 
preserves, pickles, etc., so that the Hoffs 
"visibly swelled" before the eyes of their 
people for weeks and months thereafter. The 
donation party and feast was an unique event 
that stood alone ; it met the "long-felt want " 
effectively ; it was a looked-for affair, and 
dates were set by its happening both before 
and after. Prinking and fine dressing was the 
rule for the party ; young maidens and young 

Churches 143 

men, attired in their best ''bib and tucker/' 
received here their first taste of love that often 
ripened into matrimony and resulted in sub- 
stantial tees to the good pastor, whose bless- 
ing- was always unctuous and tender. The 
"donation party" made happy engagements 
and occasioned enjoyable wedding events. 
It is now among the "has-beens." It never 
should have become a thing of the past. It 
had its pi ace in church life and work. Its 
absence is to be regretted. 

After Dominie Hoif the Rev. Peter Stryker, 
a ripe scholar, served four years and three 
months, from 1850 to 1855. During Mr. 
Stryker s term the time came when the spirit 
of improvement swept away the old-fashioned 
pews and the pill-box pulpit. Some frugal 
farmer near Wurtemburgh hills bought the 
pulpit and set it up in his barnyard, raising 
good fat porkers in it. There was substi- 
tuted for it a very spacious platform with an 
ornamental recess and convenient study. The 
interior of the church took on a light and 
attractive appearance. A new order of things 
followed the change. The temperance ques- 
tion became prominent. Meetings were held 
in the church. The attendance was large. A 
course of lectures during the winter brought 
many great orators to the village. 

144 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

Then William A. Miller was pastor from 
1856 to 1859; Herman R. Timlow, from 1859 
to 3866 ; Goyn Talmage, brother of the great 
Brooklyn clergyman, T. D'ewitt Talmage, from 
■: to 1871; Alonzo P. Peake, from 1872 to 
1879, and in succession, L. Walter Lott, Rev. 
J. Romeyn Berry, Dr. J. Howard Snydam and 
the present incumbent, Charles G. Mallery. 

The "Old Dutch'' Reformed church was, 
and is, a most useful church; it comprehends 
in a surprising- degree the old Dutch, sturdy, 
steady, hold-fast conservatism; it embodied 
in old times a spirit of progress that made 
things hum when they were set going. Its 
history, and that of its people, should be 
written. It will make a volume. This old brick 
church (one of its names) will be long remem- 
bered by the sons and daughters of "ye olde 
town." It stands as a monument to-day to 
the memory of many generations of Rhine- 
bee kers. 

With the families of Heermance, Teller, 
Kips, Bogardus, Elmendorf, Hyslop, Van 
Steenbergh, De Lamater, Van Keuren, Hill, 
Fulton, Schell, Tompkins, Westfall, Drury, 
Barringer, Darling, Judson, Cramer, Champ- 
lin, Sprague, Tremper, Thomson, Baker and 
others following the lead of the founders of 
L730 in good works and in upbuilding the 

Churches 145 

"Old Dutch church," it has easily maintained 
first place, to which it was entitled as the 
first church in the present village. 

Of the pastors during* the past quarter of 
a century Rev. L. Walter Lott married a 
maiden of "ye olde town," an accomplished 
young- lady, the eldest daughter of Hon. 
Ambrose Wager, the leading lawyer and a 
prominent citizen of Rhinebeck. Soon after 
Mr. Lott became a member of the Episcopal 
church, and later was the rector of important 
parishes of that denomination. 

Rev. J. Romeyn Berry died while pastor 
and was buried in the Rhinebeck cemetery. 

Dr. Suydam, beloved by his people and 
respected by all others, retired as his health 
failed, and was made, and is now, pastor 

Mr. Mallery, the present able pastor, is con- 
tinuing the good work of his predecessors. 


By 1759 that portion of "ye olde town" 
then called " Whitaberger Land," and now 
Wurtemburgh, had population sufficient to 
support a church. It was then, as now, a 
farming- section. Wager, Pultz, Traver, Mar- 
quart, Moore, Cookingham, Ackert, Burg-er, 
Asher, are still familiar names in the town. 

146 Historic Old Bhinebeck 

On March 20, 1759, Leonard Wager and 
Michael Pultz applied, on behalf of the Wur- 
temburg-h people, by letter to Col. Henry 
Beekman, the owner of the land desired, for 
permission to build a church, and for a gift of 
the required land. Col. Beekman replied as 
follows : 

" New York, April 17, 1759. 
"Messrs. Wager & Boltz :— Having received your 
letter of the 20th ult, concerning leave to build a 
church, &c, which reasonable request I willingly 
grant, and give you what further assurance that shall 
be adjudged for such purpose necessary, wishing you 
good prosperity in the meanwhile, am and remain, 
" Your well wishing friend, 

" Henry Beekman." 

To conduct a church in those days required 
a government license, and to receive and col- 
lect subscriptions for the erection of a church 
edifice, a special charter. That these were at 
once obtained and the edifice erected is certain. 
And it is equally certain this edifice was 
erected and a graveyard opened on the land 
of said Wager and Boltz. On the 5th of 
September, 1774, Henry Beekman conveyed 
to Johannes Markwat, Michael Pultz and 
Adam Dipple, trustees for the time being of 
said church, nineteen acres and three-quarters 
of land lying- adjacent to the lands of Leonard 
Wager and the " Jacomintie Fly conveyance," 

Churches 147 

"for the sole and only proper use, benefit 
and behoof of the Protestant Church now 
erected on the southeast part of Rhinebeck, 
commonly called the ' Whitaberger Land.' " 

On the 1st day of June, 1785, George and 
Sebastian Pultz, and Paul and Sebastian 
Wager, deeded to the church two acres of 
ground, one acre each, "together with all 
and singular the buildings, church and church- 
yard thereon erected and belonging, the said 
church being now commonly distinguished 
as the Wirtemburg church." The trustees 
named in this conveyance were David Traver, 
Peter Traver and George Marquart of Char- 
lotte precinct, now the town of Clinton. The 
church and grounds are near the town line, 
and the congregation is made up of people 
from both towns. 

The deed says the conveyance is for "the 
use and benefit of the Protestant congrega- 
tion or society of said church, * * * so 
as they do not occupy any part of the said 
two acres of land for any other purpose than 
for a church and burying ground." On the 
7th of February, 1796, George and Sebastian 
Pultz released the north half of the lot, the 
acre given by themselves, from this restric- 
tion, giving their own consent, and binding 
their heirs to give theirs to the trustees of the 

148 Historic Old Rhi u check 

church to erect a school house, and conduct a 
school thereon. It will be noticed that neither 
of these deeds refers to the church as "St. 
Paul's'' or "Lutheran." It was known by 
these names after the revolution. It was 
always a Lutheran church in the form of 

A new church building- was erected in 1802. 
In 1807 they sold the nineteen and three- 
quarters acres obtained of Henry Beekmam 
and employed the proceeds in payment of a 
debt incurred in the erection of the new edifice. 
Morgan Lewis and Gertrude Livingston, his 
wife; a granddaughter of Henry Beekman, 
in whom the fee of the Wurtemburgh lands 
vested on the death of her mother, gave the 
consent in proper form to this disposition of 
the church land ; it was then sold under an 
order from Chancellor John Lansing, Jr., 
dated at Albany, February 27, 1807, in 
response to a petition of the trustees of the 
"Lutheran St. Paul's church in the town of 
Rhinebeck called Wertembergh." The church 
edifice was thoroughly repaired in 1832, and 
in 1861 it was enlarged and remodelled and 
put in the condition in which it is to-day. 

The first baptism in the church was recorded 
on the 22d of October, 1760. The first pastor 
named in the record was Rev. J. F. Ries. He 

( ■hurches 


served the church from 1760 to 1785. George 
Henrich Pefifer served as a pastor from 1785 

to 1794, and was succeeded for a short period 
by John Frederick Ernst. Dr. Fredrick H. 

150 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

Quitman came into the pastorate in 179& 
His contract, bearing- date February 8, 1798, 
required him to preach to the people of the 
church at Rhinebeck eighteen Sundays and 
three festival days; to the people of the 
church of East Camp, sixteen Sundays and 
two festival days ; to the people of the church 
at Wertembergh, nine Sundays and one fes- 
tival day ; and to the people of the church at 
Tarbush, seven Sundays and one festival day. 
For these services the Rhinebeck people agreed 
to pay him thirty pounds New York current 
money, ten bushels of wheat, and grant him 
the use of the parsonage, and church lands, 
he to be responsible for the ten bushels rent- 
wheat thereon; the East Camp * people £35 
in money, and eight bushels of wheat, fire- 
wood and the free use of the parsonage and 
church lands, or £25 in money instead if he 
should choose not to use them; the Wertem- 
bergh people £30 in money and eight bushels 
of wheat; and the Tarbush people £25 in 
money and eight bushels of wheat. 

On the 4th of February, 1815, Dr. Quit- 
man agreed to preach in the Wurtemburgh 
church "on every third Sunday during the 
year, one Sunday excepted — namely, during 
the winter season one sermon — and from May 

* East Camp and Tarbush were in Columbia county. 

Churches 151 

until October, two sermons — namely, one in 
the German and one in the English language/' 
upon condition that they will pay him " evvvy 
year, in semi-annual payments, $200, and 
between twenty- Ave and thirty loads of wood," 
the congregation in Rhinebeck to make up 
what will pay for the remaining- Sundays. 
They do this at his request, that he may be 
" freed in his advancing ag-e from the tedious 
task of continued travelling*." It thus appears 
he relinquished the East Camp and Tarbush 
• churches in 1815. He continued to serve the 
Rhinebeck and Wurtemburgh churches until 
1825. Toward the close of his ministry he 

i had to be carried to the pulpit and retained 

his seat while preaching. 

I William J. Eyer was Dr. Quitman's succes- 

sor, entering- on the pastorate of the church 
in September, 1825, and continuing- therein 

j until September, 1839. Rev. George Neff 

says, " shortly after his settlement he 
preached altog-ether in the Eng-lish lan- 
guage, and ministered exclusively to the 
Wurtemburgh church." 

A. T. Geissenhainer came into the pastorate 
in 1838 and retained it until 1840. He kept 
his record in a clerkly hand and in an orderly 

Rev. Charles A. Smith succeeded Dominie 

152 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

Geissenhainer in the pastorate and retained 

it until 1850. 

Rev. W. N. Scholl succeeded Dominie Smith 
and remained pastor of the church until 1855. 

Rev. George Neff succeeded Dominie Scholl 
and took charge of the congregation in July, 
1855, remaining until July, 1876, a period of 
twenty-one years. 

Rev. Joseph G. Griffith served from Sep- 
tember 1, 1876, to March 1, 1881. 

Rev. John Kling served from September I, 
1881, to June 1, 1887. 

Rev. George W. Fortney served from Jan- 
uary 1, 1888, to June 1, 1895. 

Rev. Cbauncey W. Deifendorf served from 
September 1, 1895, to December 1, 1898. 

Rev. Rosco C. Wright served from April 1, 
1899, to September 1, 1907. 

Rev. John Kling was recalled February 1. 
1908, and is now the pastor. 


The Methodists did not appear in "ye olde 
town " until after the revolution. More than 
sixty years had passed since the founders of 
this denomination, John and Charles Wesley, 
had made their start at Oxford. The sect 
was called "Methodists," first in a taunting 
spirit, because they were unusually precise 

Churches 153 

and methodic in the observance of their relig- 
ious duties and in the regularity of their lives. 
It was in 1792 that Rev. Freeborn Gar- 
rettson, a Methodist clergyman, came from 
Maryland on a visit to his friend Dr. Thomas 
Tillotson at "Linwood." He tarried for sev- 
eral weeks and preached the doctrines of 
the Methodists to the people of the town. 
He also met Margaret, the second daughter 
of Judge Robert R. Livingston, and his wife, 
Margaret Beekman, and the sister of Mrs. 
Tillotson. He married her in 1793 and became 
a resident of Rhinebeck. He exchanged, in 
1799, lands with Hans Van Wagenen, tak- 
ing part of lot No. 3 on the Artsen-Kip 
patent, afterwards known as " Wilderclilfe." 
Prior to that the Garrettsons resided in the 
eastern part of the town, near the Milan line. 
Capt. William Van AVagenen was the son of 
the man who made the exchange of land. 

A map of the town of Rhinebeck, made in 
1797, shows a Methodist church on a hill fac- 
ing the road to Milan, a short distance beyond 
the house erected by Edwin Knickerbocker. 
The residence of the Garrettsons was in the 
immediate vicinity of this church, a little to 
the southeast, in a stone house built in 1772 
by Thomas Canner, for a man by the name of 
Hasradorn. At what date this church was 

154 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

built, and with what funds, there is no person 
or document to tell ; that it was there because 
the Garrettsons were there nobody doubts. 

The first record of the presence of the Meth- 
odists in the village of Rhinebeck is contained 
in a deed from Mrs. Janet Montgomery to 
Rev. Freeborn Garrettson, Robert Sands, 
Simon Johnson Myers, Charles Doyl and 
Daniel McCarty, trustees of the Methodist 
Episcopal church at Rhinebeck flatts, dated 
August 1, 1801, for one rood and six perches 
of land, bounded as follows: 

" Beginning at the northwest corner of a lot leased 
by the said Janet Montgomery to the said Daniel 
McCarty, and now in the tenure and occupation of 
Robert Scott, and runs from thence along the bounds of 
said lot north, eighty-nine degrees east, one chain and 
eighty-nine links to a stake ; thence north, one degree 
west, one chain and fifty links to a stake; thence 
south eighty-nine degrees west, one chain and ninety- 
six links; thence, with a straight line, to the place of 
beginning, containing one rood and six perches of land." 

This lot is on the east side of Centre street, 
between East Market and South streets. A 
venerable lady, when in the eighty-ninth year 
of her age, a daughter of Robert Scott, who 
grew from childhood to womanhood in the 
immediate vicinity of this lot, remarkably 
preserved in body, mind and memory for her 
years, said that the Methodist church on the 

Churches 155 

road to Milan, three miles east of the village, 
"near Tommy Larwood's," was taken down, 
brought to the villag-e and rebuilt on this lot 
by Daniel McCarty ; and, to the best of her 
memory, in the year when the lot was given. 
Among- the preachers, whose goings to and fro 
brought them to Rhinebeck, were Lorenzo 
Dow, "Billy" Hibbard, Ensign Foster and 
others of this church. Daniel McCarty, who 
ran the Traphagen grist mill, lived in the old 
stone house, and afterwards moved to the 
Schell place on the post road, now occupied 
and owned by Herbert R. Clark, was a very 
ardent, active and influential Methodist, well 
known in his day ; the preachers made their 
home at his house when the3 r reached the 
flatts before the parsonage was built. He 
always worked for the church. He was a 
Revolutionary veteran. 

The lot on which the present church edifice 
stands was also a gift of Mrs. Janet Mont- 
gomery. The deed was for half an acre of 
ground "on the north side of the road com- 
monly called Ulster and Saulsbury Turnpike," 
and is a conveyance in trust from Janet Mont- 
gomery of Red Hook to Mary Garrettson of 
Rhinebeck, on the express condition " that 
she shall not at an^y time hereafter assign her 
right or trust to any but such persons as may be 

150 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

appointed trustees of the Rhinebeck Methodist 
Episcopal church by the members thereof; 5 ' 
and that neither she, or her assigns, "shall, 
at any time, build on the premises more than 
a house of worship, with the necessary appur- 
tenances, for the use of the said Methodist 
Episcopal church." This deed bears date 
March 3, 1822. From this date on the 
history of the church is contained in the 
records, which are very full and properly, 
carefully and intelligently kept by Freeborn 
Garrettson, Jr., Rev. Stephen Schuyler, Dr. 
William Cross and other competent chirks. 
The following", pertaining- to the new church 
and premises, is transcribed from the records, 
and is the language of Freeborn Garrettson, 
Jr.: " At a meeting- of the Methodist society 
on Rhinebeck Flatts, convened at the Rev. 
Jesse Hunt's, January, 1822, for the purpose 
of taking' into consideration the expediency of 
erecting a Methodist chapel at said Rhinebeck 
Flatts, and for the further purpose of choos- 
ing- nine trustees for the same ; Whereupon, 
the Rev. Freeborn Garrettson was called 
to the chair, and Freeborn Garrettson, Jr., 
appointed secretary. The business of the 
meeting being opened, and the deed of the old 
chapel ati said Rhinebeck Flatts being read, 
proceeded to the choice of trustees. The Rev. 

Churches K>; 

Jesse Hunt, being- the preacher in charge, it 
was accordingly his prerogative, agreeably to 
discipline, to nominate the same. He, there- 
fore, nominated the following- persons, who 
were duly appointed, viz.: Rev. Freeborn 
Garrettson, Robert Sands, William Cross, 
Sen'r, James Raisbeck, William C. Freeman, 
Freeborn Garrettson, Jr., Samuel Bell, Jef- 
i'ery H. Champlin, and Nicholas Drury." 

"The subject of the new church was then 
taken up, and it was unanimously agreed that 
it was necessary to go on with its erection, 
provided a suitable site could be obtained, and 
funds procured. The trustees were, there- 
fore, instructed to consider the matter, and 
make their report as soon as possible ; and 
also to consider of what materials the build- 
ing- should be composed." 

" It was agreed that two persons be named bo 
superintend the building, and for said two per- 
sons to be under the direction of the trustees. 
Freeborn Garretson, Jr., and William C. 
Freeman were accordingly appointed, and 
were instructed to present their account for 
services to the trustees, to be audited by 

"It was agreed that the chairman appoint 
persons to go around to solicit subscrip- 
tions to the building. The Rev. Jesse Hunt, 

ibS Historic Old Rhinebeck 

Freeborn Garrettson, Jr., and William C. 
Freeman, were also appointed treasurers. 
Adjourned to meet again on the 23d of Jan- 
uary, 1822." 

At this adjourned meeting- the Rev. Free- 
born Garrettson was appointed president of 
the board of trustees, and Freeborn Garrett- 
son, Jr., chosen secretar3 T ; when the presi- 
dent stated that Mrs. Janet Montg-omery had 
presented the society with half an acre of 
ground in a conspicuous place in the village 
fronting- on the turnpike ; and named other 
successes in the way of subscriptions. It was 
then unanimously agreed that the church be 
built, and built of stone, of the size of forty- 
five feet by fifty-five, from outside to outside; 
and that the Rev. Freeborn Garrettson, Rev. 
Jesse Hunt, Freeborn Garrettson, Jr., Wil- 
liam E. Freeman and Je fiery H. Champlin be 
a committee to manag-e the building-, and that 
Freeborn Garrettson, Jr., be considered as the 
centre of that committee, and the g-eneral 
superintendent thereof. After agreeing- that 
the building- be forwarded with as much expe- 
dition as possible, this meeting- adjourned. 

The cornerstone of the building- was laid by 
the Rev. Freeborn Garrettson on the 1st day 
of May, 1822, and the building- was completed 
on the 6th day of October following-. Free- 

Churches 159 

born Garrettson, Jr., the superintendent of 
the building', records that the thanks of the 
society are due to Thomas Sanford, the mas- 
ter mason, and Henry C. Teal, the master 
carpenter, for diligence and skill in the exe- 
cution of their tasks ; that no accident hap- 
pened about the building; that not a drop of 
spirituous liquors was drank during its erec- 
tion ; that the carpenters, masons and labor- 
ers all acquitted themselves well; that all 
w r ere peaceable, industrious and respectful ; 
that never was a building raised with more 
harmony and good feeling. He gives special 
credit to John King, a colored man, for dili- 
gence and industry ; and thanks the neighbors 
for the willingness with which they assisted 
with their teams in collecting the materials 
for the building. And then he mentions what 
he calls " a remarkable circumstance," as 
follows : 

A well was dug for "the accommodation of 
the building," for the first step.* " It afforded 

* There was a tradition among the old people that the 
Rev. Freeborn Garrettson locked his well-curb against 
the workmen in the Fox Hollow factory, and the chil- 
dren from the neighboring school, who were in the 
habit of resorting to the well for water, and was aston- 
ished to discover, soon after, that the well refused to 
hold water for his own family. Whether he there- 
upon removed the lock and recovered the water is not 

160 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

a full supply of water for all the purposes of 
making mortar, and every other use neces- 
sary as long* as it was wanted ; and not many 
days after we ceased to use it, the well became 
dry." Another circumstance in the digging" 
of the well is also deemed worth} 7 of note. 
"After excavating the earth a short distance, 
we presently discovered an excellent vein of 
loam; and in going a little deeper found 
another of sand, and in still going a little 
deeper found another of gravel, which an- 
swered all the purposes for erecting the stone 
building', in making mortar for the wall, for 
the plastering, and for the rough casting of 
the building, upon the outside. This was for- 
tunate for us, which saved us much trouble 
and expense." 

The cost of the building was $3,559.88. The 
subscriptions amounted to $3,234, leaving the 
committee in debt $325.88. This was assumed 
and finally presented to the church by the 
Rev. Freeborn Garrettson. 

There were one hundred and twenty-six 
subscriptions to the building fund. Mrs. Cath- 
erine Garrettson gave $800 ; Mrs. Catherine 
Suckley, $500 ; Mrs. Mary Garrettson, $100 ; 
Rev. Freeborn Garrettson, in money, timber 
and labor, $300; Freeborn Garrettson, Jr., 
superintendent, $300; Mr. George Suckley, 

Churches 161 

John L. Suckley, Rutsen Suckley and Thomas 
H. Suckley, Mary Suckley, Sarah S. Suckley, 
Catherine Suckley, $100; Col. Henry B. Living- 
ston gave 480 loads of stone in quarry ; Edward 
Livingston gave $50 ; Robert L. Livingston, 
$50 ; Thomas Tillotson, $40 ; Mrs. Thompson, 
$50; Mrs. Gen. Armstrong, $20; Mrs. Margaret 
Astor, $20 ; Koert Du Bois, $25. Everybody in 
the village who could give gave something, 
from one dollar up to twenty dollars each. 
Mr. Zebulon Hibbard gave the inscription 
stones ; Mr. Brewer of Kingston the key- 
stones for doors and windows in front of the 
building ; Mr. Rutsen Suckley gave two of the 
Birmingham lamps ; Miss Catherine G. Suck- 
ley presented the sacramental cups ; William 
Cross and Robert Dixon gave the mahogany 
table within the altar; and John E. Brooks 
made and presented the book-board. 

At a meeting of the trustees held on the 
8th day of December, 1823, at the parsonage 
house, then occupied by James Young, "the 
ruling preacher in charge on the circuit, " 
James Raisbeck and John E. Brooks were 
appointed a committee to take charge of the 
"new cemetery." It was agreed that all such 
as belong to the Methodist church at Rhine- 
beck and its vicinity, and all such as are in 
the habit of attending worship in its mission 

162 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

chapel, and contributing- to the support of 
the gospel in said chapel, shall be privileged 
to inter their dead in said burying ground, 
under the direction of the committee. 

The Rev. Freeborn Garrettson entered the 
ministry in 1775, and was appointed presiding 
elder over the district extending from Long 
Island to Lake Champlain in 1788. In 1827, 
while at the house of a friend in the city of 
New York, he was ^aken suddenly ill and 
died in the seventy-sixth year of his age and 
the fifty-second of his ministry. 

The church was incorporated with Freeborn 
Garrettson, the nephew, William Cross, Nich- 
olas Drury, Jeffery H. Champlin and William 
Mink, as trustees, the 2d day of June, 1829, 
and the certificate thereof recorded on the 
eleventh of the same month, in Liber No. 1 
of Records of Church Incorporations, pages 
97 and 98, clerk's office, Dutchess county. 

A deed for one rood and thirteen perches of 
land for a parsonage lot in the rear of the 
church lot was presented to the church by 
Hon. Edward Livingston on the 12th day of 
November, 1829 (all the village land having 
come into his possession by the will of his sis- 
ter, Janet Montgomery, which was admitted 
to probate and recorded by James Hooker, 
surrogate of Dutchess county, on the 28th of 

Churches 163 

April, 1827). A new parsonage was built on 
this lot the same year at a cost of $1,305.79. 
The subscriptions to meet this expenditure 
amounted to $664. Of this amount Mrs. 
Catherine Garrettson gave $300; Freeborn 
Garrettson, $75 ; William B. Piatt, $15 ; Rev. 
George W. Bethune, $10 ; David Rowley, $10 ; 
Cornelia Bayard of Philadelphia, $10 ; and 
fifty -five others in proportion to their means 
and their interest in the work of the Metho- 
dist church. 

On the 30th of June, 1832, Mrs. Catherine 
Garrettson presented the church with half an 
acre of land for the burying ground south 
of the village, on the conditions that the 
church surround it with a good fence, and per- 
mit no more interments in the yard attached 
to the church. The deed for this cemetery is 
dated March 27, 1835. 

A deed for half an acre of ground adjoin- 
ing the parsonage lot was presented to the 
church by Mrs. Louisa Livingston, widow of 
the Hon. Edward Livingston, on the 7th of 
November, 1838. (She came into the posses- 
sion of all the worldly estate of her husband 
by his will, dated at Paris, on the 7th day of 
March, 1835, and admitted to probate by 
James Hooker, surrogate of Dutchess county, 
on the 23d day of July, 1836.) 

f 64 Historic Old Rhine beck- 

In 1834 the church found itself in debt in 
the sum of $954, and appealed to the court for 
leave to sell the old parsonage and lot, the 
proceeds to be applied in payment thereof. 
An order permitting the sale was obtained by 
John Armstrong-, Jr., on the 1st of October, 
1834; a strip on the north end, thirty-two 
feet front and rear, on which there was a 
"new school house," to be reserved. The 
sale was not immediately effected, and the 
premises continued in possession of Harvey 
Seymour as tenant. On the 12th of Novem- 
ber, 1838, it was resolved to sell the premises^ 
with the reservation on the north, to Robert 
T. Seymour, for $600. Failing in this it was 
rented to Mr. Seymour for another year at 
$50, and in 1839 sold to Benjamin Griffin, 
then presiding elder of the Methodist church 
for the Rhinebeck district, for $500 ; he to 
pay the expense of another application to the 
court, and fence the lot reserved for a school 
house. A classical school — the beginning of 
the Rhinebeck Academy — was taught in this 
house by the Rev. Samuel Bell, a Methodist 
clergyman from the east. 

The school house on the old church lot was 
the property of Miss Mary Garrettson. The 
removal was effected and the lot sold to Rev, 
Benjamin Griffin for $5 per foot. 

f Churches 1 65 

In 1848 the church found itself in debt in 
the sum of $1,005. Mr. Rutsen Suckle}^ gave 
$1,000 with which to pay it on condition they 
would not run in debt again. In this same 
year Miss Mary Garrettson surrendered her 
trust in the church lot to the trustees of the 
church, having held it for a period of twenty- 
six years. 

( >n the 14th of June, 1849, Mrs. Catherine 
Garrettson, widow of the Rev. Freeborn Gar- 
rettson, died very suddenly at Montgomery 
place, then the residence of her sister-in-law, 
Louisa, the widow of Hon. Edward Living- 
ston. Born on July 13, 1752, she was in the 
forty-first year of her age when she married, 
and in her ninety-seventh when she died. She 
was calm and dignified in her manner, tall 
and stately in her person. Kindly disposed 
toward all who met her, she was generally 
loved and respected. 

In 1851 the portico and steeple were added 
to the church edifice at an expense of $1,100. 
A bell being desired, Rev. L. W. Peck, the 
minister, was authorized to write to Mr. 
Suckley for leave to run in debt $200 to pro- 
cure one. He declined to consent, but sent a 
donation of 850 toward the amount named. 
The record says he was thanked for his lib- 
eral subscription, and because of the financial 

166 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

condition, "which they found so favorable 
that the bell was immediately purchased." 

In 1853 the church received a donation of 
five acres of land in the Bucobush (Beech- 
woods) from Miss Margaret B. Livingston, 
which was sold for $70 per acre, and the pro- 
ceeds applied to pay church debts. 

In 1854 the church found itself in debt again, 
and obtained an order from the court to sell 
the lot purchased from Gilbert Akerly on the 
1st of May, 1845, the proceeds to be applied 
to the payment thereof. It was thus sold on 
the 5th of December, 1854, to Miss Mary Gar- 
rettson, for $400. 

On the 19th of February, 185G, Miss Mary 
Garrettson made a gift to the church of five 
acres of land for an addition to the cemetery ; 
and it was resolved that the cemetery thus 
enlarged should be styled the "Rhinebeck 
Cemetery of the Methodist Episcopal Church. " 
On the 27th of August, 1853, she had given 
half an acre of ground for a cemetery for the 
people of color. This is all now part of the 
present Rhinebeck cemetery grounds. 

In 1863 the church edifice was considerably 
enlarged, internally reconstructed, and much 
improved, at an expense of six or seven thou- 
sand dollars. 

In 1868 the church received a gift from Miss 

Churches 1G7 

Mary Garrettson of the Akerly lot, and built 
the present handsome and commodious Sun- 
day school and lecture room upon it. 

In 1871 the parsonage was reconstructed 
and enlarged, and is now, with its handsome 
situation, a very desirable residence. 

Mr. Rutsen Suckley, whose liberality and 
devotion so often came to the relief of the 
trustees when they found themselves in need, 
and who was held in very high esteem by the 
people of Rhinebeck generally, died in the 
city of New York on the 22d, and was buried 
from this church on the 24th of June, 1875. 
A funeral discourse, bearing deserved testi- 
mony to his worth, was preached by the Rev. 
Dr. Holclich of the Methodist church. A 
large and beautiful organ was put into the 
gallery in the fall of 1876, at an expense of 
$2,500, and was a memorial gift from Mr. 
Thomas H. Suckley for his brother Rutsen. 

Thomas H. Suckley also gave a desirable 
tract of land, called "Mt. Rutsen," on the 
north of the village, to the conference of the 
Methodist church, as a home for superanuated 
ministers. A chapel and several dwellings 
were erected on these grounds for this deserv- 
ing object. It was a worthy charity from a 
proper source. Many aged ministers came to 
live there. The location was delightful ; the 

n»s Historic <>/</ Rhinebecft 

surroundings all that could be wished Pcm 
For some reason, however, it was abandoned, 
the property sold to Col. John Jacob Astor r 
the chapel and houses torn down, and it is 
now a desolate waste place. 

Miss Mary Garrettson, the daughter and 
only child of the Rev. Freeborn Garrettson 
and his wife, Catherine Livingston, died March 
(J, L879. Born on the 8th of September, L794, 
she was in the eighty-fifth year of her age. 
She had been a constant and generous sup- 
porter of her church, ami the large audience 
at ber funeral obsequies attested that her loss 
was deeply and widely felt by her people. 

The position, character, piety and wealth 
of Mrs. Catherine Garrettson gave great 
prominence in the denomination to the Rhine- 
beck Methodist church. II she had not had 
her residence nearby there would w^\^\- been 
beard sermons in a Rhinebeck pulpit from 
President Notf of Union College, Dr. Kirk 
of Boston; from Mallet, Sn lerfield, Derhin, 

Olin, Eioldich, Pitman and IA>ss of the Meth- 
odist church. There arc no Garrettsons or 
Buckleys connected with the church to-day. 

This historic temple of Methodism in "ye 
olde town " stood for three-quarters of a cen- 
tury a monument to the faith and the faith- 
ful. II had witnessed the passing away ol 

~ -1 1 

^Jlj- 2 ^3^. 


' vv v Try 



Daughter of Rev. Freeborn Garrettson and Catherine Living- 
ston; granddaughter of Margaret Beekman 

Churches 169 

the Garrettsons, its founders, and also of the 
Schuylers, Suckleys, Bownes, Bronsons, Cur- 
tises, and very many other active, earnest, 
influential members and supporters. New 
names were on the roll of membership; new 
people filled its pews. The echoes of a cen- 
tury, however, bore testimony of the great 
work accomplished since Rev. Freeborn Gar- 
rettson, in 1791 or 1792, preached his first 
sermon to the people, and Daniel McCarty 
and Charles Doyle led in prayer. Who can 
measure the good credited in the book of 
life that followed this humble start ? On a 
cold winter's night in 1899, when the fires in 
the furnaces were warmly burning to heat the 
building-, a defective flue proved its undoing*. 
A lire destroyed the old church. The lamen- 
tations of the people of the town were joined 
with the sorrows of the congregation, but 
the church was no more. This fire was an 
important event in the history of the village. 
An account of it and of the building of the 
present ornamental and substantial edifice in 
its place will be found in Chapter 12 relating 
to the village. Rev. Stephen F. White was 
the pastor of the church at the time the fire 
occurred. We are indebted to him for the 

The church has had many eminent pastors. 

170 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

The records were burned in the fire of 1899, 
and the list of early names is incomplete. 
We are indebted to Rev. Wilbur F. Brush, the 
present beloved pastor, for the following- par- 
tial list. It starts with the Dutchess circuit 
in 1788, which covered Rhinebeck : Cornelius 
Cook, Andrew Harpending- and Freeborn Gar- 
rettson (presiding- elder), 1788 ; Samuel L. 
Talbot and Benjamin Abbott, 1789 ; Peter 
Moriarty and Menzies Raynor, 1790 ; Thomas 
Everard and Zebulon Zankey, 1792; Samuel 
Fowler and Robert McCoy, 1793; Jacob Rick- 
how and David Browm, 1794 ; Phillip Wager 
and Joseph Mitchell, 1797 ; Billy Hibbard, 
1798 ; Rog'er Searle, Joseph Totten and Syl- 
vester Hutchinson (presiding- elder), 1799 ; 
William Thatcher and Peter Jane, 1800; 
David Brown, Sylvester Foster and Billy 
Hibbard (in 1802 Billy Hibbard was ordained 
elder in the Methodist church at Rhinebeck 
by Bishop Asbu^); Datus Ensign, 1804; 
Daniel Ostrander, 1806 ; Freeborn Garrettson 
is put down as preacher in Rhinebeck in 1808 
(there were then 1,077 white and 40 colored 
members in Dutchess circuit); Merritt Richard- 
son and Aaron Hunt (presiding- elder), 1810 ; 
Samuel Horn and Jesse Hunt, 1820 ; Timothy 
Benedict, 182G; Fitch Reed, 1828; Stephen 
Remington, 1829 ; Samuel Cochrane and Loren 

Churches 171 

Clark, 1831; David Holmes, 1839. About 
this time Rhinebeck was an appointment 
by itself, with the following' pastors : Bar- 
tholemew Craigh, 1840 ; John Trippett, 1841 
Thomas Burch, 1842 ; L. M. Vincent, 1844 
Charles B. Sing. 1845 (here there is a lapse) 
George F. Kettell, 1862-5; W. G. Browning, 
18G6 ; Charles S. Harrower, 1867-9 ; Andrew 
J. Hunt, 1870 ; E. B. Otheman, 1871-3 ; Angelo 
Ostrander, 1874-5 ; Richard Wheatly, 1876-9 ; 
John G. Oakley, 1880-1 ; John J. Dean, 
1882-4; Edmund Lewis, 1885-7; Walter A. 
Chadwick, 1888-90; T. H. Baragwanath, 
1891-3; W. A. Mackej^, 1894-6 ; Frank Beale, 
1897; S. F. White, 1898-9; R. M. Stratton, 
1900-2; O. A. Merchant, 1903-5; Wilbur F. 
Brush, the present capable minister, in charge 
of a flourishing church and a large congre- 
gation, 1906-8. 


There were Baptists in "ye olde town " soon 
after the revolution, perhaps before. The 
Styles' family came prior to 1800. Then there 
were Reeds, Thompsons, O'Harras, Slaters, 
Canfields, and in 1796 Robert Scott settled in 
Rhinebeck. The distinctive belief that bap- 
tism Could only be administered to persons 
who could give an account of their faith, and 

172 Historic old Rhinebeck 

then only by the immersion of the whole body 
in water, gave the sect its name " Baptists." 
There are a dozen or more divisions or kinds 
of Baptists. The system of church govern- 
ment, each cong-regation being- independent 
of interference from without and complete in 
itself, is the "home-rule" idea adapted to 
church work. The extension of the "light 
hand of fellowship" by sister churches con- 
stituted recognition of the church and its min- 
ister as orthodox in the matter of doctrine, 
and thence properly established as a Baptist 
church. Robert Scott was the founder of the 
the Rhinebeck church. He was an educated 
man ; a carpenter by trade. Madam Mar- 
garet Beekman Livingston induced him to 
come to Rhinebeck. He opened first a store 
and then a classical school. His friend, Mr. 
Slater, had bought Daniel McCarty's lease 
of the land and house on South street, still 
known as the "Scott premises," and opened 
a store. Robert Scott bought him out, lot, 
house and store. He continued the business 
for four years, when he gave it up, opening 
a boarding- school. He followed the occupa- 
tion of a teacher and surveyor for the balance 
of his life. 

Among- many noted pupils were : James 
Stokes, who was a member of the firm of 

Churches L73 

Phelps, Dodge & Co., and then of the banking- 
firm of Phelps, Stokes & Co. Henry Stokes, 
former president of the Manhattan Life Insur- 
ance Company, was his pupil for about nine 
years. B. Stokes, who was killed by the fall- 
ing- of the store of Phelps, Dodge & Co., in 
Cliff street, and several of the Colgate fam- 
ily, among them Robert Colgate, president of 
the Atlantic White Lead Works, were pupils 
of Mr. Scott ; also several Vassers and Slaters. 
Thomas Stokes, of whom a memorial book has 
been published, was one of his last pupils. 
" His ministerial life," it is said, " never ceased 
from eighteen years of age; where a door 
was opened there he went, whether a court 
house, dwelling house or barn." He pub- 
lished the following works: " Antidote to 
Deism/'* " Chronology from the Creation to 
the Year 1810," " A Treatise on Our Blessed 
Lord's Return to this Earth," and last, "His 
Own Funeral Sermon." He was known as 
Father Scott. 

The record, made by Father Scott himself, 
tells of the beginning of the Baptist church 
in Rhinebeck. It is as follows : 

"This certifieth that on the Lord's day, 
June 2, 1821, Elder Freeman Hopkins preached 
at Rhinebeck Fiatts, and after examination 
upon their profession of faith in the Lord 

174 Historic Old lihinebeck 

Jesus Christ, baptized the following- persons : 
John Reed, William Styles, Calvin O'Harra, 
Wadsworth Brooks, Jacob Dedrick, Elizabeth 
Thompson, Ann Logan, Catherine Thompson, 
Elizabeth Ann Thompson and Caty Myers; 
and that the said persons, with Robert Scott, 
James Canfield, Ann Cook, Elizabeth Scott, 
Mary Scott, Jane Scott, James Styles, Jr., 
and Sarah Styles, agreed to enter into a cov- 
enant to walk in fellowship as a church of the 
Lord Jesus Christ." 

Letters w T ere, at the request of these peo- 
ple, sent to the churches in North East and 
Sandisfield, requesting them to send delegates 
to sit in council with them on Wednesday, 
July 4, 1821. These churches sent their dele- 
gates, and the evening* of the day appointed ' 
a council was formed, the delegates present 
being as follows : From the church in North 
East, Elders Freeman Hopkins and Buttolph ; 
brethren, Filo M. Winchell and Nicholas Yas- 
burg. From the church in Sandisfield, Elder 
Jesse Hartwell ; brethren, Jonathan Smith, 
Sylvester Doud and Asahel Doud. These 
delegates, with the brethren dwelling in 
Rhinebeck, constituted the council. Elder 
Jesse Hartwell was chosen moderator, and 
Elder John Hopkins, clerk; " when the mod- 
erator, in behalf of the council, extended to 

Churches 175 

the people of the Rhinebeck organization the 
right hand of fellowship as a sister church." 
And thus the Rhinebeck Baptist church came 
into being* on the 4th of July, 1821. 

Having heard Robert Scott on his experi- 
ence and call to the work of the ministr} 7 , and 
on his views of doctrine, at the request of the 
church the council voted to ordain him. Elder 
Jesse Hartwell was selected to preach the 
sermon. Elder John Buttolph to make the 
consecrating prayer ; Elders Hopkins, But- 
tolph and Hartwell to lay on hands; Elder 
Hartwell to give the charge ; Elder Buttolph 
to give the right hand of fellowship ; and 
Elder Hopkins to make the concluding prayer. 
At 10 o'clock on the morning of the next day 
the church met and carried out this program 
in the presence of the people. And thus 
Robert Scott, at the age of sixty years, was 
ordained to the work of the gospel ministry, 
and placed over the infant Baptist church of 
Rhinebeck as a pastor. There was no Baptist 
house of worship, and these services were con- 
ducted at the house of Elder Scott. 

The book of records sets forth quite elabo- 
rately the creed to which these people sub- 
scribed on entering this church. It says that 
it is the duty of baptized believers to unite 
together in fellowship, to walk in the com- 

176 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

inandments and ordinances of the Lord ; and 
that where this is done there is a Christian 
church, competent to elect its own officers, 
and call upon them to do their duty ; that the 
Holy Scriptures are a sufficient, and the only 
rule of faith and practise ; that baptism is 
the immersion of the whole body in water; 
that it may represent a burial and resurrec- 
tion, and that nothing' else is baptism ; and 
that "it is the duty of believers to break 
bread together often ; " and in 1831 the church 
resolved to do this "every Lord's day ; " and 
it was so done for the space of nearly ten 
years thereafter. 

At a church meeting held on the 29th of 
July, 1821, the record says: "Brethren 
Stokes and Colgate of York were with us." 
At the monthly meeting held September 30, 
1821, it was asked whether the church would 
proceed to ordain deacons ; but, upon consid- 
eration, it was concluded that, as in the prim- 
itive church, none were appointed until needed, 
we need not do it until they are wanted. 

The church at this early day had no local 
habitation. It assembled sometimes in one 
place and sometimes in another ; occasionally 
in Kingston. It met in Kingston on the 16th 
of June, 1822, and again on the 8th of Sep- 
tember, when Ann Yoorhis and Eliza Showers 

Churches 177 

were baptized in the Rondout creek, and the 
day was concluded by public worship in the 
court house. On the 23d of February and 
the 31st of August, 1823, the church met at 
Kingston again. On the 30th of June, 1825, 
James Canfield was set apart for the office of 
deacon by the imposition of hands. At a 
meeting held on the 28th of December, 1823, 
it was made known that Mrs. Janet Mont- 
gomery had given a lot of land to the Bap- 
tist church, and James Canfield and Robert 
Scott were appointed a committee to solicit 
assistance and oversee the building of a 
"small, convenient house for the use of the 
church for public worship." At a meeting 
held on the 31st of October, 1824, it was 
recorded that the building of a house for pub- 
lic worship had commenced ; that it had been 
inclosed and covered ; that it was thirty feet 
wide, thirty-four feet long and eighteen feet 
high from the ground. At a meeting held on 
the 29th of May, 1825, it was agreed to defer 
the next meeting "until the first Lord's day 
in July, as it was expected the meeting house 
would be done by that time." The house 
being ready, public worship was held therein 
for the first time on the 3d day of July, 1825. 
The record is that "Brother Scott preached 
at ten and broke bread ; that Brother Bab- 

178 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

cock preached at two p.m., and after he had 
preached, bread was again broken." On 
November 26, 1825, the record says, "as 
there was no prospect of getting stoves for 
the meeting house this fall, it was agreed to 
hold our meetings in the school house during 
the winter." On the 20th of August, 1826, 
the church met at Kingston again, and on the 
1st of October, 1827, James J. and Robert 
Styles, from Kingston, and Eliza Styles were 
baptized in Rhinebeck, and received into 
church fellowship ; and on the 28th of October, 
1827, William J. Styles was ordained a dea- 
con by the imposition of hands, to assist Dea- 
con Canfield. On August 24, 1828, the record 
says, " Brother Thompson from New York, 
formerly pastor of the Old General Baptist 
Church in the city of Norwich, in England, 
has visited us, and preached amongst us with 
universal approbation." 

At the yearly meeting on the 4th of July, 
1830, the record says, "since the constituting 
of the church, nine years ago, forty-two have 
been baptized, two have died, five have 
been excluded, three dismissed to join other 
churches, and three moved to a distance from 
us, but had no dismission, so that there are 
left" thirty-six members. Of this number 
ten were Styleses, as follows : James Styles, 

Churches 179 

Sr., James Styles, Jr., William J. Styles, dea- 
con ; James J. Styles, Robert Styles, Sarah 
Styles, Sarah Ann Styles, Jane Styles, Eliza 
W. Styles and Julia Styles. 

On the 15th of August, 1831, Deacon James 
Canfield died, and on the 26th of May, 1831, 
James Styles, Jr., of Kingston, was appointed 
trustee in his place ; and, on the 12th of May, 
1832, George Snyder was appointed deacon in 
his place. 

In June, 1833, innovations were distracting 
the church, and Rev. Robert Scott records 
an address to the brethren. The opening 
paragraph is as follows: "To the church 
of baptized believers at Rhinebeck Flatts : 
Brethren, I have for a long time past perceived 
that I should in the end be obliged to bear 
testimony against the innovations introduced 
amongst us, and thereby, perhaps, sacrifice 
the friendship of some, if not of you all; or 
else, for peace sake, sacrifice the truth." He 
died on the 24th of September, 1834, in the 
seventy-fourth year of his age. 

At the death of Mr. Scott, in 1834, the inno- 
vators against whom he had so earnestly 
protested, obtained full control. The church, 
however, did not prosper under the "inno- 
vators," as Father Scott called them. For 
several years it barely kept alive. 

£80 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

At a meeting- held at Sister Scott's, on the- 
15th of August, 1842, Elder Isaac Bevan, a 
regular Baptist minister, came into view for 
the first time. An election of trustees pro- 
posed was, on his motion, postponed for want 
of legal notice. Due legal notice having- been 
given, on the 8th of October, 1842, John 
Reed, George Snyder and Walter Sitzer were 
duly elected trustees, to serve until the 4th 
of July, 1843, and it was agreed that from 
henceforth there should be a meeting of the 
church held on the last Friday of every 
month. At the next meeting Rev. Isaac 
Bevan, his wife Mary and her sister, Hannah 
Lewis, were admitted to membership in the 
church, and by a unanimous vote Dominie 
Bevan was chosen to preside over its meetings 
until the end of the year, with John Reed, 
who, it seems, was the church's presiding 
elder by a previous vote. 

Hon. William Kelly became a resident of 
Rhinebeck in 1841. He was a Baptist and 
wealthy. His support was substantial and 
gave to the church new life. 

Rev. Isaac Bevan continued in the pastor- 
ate until January, 1848. He added twenty 
members to the church by baptism, and built 
up the Baptist church at Tivoli, in Red Hook, 
at the same time. 

Churches i 81 

Dr. James Lillie, having- become a Baptist, 
and entering- the service of the American Bible 
Union as a translator, took up his residence 
in Rhinebeck. He joined the church here 
on the 19th of June, 1852, his wife joining at 
the same time. He served it as pastor for a 
short time, and gave his hearers the benefit 
of his studies of both the Hebrew and Greek 
texts of the Scriptures. His last sermon, on 
the meaning of the word "hell" in the Old 
and New Testaments, was preached to a 
crowded house in the Dutch Reformed church 
on invitation of the pastor. 

The Baptist^ and dressing- rooms were 
built in 1867, under the direction and at the 
expense of the Hon. William Kelly. 

The original church lot was fift3 7 -one feet 
wide and one hundred and eighty deep. It 
was a gift from Mrs. Janet Montgomery in 
1823. The deed for it was given after her 
death by Edward Livingston, her brother 
and heir, on July 25, 1829, in fulfillment of 
her intention. It was given to Scott, Reed 
and Can field, and their successors in office, as 
trustees, forever. In 18G9, on the widening 
of Livingston street, the Hon. William Kelly 
purchased what Avas then left of the corner 
lot, and added it, a gift, to the church lot. 
It was thus increased to eighty-nine feet 

182 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

front, and made a corner lot. At the corner 
of Montgomery and Livingston streets it is 
one of the best situated church lots in the 
village. In 1890 the present modern and 
substantial church building- was erected^ 
largehy through the efforts of the Reed 

Dr. Richard Fuller of Baltimore, Dr. Wil- 
liam R. Williams of New York, Dr. Martin 
B. Anderson, president of the University 
of Rochester, and Dr. Kendrick, professor of 
Greek in the same, have preached from the 
pulpit of this little church; it cannot be 
doubted that those who worship there have 
heard as good sermons as were ever preached 
in the village of Rhinebeck. 

We are indebted to the Rev. George D. 
Merry, the present pastor, for a list of min- 
isters since organization : Robert Scott, from 
1821 to 1834; Elder John Block, from 1834 to 
1842; Isaac Bevan, from 1842 to 1848; Terry 
Bradly, from 1849 to 1850 ; James Lillie, from 
1852 to 1853 ; Samuel W. Culver, from 1854 
to 1857 ; M. R. Forey, 1858 ; William I. Gill, 
from 1858 to 1859 ; church supplied by mis- 
sionary, from 1859 to 1869 ; Albert M. Pren- 
tice, from 18G9 to 1874; B. F. Leipsner, from 
1874 to 1875 ; George W. Barnes, from 1875 to 
1880 ; S. G. Nelson, from 1881 to 1884 ; church 

Churches 18: 

supplied by students till 1889 ; Charles GL 
Dil worth, from 1890 to 1894 ; C. C. Smith, from 
1894 to 1898; B. L. Newkirk, from 1898 to 
1900; L. A. Mitchell, from 1901 to 1906; 
George D. Merry, 1906. 

Rev. L. A. Mitchell married Miss Cora 
Reed, a daughter of Thomas Reed, a liberal 
supporter, and a grand daughter of John 
Reed, one of the founders of the Baptist 
church in Rhinebeck. He is now located at 
Camden, South Carolina, the pastor of a 
thriving- church. 


Rev. Charles A. Smith was the founder of 
the village Lutheran church. He had the 
co-operation of John Benner, a leading" mer- 
chant, and John T. Schryver, a large prop- 
erty owner. He ivas pastor of St. Paul's 
(Wurtemburgh) church at the time. He 
preached there mornings, and as he lived in 
the village, he preached in the Baptist church 
evenings. A very intelligent and attractive 
preacher, the church soon became too small 
for his audiences. Most of his hearers were 
village people belonging to different churches 
or no church ; but the large majority w T ere 
Lutherans. Many of these were from the 
country and manifested a preference for a 

184 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

village Lutheran church. From out of these 
facts arose the effort which resulted in the 
organization of the Third Evangelical Lu- 
theran church, and erection of the present 
village church. 

This house was built in the summer of 1842 
by a building committee, of which the Rev. 
Charles A. Smith and John Benner were the 
working members. The lot on which it stands 
was the gift of John T. Schryver, who came 
in possession of the lands on Livingston street 
as a member of the misnamed Rhinebeck 
Improvement Company. Edward Livingston 
sold this company all lands in the village of 
which he become the owner as the heir of 
his sister, Janet Montgomery. The house 
was built at the head of and in the track of 
Centre street, because Mr. Schryver would 
give the land just there and nowhere else. 
This building in the track of a street was a 
favorite notion of Mr. Schryver, and proved 
troublesome to a sou in after years, us told 
in Chapter 12 on the village, when the old 
Schryver homestead was removed after a long 
and bitter legal fight. 

The church was built at a cost of $5,500, and 
when completed was, by common consent, the 
handsomest church edifice, in its interior finish 
and style, in the town. The pulpit especially 

Churches 185 

was not only a new thing- in town, but a very 
chaste and elegant thing- of its kind ; and it 
sealed the doom of all the old pulpits in the 
ne i glib o rho o d . * 

Mr. Smith continued to minister to both the 
Wurtemburgh and the village church until 
1849, when he took charge exclusively of the 
village church. He. continued in this until 
1851, when he accepted a call to a Lutheran 
church in Easton, Pennsylvania. 

Rev. William D. Strobel came into the pas- 
torate in 1873. In the summer of 187G he 
had important alterations and repairs made 
in the interior of the church edifice. He had 
the platform of the pulpit brought down to a 
level with his people; the pew doors removed 
and the pews widened ; new windows, a new 
desk, and a new altar rail constructed, and 
the whole interior of the building newly 
painted and handsomely frescoed. This work 
was done at a large expense, under the doc- 

* The "Thompson home " on Livingston street was 
built by Lewis Marquart for a Lutheran parsonage. 
Rev. Charles A.Smith lived in it as a tenant for a 
couple of years It was considered in 1843 the model 
house of the village. The joiner work in it was done 
by James Latson, an ingenious young Rhinebeck car- 
• penter, and the mason work by John E. Giles, the 
miser and religious imposter and beggar, who was 
found dead in an out-house at Niskaunah, in 1880, 
with nineteen thousand dollars in government bonds 
and five thousand dollars in cash on his person. 

186 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

tor's supervision, and with credit to all con- 

The following- pastors followed the founder, 
Charles A. Smith, in the order named : John 
M. Cross, 1851 ; John Hopler, 1855 ; Jacob H. 
Heck, 185G; E. H. Lubkert, 1859; W. H. 
Luckenbach, 1862; R. Hill, 1865; Henry L. 
Ziegenfuss, 1868; William D. Strobel, 1871; 
D. L. McKensie, 1882; A. M. Whetstone, 
1886 ; N. R. McCutcheon, 1890 ; A. E. Deitz, 
1893 ; L. D. Wells, the present pastor, began 
his labors April 1, 1899. 

Two of the pastors selected Rhinebeck girls 
for wives. Rev. H. L. Ziegenfuss married 
Miss Ella, daughter of Isaac F. Van Vliet, 
M.D. He joined the Episcopal church, and 
was the very able rector of the leading- church 
in Poug-hkeepsie until his death. 

Rev. A. E. Deitz married a daug-hter of 
Mr. H. N. Secor, and accepted a call to a Cali- 
fornia church, where he is now stationed. 

In the sixty-six years of the church's his- 
tory there were two hundred and forty-two 
marriages and two hundred and sixty-five 
baptisms (infant). Present membership of the 
church, one hundred and twenty. 

We are indebted to Rev. L. D. Wells for 
valuable information contained in the fore- 
going- sketch. 

Churches 187 


As early as 1846 Episcopal services were 
held in the village, sometimes in the Metho- 
dist and often in the Baptist church, on Sun- 
day afternoons. These services were held at 
least once a month. Rev. Mr. Johnson of 
Kingston generally officiated. About 1850 a 
large hall in the building erected by Alex- 
ander Baker, on the southwest corner of East 
Market and Centre streets, was used for these 
services, which then became more frequent. 
This was known as the " Baker building," and 
was the property of Cyrus B. Morse. There 
were several Episcopalians in the town at this 
time. Eliphalet Piatt, M.D.; Isaac F. Van 
Vliet, M.D.; George Lorillard, M.D.; Gouv- 
erneur Tillotson, Ambrose Wager, Theoph- 
ilus Gillender, James M. Pendleton, William 
and Charles S. Wainwright, Lewis Livingston, 
Isaac F. Russell, Marshall E. A. Geer, were 
among the number. The officiating clergy- 
men, when services were held in the "Baker 
building," were Revs. Sheldon Davis, Reu- 
ben Sherwood, D.D., Henr^v E. Montgomery, 
D.D., George Waters, Bishop J. C. Talbot, 
Bishop Wainwright, and others. Bishop 
Wainwright was an uncle of the Wainwright 
Brothers, who then lived in Rhinebeck. Dr. 

188 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

Montgomery was related to the Garrettsons. 

In 1852 Rev. Richard S. Adams came 
to reside in Rhinebeck with the object to 
establish a church. Services were then regu- 
larly held every Sunday morning- in the 
"Baker building-." In August of that year 
the preliminary steps to organize and incor- 
porate a church were taken, and on the 
18th day of August, 1852, the certificate of 
incorporation was made and filed. The rector 
w;is Rev. Richard S. Adams; the wardens, 
Eliphalet Piatt and Isaac F. Van Vliet; the 
vestrymen, James M. Pendleton, Gouverneur 
Tillotson, George W. Clarke, Ambrose 
Wager, Julius Bellard, Isaac F. Russell, 
Georg-e Lorillard and Marshall E. A. Geer : 
sexton, William Betterton. 

Mr. Rutsen Suckley gave the lot for the 
church building on the corner of East Market 
and Mulberry streets. The cornerstone was 
laid September 16, 1852, at 2.30 P.M., the fol- 
lowing clergy being in attendance : 

" The Rector of the Parish, Rev. Reuben 
Sherwood, Rev. George B. Andrews, Rev. 
William B. Thomas, Rev. Samuel Buel, Rev. 
William Watson, Rev. Sheldon Davis, Rev. 
George Waters, Rev. Jonathan Coe, of the 
Diocese of New York, Rev. J. C. Talbot, of 
the Diocese of Kentucky." 

Churches 189 

After the usual solemnities had been per- 
formed Rev. Mr. Coe read a paper bearing- the 
following- inscription, a duplicate of which is 
deposited in a tin box in the cornerstone : 

"The Parish of the Church of the Messiah 
was organized August 18th, 1852. The Cor- 
ner Stone was laid \>y the Rev. Reuben Sher- 
wood, D.D., rector of St. James' Church, 
Hyde Park, on Thursday, September 16th, 
1852. Rev. Richard S. Adams, Rector." 

"Eliphalet Piatt, M.D., Isaac F. Van Vliet, 
M.D., wardens." 

"James M. Pendleton, Gouverneur Tillot- 
son, George W. Clarke, Ambrose Wager, 
Julius Bellard, Isaac F. Russell, George Loril- 
lard, M.D., Marshal E. A. Geer, vestrymen." 

There are likewise therein deposited the 
names of the village trustees, the names of 
the building committee, Theophilus Gillender 
and Gouverneur Tillotson, the name of the 
donor of the lot of ground (Rutsen Suckley, 
Esq.), on which the edifice is to stand, the 
names of the master carpenter and mason; 
also a Bible and prayer book, a church 
almanac, a number of the Churchman, a 
number of the Gospel Messenger, a num- 
ber of the Rhinebeck Mechanic and Gazette, 
and a number of the Rhinebeck Gazette and 
Dutchess Count 1 1 Advertiser. 

11)0 Historic Old Hhinebeck 

The cornerstone was then laid by the 
Rev. Reuben Sherwood, D.D., of St. James' 
church, Hyde Park ; after which an address 
was delivered by the rector of the parish and 
listened to with marked attention by the large 

George Veitch, who came to Rhinebeck in 
1851, to erect the Jones (now Finck) mansion, 
was the architect and builder. Hiram T. Van 
Keuren was the master mason. Edward Hol- 
dridge the painter and decorator. The doors, 
sash, pews, rails and mouldings were made at 
the factory of Cyrus B. Morse. The tin work, 
furnaces and gutters by N. W. H. Judson. 
In 1901 this church propert}^ was sold to the 
Catholic people, and is now the Church of 
the Good Shepherd of that denomination. 

The church was consecrated on the 6th 
day of October, 1855, by the Right Rev. 
Horatio Potter, D.D., provisional bishop of 
the diocese. 

The Rev. Richard S. Adams was the first 
pastor. He was elected on the 18th of De- 
cember, 1852, and resigned on the 24th of 
December, 1853, thus serving the church as 
pastor for one year. 

The Rev. George Herbert Walsh succeeded 
Mr. Adams. He was elected on the 1st of 
June, 1854, and resigned on the 18th of June, 

Churches 191 

1866, having- served the church for twelve 
years. He was highly regarded as a member 
of the community. He retained the esteem 
and affection of all his people to the last. 
The lecture room and the chapel at Rhineclitf 
were built and the rectory purchased during 
Mr. Walsh's term. 

The Rev. A. F. Olmsted succeeded Mr. 
Walsh. He was elected rector on the 29th of 
September, 1866, and entered on his duties on 
the 1st of November, 1866, continuing until 
his death in 1895, when Rev. E. C. Saunders, 
the present rector, was called. 

The following persons have been large con- 
tributors to the support of the church : Mrs. 
Mary R. Miller, Mrs. Franklin Delano, Miss 
Elizabeth Jones, Horatio Miller, Edward 
Jones, William Astor, Lewis Livingston, Am- 
brose Wager, John Jacob Astor, Levi P. 
Morton, George N. Miller, Ernest H. Crosby, 
Douglass Merritt and Robert B. Suckley. 

During the year 1881 the church was 
thoroughly repaired and painted, handsomely 
decorated in the interior, and received four 
large and costly oil paintings by celebrated 
artists, and some chancel ornaments from 
Rome — a gift from Mrs. Francis H. Delano. 

Among the wardens since 1883 the names of 
Theophilus Gillender, James M. De Garmo, 

192 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

James F. Goodell, M.D., and John Jacob 
Astor appear. 

Among* the vest ry men since 1853 are the 
names of Edward Jones, Theophilus Nelson, 
Thomas Edgerley, F. H. Roof, M.D., Jam#s 
C.McCarty, Cyrus B. Morse, David F. Sip- 
perly, R. P. Hunting-ton, Horatio Miller, 
William Astor, Lewis Livingston, Dr. H. 
Behrens, Jr., John O'Brien, Doug-lass Merritt, 
George N. Miller, A. Lee Wager, Douglass 
Marquardt, Robert B. Suckley and Ernest H. 

The Episcopal congregation, the wealthiest 
in the town, became dissatisfied, not only 
with the church building, but with its loca- 
tion. Forty years had passed since the 
organization of the parish. In 1895 the ves- 
try purchased the Schell property on the cor- 
ner of Montgomery and Chestnut streets. 
This was an eligible site for a church. It was 
decided to erect on it one that would be cred- 
itable in every respect to the parish and the 
Episcopalians in "ye olde town." Hoppin & 
Koen, the well-known architects of New York 
city, were employed to prepare the plans and 
specifications. This was an augury that 
everything would be of the very best. Cur- 
nan & Kearns were awarded the contract for 
the mason work. Ackert & Brown for the 




Churches 193 

carpenter work. George Hag-adorn was the 
decorator. The present substantial stone edi- 
fice was the result. Money was not spared in 
its construction. The building cost $70,000. 
It is in every respect what a rural Episcopal 
church should be, plain, massive, attractive. 
It stands on the corner of two main streets, 
one the much-traveled old post road. It is an 
ornament to the village, beautiful in design, 
bearing evidence of the wealth, culture and 
zeal of those who worship within its walls. 
There are in it several appropriate and ex- 
pensive memorial windows. One to William 
As tor, in his lifetime a liberal supporter of 
the church, cost, it is said, at least $10,000. 
One to Susan Watts Street, daughter of Mrs. 
Levi P. Morton. One to Florence Adele Kip- 
Humbert ; the central figure is said to be a 
likeness of Mrs. Humbert. One to Rev. 
Aaron F. Olmsted, for thirty years rector of 
the parish. One to Miss Julia Ann Traver. 
The elaborately carved pulpit was a memorial 
gift of Mrs. William Astor to the memory of 
her husband. A marble bust of our Saviour 
was the gift of Warren Delano, Jr. A new 
organ was placed in this church this summer 
as a memorial to a daughter of former vice- 
president and Mrs. Levi P. Morton. The 
parents were the donors. The cost of this 

194 Historic Old Rhine&eck 

organ is stated to be $5,000. On a tablet in 
the lobby of the church appears the following- : 




Reotor, Ernest C. Saunders 



H. Behrens, Jr. Douglas Marquardt 

Ernest H. Crosby Douglas Merritt 
Jas. C McCarty George N. Miller 
A. Lee Wager 
J. J. Astor E. H. Crosby 

Geo. N. Miller R. B. Suckley 

Rev. E. C. Saunders 
Hoppin & Koen 

This church has had but four rectors in the 
fifty-six years of its existence : Richard S. 
Adams, George Herbert Walsh, Aaron F. 
Olmsted and Ernest C. Saunders. 


The Methodists had so increased in numbers 
and influence in "ye olde town " by 1855 that 
chapels became necessary for their accommo- 
dation at convenient points. One was located 

Churches 195 

at Hillside on the post road near the Hyde 
Park line, and another at Rhinecliff, on the 
river. These hamlets were given names to 
designate them as distinct localities of the 
town. Rhinecliff was the Schatzel-Russell 
farm, on which the Hudson River Railroad 
Company had placed the Rhinebeck depot. 
The ferry company had made Schatzel dock 
its eastern landing- place. It promised to be a 
village of some importance. We are indebted 
to the present pastor, Rev. J. W. Bohlmann, 
for the list of ministers who have served these 
churches jointly since 1855. In 1888-9 Rhine- 
cliff was a separate church, with N. Brusie 
as pastor, and Hillside was joined with Staats- 
burgh, with H. C. Humphrey as pastor. The 
other years are as follows : Albert J. Hunt, 
1855-6; Andrew Hunt, 1857; Q. J. Collin, 
1858 ; Asa P. Lyon, 1859 ; E. B. Otheman, 
1860; E. S. Osbon, 1862-3; C. S. Harrower, 
1864-6; C. W. Millard, 1867-8; S. G. Keyser, 
1869-71; W. A. Chadwick, 1872-4; L. C. H. 
Adams, 1875-7; J. P. Buxton, 1878-80; G. 
B. Mead, 1881; M, E. Ketcham, 1882-4; J. 
N. Yeager, 1885-7; L. T. Conrad, 1890-1; T. 
H. E. Richards, 1892-6; J. B. Cross, 1897-8; 
Aaron Coons, 1899-1901 ; B. N. Lewis, 1902-4 ; 
John Wesley Bohlmann, 1905-8. 

Mrs. Stephen Olin was the moving spirit in 

196 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

the erection of the Hillside M. E. church. 
She was a very devout Christian woman. 
There is an appropriate tablet in the church 
to her memory. Her family are still earnest 
and liberal supporters of this little church. 

Officers of the Hillside Methodist Episcopal 
church for 1908 : Stewards, J. C. Brown, G. 
L. Asher, Edwin Brown, Stephen Tator, W. 

B. Brown and George T. Cronk ; trustees, 
Henry L. Quick, J. C. Brown, Edwin Brown, 
G. L. Asher, John Knox, Robert Brown, 
Charles 0. Emory, Herman Asher and W. 
H. Tator; Sunday school superintendent, J. 

C. Brown; organist, Genevive Brown; presi- 
dent Epworth League, W. B. Brown; presi- 
dent W. F. M. S., Mrs. A. L. Schryver. 

Officers of the Rhineclitf Methodist Epis- 
copal church for 1908 : Stewards, Thomas E. 
Hester, Roswell Beach, F. J. Corn well, J. G. 
Hey wood and Frank Tator; trustees, J. T. 
Bird, F. J. Cornwell, W. B. Noxon, E. P. 
Wheeler, J. T. Heywood, T. E. Hester, John 
Huston, J. S. Merritt and Frank Tator; Sun- 
day school superintendent, J. T. Bird ; organ- 
ist, Clara Beach. 


For many years prior to the erection of the 
Catholic church at Rhineclitf there was quite 

Churches 197 

a big- following- of members of the Catholic 
denomination in the town. They went on 
Sundays in large numbers to Rondout to 
attend church service. In 1862 Rev. Michael 
Scully, an enterprising- priest, came to the 
village to organize a parish. Services were 
held and well attended in the Starr Insti- 
tute. The question of location of the church 
building was the all-important one. Some 
wanted it in the village, others at Rhinecliff. 
The village at first was decided upon. A lot 
was purchased and steps taken to build a 
church on the northwest corner of Livingston 
and Mulberry streets. The advocates of 
Rhinecliff objected. They were strong in 
numbers. This lot was then sold, and finally 
became the property of Henry Latson. His 
son, Dr. Frank Latson, is the present owner 
and occupant^ In 1863 George Rogers of 
Tivoli bought of Charles H. Russell six acres 
of land at Rhinecliff for $4,000 and deeded the 
same over to Rev. Michael Scully, the parish 
priest, for a church lot and cemetery. St. 
Joseph's church at Rhinecliff was erected on 
this lot, under the direction of Father Scully, 
in 1864, with George Veitch as architect and 
John Bird as master mason. Rev. M. F. 
Aylwarcl is now the priest in charge. 

In 1901 the Catholics purchased the Epis- 

108 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

copal church property on the southeast cor- 
ner of East Market and Mulberry streets, 
repaired and improved it and established the 
"Church of the Good Shepherd." Rev. M. 
F. Ay 1 ward is also in charge here. It is a 
flourishing- church but not independent of St. 
Joseph's parish at Rhinecliff. 



Ck The schoolmaster is abroad, and I trust to him, 
armed with his primer, against the soldier in full mili- 
tarj' array." Lord Brougham. 

THE schoolmaster came early in the town's 
history. The Dutch — high and low — 
believed in the three R's. The Kipsbergen 
youth were instructed by a pedagogue who 
traveled from Esopus at stated intervals. 
The Palatines depended upon the ministers to 
teach on week days and preach on Sundays. 
From 1715 to 1725 we And both Rev. John 
Frederick Hager, the German Reformed min- 
ister, and Johannes Spaller, the Lutheran, 
teaching. The small sums paid by the parents 
for teaching each child was not only accept- 
able but eagerly sought for. It was made 
a religious duty to send a child to school. 
Ex- Judge Alfred T. Ackert, who was a teacher 
in "ye olde town" in early life, as was his 
grandfather, Capt. Jacob M. Ackert, said 
that the school discipline was strict and that 
the dominie made the rules for school govern- 
ment. We are indebted to him for a copy 
of the early requirements. They are plain 


200 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

and covers the contractual relation between 
parent and teacher. A summary of the rules 
for conducting- schools in operation about 1760 
is as follows : 

1. The school shall open and close with prayer. 
. 2. The hours shall be from 8.30 to 11.30 o'clock in the 
morning, and from 2 to 4 o'clock in the afternoon. 

3. The schoolmaster shall be paid for instruction for 
three months, for every scholar in high Dutch spelling, 
reading and writing, five shillings ; and in English 
spelling, reading and writing, five shillings, and in 
ciphering six shillings. A load of firewood shall be 
brought by those who send scholars to school for each 
scholar for use in the school, every nine months ; they 
shall also pay the schoolmaster as usual and for each 
scholar sent. The schoolmaster shall keep school five 
days in every week. 

4. The schoolmaster shall occupy and be in charge 
of the school house ; he shall give three months' notice 
should he wish to give up his work. 

There were others besides ministers engaged 
in the business of teaching- the "young idea 
how to shoot." It was a fee service, more 
beneficial to the scholar than profitable to the 
teacher. Rev. Samuel Bell and Rev. Robert 
Scott, both in the "long- ago," maintained 
and taught classical schools on the flatts. 
The town has never lacked good teachers. 
The first mention in the records of a school 
in the town is in the deed made by Col. Henry 
Beekman on the 26th day of August, 1730, of 

Schools 201 

the lands for the Reformed Dutch church on 
the natts. (See pages 124-7.) The next is in 
a letter written by Robert G. Livingston to 
Franz Neher and others, trustees, on the 12th 
day of February, 1759, for land for the Rhine- 
beck Lutheran (stone) church. (See page 
115.) The next is on the 7th day of Feb- 
ruary, 1796, in a release made by George and 
Sebastian Pultz to the trustees of St. Paul's 
(Wurtemburgh) Lutheran church. (See pages 
147-8.) In 1805 the district school system 
was introduced. Several of the townspeo- 
ple entered the list of school teachers under 
that system, and Rhinebeck has since fur- 
nished its full quota of school teachers. The 
district system soon became popular and cer- 
tainly supplied a pressing demand. Private 
schools, however, still continued, and the 
names of Mrs. Seymour, Mrs. Thompson, 
Mrs. Ewing, Miss Landon, Miss Fowkes, Miss 
Bogardus, are remembered as popular and 
satisfactory teachers of the boys and girls in 
the clays of yore. 

Learning the a-b abs was the first lesson 
following the alphabet. The New England 
primer, a small volume containing a collection 
of little stories, proverbs, rhymes and ques- 
tions, with quaint wood cuts, was the first 
book. It was religious in tone. The alpha- 

202 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

bet was g'iven with a picture and rhyme for 
each letter. This was probably the earliest 
school book in English. Reading and spell- 
ing" were taught with it. 

Beginning to write the children made what 
was called " hooks and trammels." The 
hooks were curved lines, the trammels straight 
ones. Then came letters, words, sentences. 
The quill pen, made by the teacher and mended 
as occasion required, served every purpose in 
writing-. Making 1 or mending" was something 
of a knack. The ruler, plummet (a stick of 
black lead) and a bottle of ink, completed the 
pupil's outfit for writing-. They were taught 
to count on their fingers, then addition, sub- 
traction, multiplication and division com- 
pleted the arithmetic course. Slates, pencils 
and ciphering- books were the needed outfit in 
this branch. In this simple manner the three 
R's were covered, and the average child's 
education counted finished. History, gram- 
mar, geography, did not figure in the curri- 

At home the girls and boys of the period 
were brought up in the line of honest work 
and conscientious labor. The schooling the}' 
obtained was necessarially limited but good. 
"Book learning," as it was called, sufficient 
to enable them to read understanding];^ to 

Schools 203 

reckon in Dutch and English money, to write 
a fairly intelligible letter, and to repeat their 
catechism when required was counted an edu- 
cation. More important than book learning 
for girls were numerous housewife duties, 
and for boys the useful handicraft trades 
at which each in their line very early in life 
were taught to turn their hands. They soon 
learned the value of muscle for labor and wit 
for trade. Both girls and boys became pro- 
ficient in the use of their hands. 

In "ye olde town" one district followed 
another after 1805 to meet the demand of 
population. Families were growing numer- 
ous. Sons and daughters, grandchildren and 
great grandchildren were finding and found- 
ing homes of their own. Names were chang- 
ing and interchanging, and all the puzzling 
intricacies of Dutch relationship were mani- 
fest. School girls soon developed into farm- 
ers' wives or burghers' "vrows"; carding 
and spinning, baking and making. School 
boys were soon getting footholds, learning 
trades, following the plow, intent upon becom- 
ing useful citizens and the heads of families. 

The school houses were generally small one- 
story buildings, not too well built, heated by 
a wood stove in winter. The big boys took 
turns in preparing the wood and making the 

204 Historic Old llhinebeck 

fires. The room was usually plain and bare, 
except a map or two on the wall and a 
so-called blackboard. The teacher's pay was 
small, $20 or $25 a month, but his expenses 
were light. He "boarded round" — that is, 
with each family in the district for one, two 
or more weeks, depending- upon the number 
of children the family sent to school. The 
teacher at the beginning of a term would fix 
the length of his stay with each family by 
this rule. His salary was net. His having 
to "warm so many beds" was a joke at 
tavern and store gatherings. Yet boarding 
around had its advantages. It was an open 
door to much that was worth knowing. It 
was an event in a family when its turn came, 
and a big sister appreciated a bright, good- 
looking young man teacher, and made his 
stay with her parents pleasant. 

The school year had two terms, summer 
and winter. The memories of punishments 
inflicted at school are vivid with most of us. 
What then caused fear and trembling has 
been mellowed by the years that have passed. 
The "deestrick skule " served its purpose. 
The free school system of to-day grew out of 
it, and it is an admirable system. 

Th< 4 village school, Union Free School Dis- 
trict No. 5, is the most important school in the 

Schools 205 

town. For sixty 3'ears very little if any change 
had been made in the school accommodations. 
The same little oblong', one-story, two-room 
structure answered in 1868 the requirements 
of teachers and pupils as it had for thirty 
years or more. The teachers, Howe, Lyman, 
Snyder, Mink, Cross, De Witt, Traver, Taylor, 
Wilbur, Van Wagenen, Wells, Brown, and 
others, did as best they could, and they did 
well, considering- what they had to do with. 
If there was fault to be found it was not with 
the teachers. 

The number of children of school age in the 
district in 1865 had nearly doubled since 1860. 
At the annual school meetings, commencing- 
with 1865, the question of better school 
accommodations and facilities was raised. 
This was repeated in 1866 and 1867. Nothing, 
however, was done except talk. In 1868 Capt. 
Van Wagenen, the president of the Board of 
Education, and Dr. William Cross, a member 
and clerk of it, convinced of the necessity for 
favorable action on the subject of improve- 
ments, consulted with several representative 
men of the district as to what was best to be 
done under the circumstances. Parents send- 
ing children to school wanted better condi- 
tions. Taxpayers, only, did not. A large 
number who really favored something better 

206 Historic Old Rkinebeck 

than the old school house were for one reason 
or another lukewarm. From this point we 
will let Dr. Cross tell the story. 

" Prior to the school meeting- in 1868, Capt. 
Van Wagenen, discouraged because the pros- 
pect for improved school facilities was not 
favorable, but determined to make a fight to 
secure what could be had at the coming meet- 
ing, suggested that the board obtain legal 
advice as to its powers and duties so as to 
avoid any question of illegality in its pro- 
ceedings. We decided to do so. We invited 
Counsellor Howard H. Morse to attend a 
meeting of the board. He came, and after 
hearing our statement said that we had no 
power to emplo} 7 counsel in the matter. That 
what was needed was a leader, not a lawyer. 
The law was plain enough. The first step 
must be to find out if a majority of the voters 
of the district favored improved school facil- 
ities. If backed by a majority the board 
could do whatever was necessary. Acting 
on this advice, we canvassed the district to 
obtain an expression of opinion. The even- 
ing of the meeting found the school room 
crowded, many standing outside unable to 
gain admission. William Van Etten was 
elected trustee. The routine business was 
transacted. Mr. Morse, to get the matter 

Schools 207 

of ' improvements ' before the meeting, moved 
' That the sum of five hundred dollars be 
raised by tax, and that amount expended by 
the board on such improvements to the school 
building- as were necessary to make it suitable 
for school purposes.' The motion was sec- 
onded and stated by the chairman. Mr. 
Morse proceeded to point out the defects and 
requirements, the intention being to have an 
amendment to his motion made to increase 
the amount to two thousand dollars. At this 
point a motion was made to adjourn, which 
was at once put and declared carried by the 
chairman. Mr. Morse protested without avail. 
He then requested all friends of the school to 
remain in the room. Very few retired. Ex- 
citement ran high. What to do was the 
question considered. It was decided to take 
an appeal to the Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, that officer being the court of 
appeals in school matters. Hon. Abram B. 
Weaver w r as the superintendent. An appeal 
was made for those remaining at the meeting 
by Silas Terwilliger. The matter was argued 
D3 r Howard H. Morse for the appellant and 
Ambrose Wager for the respondents. Superin- 
tendent Weaver ordered another meeting 
held. This was called but was again adjourned 
without reaching action on the main question. 

208 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

By this time the district was thoroughly 
aroused. Everybody — voters and non-voters, 
male and female, old and young, took sides. 
Every voter became enthusiastically inter- 
ested for or against. Another appeal was 
taken by Mr. Morse and another meeting- or- 
dered by Superintendent Weaver. This meet- 
ing was held on the 25th day of March, 1869, 
in the Starr Institute. Herrick Thorn was 
made chairman. Two hundred and fifty voters 
were present and nearly one hundred who 
were not voters. The feeling was intense on 
both sides. The villagers were on the anx- 
ious seat. The question had resolved itself 
from the one of repairs to the old building to 
another, the erection of a new school house. 
An attempt was made to complicate it with a 
proposition to sell part of the school house 
site and apply the proceeds to repairs. Coun- 
sellor Morse led the 'new school house ' advo- 
cates and Counsellor Wager the opposition. 
It was a fair controversy, well handled on 
both sides, the lawyers apparently being the 
only ones who kept cool. New school house 
won on both questions voted upon. Two hun- 
dred and fifty votes were cast." 

Counsellor Wager took an appeal from the 
action of this meeting, and Superintendent 
Weaver, in his decision, states the facts : 

Schools 209 

State of Neiv York— Department of Public Instruction. 
On the appeal of Ambrose Wager and others from 
Proceedings of a Special Meeting of Union Free School 
District No. 5, Rhinebeck, Dutchess Co. 

Before the Superintendent. 
Ambrose Wager for Appellants. 
Howard H. Morse for Respondents. 


This appeal is brought from the action of a special 
meeting held in the said Union Free School District 
No. 5, on the 25th day of March last. That meeting 
was held in pursuance of the directions of this 
Department, given for that purpose when passing 
upon a former appeal brought here from the same 
district, and in which was involved the same subject 
of controversy as in the present case, viz. : the propo- 
sition to sell a portion of the real estate of the district 
and to erect a new school building therein. 

On these two questions there seems to have been 
for some time past considerable excitement and quite 
a difference of opinion among the voters of the district. 
The district has been agitated upon these subjects at 
least as far back as the annual meeting therein. 

The appeal first referred to was brought from the 
action of a special meeting of the said district held on 
the 14th day of November, 1868, which had been called 
to reconsider action taken at the annual meeting in 
regard to selling a certain portion of the school house 
site, &c. 

From the facts appearing on that appeal, I became 
convinced that the proceedings of the special meeting 
of November 14th were not a correct and reliable indi- 
cation of the views of the district on the subjects of 
controversy among the inhabitants, and, for the pur- 

210 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

pose of getting a fair and full expression of the district 
on the two questions above mentioned, I set aside the 
proceedings of that meeting, and ordered another 
meeting to be called by the trustees, for the purpose 
of taking action in regard to selling a portion of the 
school house site, and to the building of a new school 
house for said district ; and I announced that the 
action of such meeting should be final. The meeting 
so ordered was duly held, after a full and fair notice 
to the voters, as it would appear, on the 25th day of 
March last, and it is from the action of that meeting 
that this appeal is brought. At that meeting it is 
proved that 250 ballots were cast, on the subject of 
selling any portion of the school house site ; that two 
of these ballots were thrown out as defective by rea- 
son of there being more than one folded together ; and 
that of the remaining 248 ballots, 139 were against sell- 
ing and 109 in favor of so doing, showing a majority of 
thirty against the measure. It appears that on the 
question of building a school house, 211 votes were 
cast at the meeting, 120 of which were for so building, 
at a cost of $8,000, 87 at a cost of $6,000, and the 
remaining four were blank votes, showing a clear ma- 
jority of 29 of all the votes cast to be in favor of build- 
ing at the first-named sum. 

To meet this expression, apparently so decisive, of 
the questions submitted to the meeting, the appellants 
have attempted to impeach the proceedings on various 
grounds of alleged unfairness and fraud in the conduct 
of them. After a full and careful consideration of the 
evidence submitted to me by the respective parties, 
and which I do not deem it necessary to discuss here 
in detail, I have come to the conclusion that the appel- 
lants have entirely failed to prove that the proceed- 
ings of the meeting were either unfairly or fraudulently 

Schools 211 

-conducted. They also allege that those voting in the 
majority at the meeting represent a much less part of 
the taxable property of the district than do those 
who voted in the minority. This argument is not 
entitled to much consideration. The law which gives 
the right to the inhabitants of a district to vote makes 
no discrimination between the votes cast by them. 
All who possess the necessary legal qualifications, 
whether of property or otherwise, to take part in a 
meeting, are entitled to have their ballots, when cast, 
equally regarded. I have no right to make a discrim- 
ination in this matter where none has been made by 
the Legislature. 

In conclusion, I cannot refrain from expressing the 
hope that, as the questions which have so much agi- 
tated and divided the district of late are now finally 
set at rest, all will unite in their efforts to advance the 
common good in respect to their educational interests ; 
and that the success in that direction, which can alone 
be looked for where there is united and harmonious 
action among the voters, will crown all the future of 
what should be a flourishing Union Free School 

The Appeal is hereby dismissed. 
Given under my hand, and the seal of the Department 
of Public Instruction, at Albany, this 25th day 
LL - S,J of May, 1869. 

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

This decision settled the matter. A new 
school house was to be built at a cost of 
$8,000. It in fact cost about $9,000, addi- 
tional sums being- appropriated. Plans and 

212 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

specifications were prepared and approved by 
the board. The contract for the erection of 
the building was awarded to Peter M. Fulton^ 
a well-known architect and builder residing- in 
the village, he being- the lowest bidder. The 
work progressed rapidly, and on the 22d day 
of Februarj', 1870, the spacious new building* 
was dedicated with appropriate ceremonies to 
the cause of education. From the Rhinebeck 
Tribune, a village newspaper, we cull these 
facts : 

" The large hall of the building was filled to 
overflowing by an appreciative audieuce, who 
manifested enthusiasm and evinced inter- 
est in the exercises that proved them to be 
earnest, devoted friends of the public school. 
Mr. Wager and Mr. Morse, the lawyers en- 
gaged in the controversy as to the building 
of the school house, were present, showing 
that no ill feeling over the result remained. 

" The afternoon's exercises commenced with 
the singing of a piece, entitled ' Our Celebra- 
tion,' by the. entire school. After the sing- 
ing- a passage of Scripture was read by the 
Rev. Mr. Prentice ; then a prayer by the Rev. 
C. S. Harrower ; then Master Frank Jennings, 
one of the scholars, delivered the dedicatory 
address in an eloquent and graceful manner. 

" The primary class sang a piece, entitled 


'Tis education forms the common mind; 
Just as the twig is bent the tree's inclined. 

Schools 213 

* Teachers, Watch the Little Feet.' During 
the singing* of this piece the organ was pre- 
sided over by Miss Ida Smith, a member of 
the school. 

"Mr. Henry W. Mink then gave a brief his- 
tory of the free schools in Rhinebeck. From 
1811 to 1839 school was kept for a short time 
every year in different parts of the district by 
itinerant teachers. In 1839, after a prolonged 
and exciting contest, the South street lot was 
purchased and an edifice erected thereon. In 
1844 the district was divided, and the Oak 
street building erected. In 1848 the South 
street building was enlarged, and from thence 
until the erection of the present handsome 
edifice, the school accommodations have 
remained the same. In 1839, on the opening 
of school in the then new building, under 
the charge of a Mr. Rowe, one hundred and 
forty-four scholars were received. From that 
time to the present the school has been under 
the charge of different teachers, many of 
them very able men. Mr. Mink's reminis- 
cences were very interesting, and his remarks 
elicited the applause of the audience. 

"One of the classes of the school next song 
'A Festive Song,' after which Professor 
Cavert, a former principal of the old academy, 
when it was an incorporated institution, 

£14 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

and later Deputy Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, delivered an address on ' Educa- 
tion — Physical, Moral and Intellectual.' 

" Another class sang- a piece, entitled ' Press 
Onward,' when the Rev. Mr. Talmage was 
introduced. He spoke of the advantages of 
first-class school accommodations in a place 
like Rhinebeck ; of the impression made on his 
mind on his first visit to our village, when he 
was shown the old school building and was 
told that it was the Rhinebeck public school. 
He said the new house was what the village 
had needed for a long time ; that it was an 
insult to the people to say that they could not 
afford to have good school accommodations ; 
that the present edifice was not too expensive 
for the wealth of the place, and it was in 
keeping with the other buildings in the village 
erected and maintained for public good. He 
compared the present building, with high 
ceilings, perfect ventilation, spacious halls, 
where the scholars had plenty of elbow room, 
with the narrow, contracted, dismal pest 
house in which they had formerly been penned 
up, and he congratulated the friends of pop- 
ular education in the accomplishment of their 
object, believing that Divine Providence had 
smiled on their undertaking and crowned their 
efforts with success. Mr. Talmage was lis 

Schools 215 

ten eel to with marked attention, and was fre- 
quently greeted with applause. At the 
conclusion of his remarks the scholars sang- a 
parting- song*, when Rev. Mr. Prentice pro- 
nounced the benediction, and the larg-e audi- 
ence dispersed. The singing* by the scholars, 
collectively in classes, was very fine. Miss 
Sarah Cramer, one of the teachers, presided 
at the org-an with much skill." 

In 1869 Capt. Van Wag-enen was re-elected 
trustee, and Dr. Cross was re-elected in 1870. 
In 1871 the question of establishing* an aca- 
demic department was an issue. The old 
board was not favorable. There was a con- 
test on the election of trustee. One hundred 
and forty-five votes were polled. Howard H. 
Morse had sixty-seven, Edwin Styles had 
fifty-three, and William Van Etten, retir- 
ing- trustee, twenty -five. Mr. Morse with- 
drew and Mr. Styles was elected. In 187*3 
Howard H. Morse was unanimously elected. 
The academic department was established. 
In 1873 Alonzo C. Noxon was elected, and this 
made the board a unit for academic education. 
The present hig-h standard of the school dates 
from this period. In 1901 a larg-e addition 
was made to the school building* to meet 
increased demands, and from time to time 
needed improvements have been secured. 

?A 6 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

Teachers with qualifications for their respec- 
tive positions were employed, and to-day 
the Rhinebeck hig-h school will hold its own 
with any in the State. For the school year 
ending- July 31, 1908, its revenue was $7,267.81. 
It disbursed for teachers' wag-es, $4,497.50. 
Eig-ht teachers are now required. The non- 
resident pupils 7 account reached $240. The 
assessed property of this district is $1,011,124. 
There are 303 children of school age in the 
village district. 

There are now twelve school districts in the 
town. The Oak street school, where Richard 
Bailey, Henry Jennings and others taught 
school many years ago, was abandoned in 
1860, and the district consolidated with No. 5,. 
making- a district covering- the villag-e. The 
school property was sold, and the building- 
became a blacksmith shop. All of the schools 
are well maintained, and some of them are 
the special pride of wealthy residents in their 
neighborhood. The Rhinecliff school is the 
second largest in the town. On the road map 
in the front of this volume is shown the loca- 
tion of each school, and the district number 
is given. No boy or g-irl in the town need 
be without adequate education. Liberal sums 
are annually voted and raised by tax for all 
school purposes. 

Schools 211 


The academy was incorporated in 1840 as 
an educational institution. A suitable build- 
ing- was erected on Living-ston street. It was 
the successor of Rev. Samuel Bell's classical 
school, which had existed for several years. 
It had a board of trustees, mostly Methodists 
Rev. Benjamin Griffin of that denomination 
was m fact its founder. Rev. Stephen Schuy- 
ler was the president of the first board of 
trustees. It was from the start a high-class 
school, and numbered among- its pupils the 
young- men and women of the village who 
were seeking- advanced education. Rev. Sam- 
uel Bell was its first principal. He was fol- 
lowed by Park, Marcy, Harper, Cavert. 
Browning-, Schmidt, Davenport, Comfort^ 
Powers, Stocking-, and one or two others 
whose names are not recalled. An efficient 
corps of teachers assisted them. Garrett- 
son, Teller, Styles, McCarty, Bates, Ostrom 
Jenning-s, Hoff, Schell, Elmendorf, Kip' 
Sprague, Drury, Seymour, Smith, Piatt, Gil- 
lender, Judson, Wag-er, Morse, De Witt 
Tremper, Traver, Ten Broeck, Ring-, are 
names on the academy roll of students. It 
was a popular town institution and held hig-h 
rank in the educational field. In 1860 the 

218 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

property was purchased by Professor James 
M. De Garmo, and under his able manage- 
ment for many years maintained its high 
standard. In 1871 he erected a large addi- 
tion to the old building to accommodate his 
increasing number of out-of-town students. 
The roll of students of the De Garmo Insti- 
tute will compare favorably with any similar 
institution. The names of some of the old 
academy boys, from 1840 to 1890, are and 
will be favorably remembered as ministers, 
physicians, lawyers, teachers, engineers, bank- 
er's, merchants, scientists, artists, etc. Pro- 
fessor De Garmo removed his institute to 
Fishkill-on-Hudson, and about 1890 the build- 
ing was turned into an inn. The Rhinebeck 
high school now offers all the advantages of 
the old academy to its pupils. 

Bell's classical school building was twice 
moved, and is now a barn on the rear of 
Charles E. McCarty's premises on Centre 

Gov. Morgan Lewis of Rhinebeck was the 
father of the free school system of the State. 



" There is occasions and causes, why and wherefore in 
all things." Shakespeare. 

NATURALLY, after the lapse of many 
years and the passing' away of old places 
once of some local importance, the question 
will be asked, Why ? When the German 
church was built in 1716, and the road to the 
east opened, a corner was made on the Kings 
highway with an object in view. Judge Beek- 
man and his son, Col. Henry, had well con- 
sidered plans lor the development of their 
land. It is clear even now that this corner, 
"Kirchehoek," was intended to be a "dorf," 
the German name for a village. The church 
was the commencement. It was called the 
Rhinebeck church. The east road became 
the road to Rhinebeck. This was to be the 
name of the village. Judge Beekman thought 
he had made this certain. A tavern, in those 
days a necessary appendage, was soon in 
operation nearly opposite the corner. The 
next move was a road to reach the river 
through Beekman's land. This was opened, 
starting only a short distance below the 

220 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

church corner, running west to a convenient 
point on the river that afterwards was 
called, first Rutsen's, next Schultz's and 
then Mills dock. On the southeast, or 
highway, corner of this road a building was 
erected that was used for many 3^ears as a 
store and storehouse. A man named Schem- 
erhorn, followed by one named Shop, kept 
store there. A wheelwright, blacksmith and 
harnessmaker located in the vicinity. All 
this showed method on the part of the Beek- 
mans. The why and wherefore are plain. 
In a few years all the adjuncts of a small 
village were gathered about Kirchehoek. By 
1737 it was the principal business centre of 
"ye olde town," with "the flatts " as a 
healthy rival. It had a landing place on the 
river easy of access, but it lacked a mill. 
Judge Beekman had been dead for several 
years. Col. Henry had married a second 
time, and was living in the Kip-Beekman 
mansion in Kipsbergen. His two sisters were 
married. It was agreed to partition the 
Beekman land, in which they were tenants in 
common. This was done August 30, 1737, as 
shown by map on page 221. Parcel A was 
a gift to Col. Henry from his father in 1713. 
(See page 22.) Parcels B and C were pur- 
chased by Col. Henry of Peek De Witt in 

Why and Wherefore 


1715. (See page 21.) The remaining- land 
was divided into six tracts, numbered 1, 2, 3, 
4, 5 and 6. Col. Henry took 1 and 6. His 
sister Catherine 2 an 5, and his sister Cornelia 
3 and 4. 

The portion that fell to Corneiia Beekman, 
the wife of Gilbert Livingston, was partly in 
the present town of Red Hook, as was all of 

222 Historic Old Khinebeck 

the land purchased by Col. Henry Beekman 
of Peek De Witt, shown on the map as tracts 
B and C. Kirchehoek was in Rhinebeck, and 
was the southwest section of Cornelia's tract 
No. 3. The flatts are on tract No. 6. East 
of the King's highway on this tract the land 
was owned by Col. Beekman, excepting- the 
church farm and Ostrander purchase ; on the 
west was William Traphagen. The Dutch 
church had been built several years before; 
also at the foot of Mill hill, Beekman's grist 
and saw mill. Traphagen's original tavern 
was there on the north side of the Sepasco or 
river road and not far from the King's high- 
way. The town pump came later. 

A few 3^ears after the partition Jacob Rut- 
sen, a son of Catherine Beekman, having- at 
the age of twenty-seven married his cousin, 
Alida Livingston, the daughter of Cornelia 
Beekman and Gilbert Livingston, settled on 
tract No. 2. This was in 1743. His own inter- 
ests loomed up. With Col. Henry, his uncle, 
the owner of tracts 1 and 6 and A on the 
south, Kipsbergen on the river; the making 
of a village well under way on and around the 
flatts ; he realized that tracts 2, 3, 4 and 5, 
and the settlers there required to be made 
independent of his uncle's mills and docks. 
Kirchehoek was Rhinebeck, and it needed 

Why and Wherefore 223 

help. The why and wherefore were plain. 
Helping- it would help his own and his wife's 
land. They had no conflicting- interest in the 
flatts or Kipsberg-en. 

In 1744 Eutsen's mills were erected on 
Landsman kill near the church road, south- 
west of the present residence of Dr. Miller. 
They were only a short distance from the 
Sepasco road. The country round about was 
attracting- settlers. There were many pro- 
ductive farms in the neighborhood. A man 
named Eighmie became the miller. In after 
years Eighmieville was a busy locality. The 
Ehinebeck road, the road to market, brought 
the farmer to Kirchehoek. The two churches, 
school, Smith's tavern, Schermerhorn store,' 
Eutsen's landing-, with a wheelwright, black- 
smith, harnessmaker and other mechanics 
within reach answered every purpose and 
made matters run smoothly. There was room 
then, apparently, for all. This condition con- 
tinued until after the revolution. Col. Beek- 
man died in 1776. Livingstons came. Jacob 
Eutsen died in 1753. Schuyler, Suckley and 
Bowne came. 

In 1800 the conditions were considerably 
changed. The flatts, the ferry, the landing-s 
on the river in former Kipsberg-en seriously 
hurt Kirchehoek or Ehinebeck on the north. 

224 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

Then in 1802 came the Ulster and Saulsbur3% 
also, sometimes, called the Ulster and Dela- 
ware turnpike, with toll-gates. Paying- toll 
to travel over a road did not appeal to farm- 
ers. A man named Schultz was at the landing 
known as Rutsen's. He improved it. Ran a 
sloop to New York and ferried over those who 
wanted to cross the river. A store, store- 
house, smithery and tavern, all on this dock, 
soon appeared. Paying - toll was not required 
to reach Schultz's dock. The Rhinebeck road 
was popular, the turnpike was not. The why 
and wherefore need not be asked. 

Capt. Cowles, a sloop owner and merchant, 
the father of William S., James A. A., Henry 
B. and Edward E. Cowles, representative men 
of the locality, had a store on Mills dock. He 
did a large business. He came from Con- 
necticut. His sons, William S. and James A. 
A., were clerks in the dock store, and in after 
years leading merchants on the flatts. In 
1834 Edward E. was a justice of the peace. 
He removed to New York city, and was a 
prominent lawyer there. In 1841-3 James A. 
A. was supervisor of the town. Mills dock 
has further mention on pages 61-3. The why 
and wherefore of its existence are plain. 

On the next page is a picture of Mills dock 
as it was prior to the W x ar of 1812-14. 

Why and Wherefore 


It is said that the storehouse on the Long- 
dock was similar in plan to the one on Mills 

tt d 

£5 M 

00 „ 

I— » • 


dock ; there is also a resemblance between it 
and the one on the Slate dock. 

;-_t> Historic Old RTiinehecl 


The section of the town on the south, called 
" Bare market,' 7 since spelled " bear," because 
the reason for bare, ceased to be, was so 
named by a thirsty traveler who was unable,. 
on a "dry " occasion, to obtain liquor at the 
tavern there. It was "bare " to him and he 
was thirsty. 


Passing- the old Dutch church on the flatts 
it will be noticed that the north and cast 
walls are built of stone, while the south and 
west walls are of brick. This is explained by 
the fact that at the time of its erection the 
congregation was nearly equally divided on 
the question of building- of stone or brick. 
Neither side. would yield. The result was — 
half stone, half brick. Both sides satisfied. 

There is a cave on the farm of Alfred 
Welch, east of the village, called by Theodore 
Schutt, at one time editor of the Rhine beck 
Gazette, "The Robbers' Cave." It is in a 
spot that well might have been the haunt of 
robbers in early times. There are two or 
three rooms, or what are described as rooms 

Why and Wherefore 227 

in it. To what extent it has been explored is 
uncertain. The entrance is small and blocked 
by detached rocks. There is water in one 
of the rooms. It might easily be made a 
more attractive spot. Nature has done con- 
siderable. In summer as a resort for strang- 
ers, who are numerous in that neighborhood, 
it would be interesting-. Schutt wrote a novel 
about it, entitled " The Old Stone House and 
the Robbers' Cave." It was printed in the 
Gazette, and was an exciting and popular, 
though improbable story. The old stone 
house mentioned was the Kip-Beekman-Heer- 
mance house. In bygone times Edward M. 
Smith and Philip Snyder, two knights of the 
pen, had quite a newspaper controversy over 
this cave. Many stories are related of it. 
The one about its being " haunted " by the 
ghost of a man, who is said to have been way- 
laid, robbed and murdered, and his body con- 
cealed in the cave, is probablj- the reason the 
old residents avoid and try to forget it. It is 
rarely mentioned, even if it is known of by 
the present generation. We conclude that 
the "why " is out of, not in, its recesses. 


Indian depredations in the early days were 
not infrequent, and an organized militia was 

228 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

maintained for protection. Prior to the revo- 
lution the records show that Jacob Rutsen was 
a lieutenant-colonel; Aria Roosa, captain; 
Evert Bog-ardus, Mattys Sleight, Hendrick 
Kip, lieutenants. Nearly every able-bodied 
man capable of bearing- arms was enrolled. 


The revolution found patriotic sons ready for 
military service. The first Rhinebeck company 
had John De Witt for captain, Philip Her- 
manse and John Steenburgh for lieutenants, 
and Jacob Kip for ensign. Capt. Henry B. 
Livingston had also raised a company which 
contained several townsmen. Col. Van Ness 
had a company recruited in Rhinebeck for his 
regiment, and its officers were : Herman 
Hoffman, captain ; Andrew Hermanse, first 
lieutenant ; George Sharpe, second lieutenant ; 
James Adams, ensig-n. Later five more com- 
panies were raised in the precinct and officered 
as follows : No. 1 — Simeon Westfall, captain ; 
Peter Westfall, first lieutenant ; Wilhelmus 
Smith, second lieutenant; Abraham Dels, 
ensig-n. No. 2 — William Radclift, captain; 
Abraham T. Kip, first lieutenant ; John De 
Witt, second lieutenant; Johannes Moore, 
ensig-n. No. 3 — Martin Hoffman, captain ; 
Johannes Klum, first lieutenant; Zachariah 

Why and Wherefore 229 

Hoffman, second lieutenant ; John J. Her- 
manse, ensign. No. 4 — David , Van Ness, 
captain ; Gotlop Martin, first lieutenant ; 
Frederick Bender, second lieutenant; Cor- 
nelius Elmendorf, ensign. No. 5 — Jacobus 
Kip, captain ; Everardus Bogardus, first lieu- 
tenant ; Jacob Tremper, second lieutenant; 
Benjamin Van Steenburgii, ensign. 

Rhinebeck, the home of the Beekmans, Liv- 
ingstons, Schuylers, Kips, Rutsens, Heer- 
mances, Radcliffes, Ten Broecks, Elmendorfs, 
and other noted patriots, did her part and did 
it well in the Revolutionary struggle. If there 
were tories in the precinct they were not 
aggressive. In other parts of the county 
the tories were numerous. 


In July, 1766, Mrs. Livingston, then the 
young wife of Robert R., who became Chan- 
cellor of the State after the war, wrote him a 
letter under date, "Clermont, July 12, 1766," 
describing a journey in a carriage from the 
city to her home. She said: "We had a 
most charming journey the remaining part of 
the way. We breakfasted at Van Wyck's, 
who lives at Fishkill ; dined at Poughkeepsie, 
slept at Rhinebeck, where we arrived at 6 
o'clock. The next morning, which was Sun- 

'_';.<> Historic Old Kb in check 

day, we came home at 9 o'clock, and founo 
the family all in good health and spirits." 
This journey was made through an almost 
unbroken wilderness. The stop in Rhinebeck 
was with Col. Beekman, who was the grand- 
father of Mrs. L. r s husband. 


The deeds, which in fact were durable leases, 
given the Palatine settlers, are dated October 
20, IT 18.* In form they are alike. 

The strip of land on the river, shown on the 
map (page 13), north of that of H. Kip y 
marked "J. Kip," was sold to Jacob Kip in 
1719, by Col. Beekman. H. Kip's north line 
was the north boundary of Kipsbergen. We 
are indebted to Ex-Supervisor and Ex-Sheriff 
James H. Kip, who was born and has lived all 
his life near Mills dock, for the information 
that enabled Edwin Y. Marquardt, the artist, 
to make the sketch that appears on page 225. 
We are also indebted to Ex- Judge Alfred T. 
Ackert for the sketch of the old German 
church on page 35. He obtained it from his 
grandfather, Captain Jacob M. Ackert, who 
in early life was a school teacher. Mr. Mar- 
quardt used this sketch in making the one 

• l'i>r copy of deed, see Appendix, 

V) 7/ y and II 7/ ere fore 23 I 


An oak' tree was made the northeast bound- 
ary of the Kip purchase from the Indians. 
A space was cleared on this tree, which was 
nearly three feet in diameter, and the fig-tire 
of an Indian was painted on it. Jacob Kip, 
one of the patentees, bought more land north 
and east of his purchase from the Indians, of 
Judge Beekman, so this tree ceased to be his 
northeast corner. He was born August 25, 
1666. He died in 1733, aged sixty -seven 
years. His elder brother and co-patentee, 
Hendrick, died twenty years before him. The 
Kips now living on the "Ankony " land are 
descendants of Jacob. 


The camp-meeting grounds is an ancient 
grove of the town memorable in the annals 
of the Methodist church. It was set apart in 
1804 by Rev. Freeborn Garrettson for camp- 
meeting purposes. It is an ideal spot. The 
old-fashioned camp meetings were great events 
in the history of this church. Garrettson 
and his cotemporaries did grand work in their 
day. Rev. Andrew Hunt said of these woods : 
"Standing among the grand old trees as the 
shades of evening creeps over the landscape, 

232 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

and pausing as if I could hear the voices of 
song- and praise that had so oft been lifted 
there by the devout and earnest pioneers of 
our simple faith, I was uplifted by the sur- 
roundings. I knew that within these woods 
many a weary soul had been led to that fount 
fro m whence flo ws eternal life . Here hund reds 
had gathered from far and near to listen to 
the preached word. The influence that has 
gone out from the old camp-meeting grounds 
into the world will continue to be felt as long 
as time shall last." Some iconoclast may 
destroy the grove, but the good accomplished 
there will live long after he has mouldered in 
his grave. 


There was a time when " ye olde town " wa& 
not dependent upon outside supply for what 
its people wanted to eat. It sent to market 
from week to week large quantities of home 
products. Its market days were busy ones 
for everybody. This was before the advent of 
"cold storage." Forty years have brought 
many changes. Why and wherefore? As 
late as 1876 a trust or monopoly in the neces- 
saries of life was unknown. Prior to 1860 the 
best of everything required to live upon could 
be had at home at reasonable prices. Wheat, 

Why and Where fare 333 

rye, buckwheat, corn and oats. Vegetables 
of every variety. Fruits, apples, pears, 
cherries, plums, peaches, berries of all kinds, 
even the needed herbs, were raised or grown 
at home. The mills ground the flour and 
meal. The housewives made butter, cheese, 
and lard, baked bread, cakes, etc. Farmers 
raised stock, horses, cows, calves, hogs, 
sheep, lambs, rabbits, chickens, ducks, tur- 
keys, geese, pigeons ; eggs were plenty. The 
butchers selected and slaughtered their own 
stock. Milk could be had fresh every day in 
any quantity; buttermilk also; cider, vine- 
gar, home-made wines, honey galore; the 
river and streams furnished abundant fish. 
Coopers provided barrels, casks and kegs. 
The farmer prospered. The merchants were 
busy. The mechanics had work in plenty. 
Rhinebeck was the home of well-to-do, happy 
contented people. 

What prevents a return to home produc- 
tion, in the essentials at least, sufficient to 
meet the wants and supply the needs of those 
living in -Historic Old Rhinebeck?" It will 
be a lesson for food monopolies and cold stor- 
age trusts when farming sections near cities 
and villages avail themselves of home oppor- 
tunities on practical lines. There is food for 
thought in this suggestion. 

234 Historic Old Ehinebeck 


Gold farms have been from 1700 down, and 
still would be, under proper handling", numer- 
ous and valuable. Farming" is to-day as much 
of a profession as medicine or law. Scientific 
methods will restore every farm to its old- 
time golden condition. Making inferior law- 
yers, doctors, ministers, teachers and the like 
out of materia] better calculated for good 
farmers is more than a mistake. It is — we 
leave the reader to fill the blank. The gold 
farms of "ye olde town " we started to men- 
tion came prominently into notice in 1867-8. 
It took a doctor, two, in fact, to locate them ; 
Martin and Edwin G. Freleigh; father and 
son. The lather had practised medicine in 
the town in the fifties. "When the "gold 
fever " carried Williams, Teller, Kellogg, 
Ring, Schuyler, Teal, and others to California 
in search of the yellow metal, Dr. Freleigh 
said it "could be found without trouble nearer 
home." In after years he proved it to his 
satisfaction at least. The farms of Daniel 
Murch and Alfred Welch were selected for the 
discovery. The voyage was via the overland 
route and an innkeeper named Crandell fur- 
nished the conveyance. The Murch farm was 
purchased and paid for, but the Welch and 

Why and Wherefore 235 

adjoining- farms were only contracted for. 
Daniel became a retired farmer and moved 
into the village. Preparations being com- 
pleted, two persons " skilled in the art" made 
report. Professor George H. Cook comes 
first. E. A. Bowser confirmed him. 

In a letter dated New Brunswick, December 
3, L869, the professor says : 

" Having visited your property 3 or 4 miles east of 
Rhinebeck, on which gold has been discovered, I make 
the following report : 

"There is gold in the rocks of that district in paying 
quantities. In all these respects my examinations 
confirm the printed report of Dr. J. G. Pohle ; of Oct. 
13, 1868, and also the printed report of Dr. John Tor- 
rey, of Dec. 3, 1868. 

"The rock stratus of this district are in a very dis- 
turbed condition, the general strike of the rocks being 
N. N. E.,and the prevailing dip being towards the E. 
8. E„ though it is in some places seen to be \Y. N, \V. 
The angle of dip varies but is oftener above 45" than 
below it. The structure of the country is well shown 
in the plates 16, 17 and 18 of Mather's report on Geol- 
ogy of New York, where several sections between the 
Hudson River and the eastern boundary of X. Y. are 
laid down. ***** 

" The vein shows a thickness of from 6 to 8 feet of 
quartz and slate with iron pyrites. 

"1. The solid white quartz, such as crop out at the 
surface was assayed and found to contain gold in very 
small quantities. 

• l, i. The soft slate containing pyrites was assayed 
and found to contain a small quantity of gold. 

236 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

"3. The cellular and. rusted quartz which makes up the 
largest part of the vein was assayed and found to con- 
tain 5041 grains pure gold to 2,000 lbs. of the sample. 
This at 4^ cents a grain would be worth $213.24 gold 
per ton. * * * * * Some specimens show the 
specks of gold in the rock, without any preparation. 
The occurrence of gold at this opening in paying quan- 
tities is beyond question. 

" 4. Fragments of quartz from the fence * * and 
others from quartz vein with surface fragments from 
two others of the veins also give a small quantity of 
gold. ***** 

" Upon the value of the ore in the mine I need make 
no remarks. It speaks for itself." 

It is still speaking-, though the voice is some- 
what weak. The why and wherefore is prob- 
ably want of a knave and lack of a fool. 
There certainly has been no overproduction of 
yellow metal from these gold fields. Good 
crops bring- better results for the honest 


An enterprise identified with the early his- 
tory of Rhinebeck was the slate quarry on 
the upper end of Schultz mountain, over the 
town line in Clinton. This mountain is seven 
hundred and eighty feet high and of slate 
formation. Prior to 1800 the quarry was 
opened and worked with profit. The slate 
was used principally for roofing. New York 

Why and Wherefore 237 

city was the market. The slate was carried 
from the quarry by ox-teams, first to the 
Schultz-Mills dock and later to the Slate dock, 
which took its name from this fact, and sent 
by sloops to the city. The quarry people were 
Welsh, and several families settled near the 
quarry. They did their business in and 
brought much trade to "ye olde town." The 
names of Howell, Welch, Weaver, Lewis, 
Jones, Williams, Owens, Humphrey and 
Morris are remembered as among- the slate 
workers. Competition with other quarries, 
having- better facilities for handling- and trans- 
porting- slate, finally drove them out of busi- 
ness. The quarry was closed and remained 
idle for many years. About 1870 William 
Wood worth, a man familiar with the quarry 
history, formed a company, called " The 
Hudson River Slate Company." He finally 
interested several capitalists. Build ing-s were 
erected, machinery purchased and work 
started on a large scale. The making- of bil- 
liard table tops, mantles, tiles, counters, col- 
umns and marbleized work of all kinds was 
engag-ed in. A branch factory was estab- 
lished at Rhinecliff for finishing* and shipment. 
A man named Smith w T as in charge. The 
company failed. Stockholders lost heavily. 
Cost of handling, teaming- from the quarry 

2:58 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

to the boats and railroad was a serious draw- 
back. The quarry remains. The why and 
wherefore of its present condition are as 


Miss Janet Livingston, who married Gen. 
Richard Montgomery, lived for a short time 
after his death at Grasmere. The general 
was a great admirer of locust trees. Mrs. 
M. obtained a quantity of the locust seeds 
(pseudacacia), and in her walks about the 
place scattered them along the roadside and 
in selected spots. This is why so many fine 
locust trees are to be found on the old Liv- 
ingston place, now owned by Mrs. Fanny A. 
Crosby. This estate comprises eight hundred 
and ninety-eight acres of the best land in the 
town. In Mrs. Montgomery's and Lady 
Kitty Duer's time it was known as Rhinebeck 
house. The house was burned in 1828, and 
rebuilt by Peter R. Livingston, its then occu- 
pant. He lived there for over thirty years. 
Lewis Livingston and his sons, James Boggs 
and Lewis Howard, lived there from 1850. 
The Crosbys bought it after the death of 
Lewis H , the last of the Rhinebeck Living- 
stons, which occurred in 1893. It is a histori- 
cal place. 

Why and Wherefore 239 


Irving-, in his Knickerbocker history, gives 
the origin of the name of Beekman as follows : 
"This great dignitary was called Mynheer 
Beekman, who derived his surname, as did 
Ovidius Naso of yore, from the lordly dimen- 
sions of his nose, which projected from the 
centre of his countenance like the beak of a 
parrot. He was the great progenitor of the 
tribe of the Beekmans, one of the most ancient 
and honorable families of the province, the 
members of which do gratefully commemo- 
rate the origin of their dignity, not as your 
noble families in England would clo, by having 
a glowing proboscis emblazoned on their 
escutcheon, but by one and all wearing a 
right goodly nose stuck in the middle of their 


The flavor of colonial clays is presented in 
the tales that are told and retold of happen- 
ings in olden times. If they are undeniably 
connected with a really old and unquestion- 
ably quaint tavern like the "old hotel," they 
possess a charm that is irresistible. The 
parties in the tap-room, shown in the accom- 
panying picture, are listening, on a November 


Historic Old Rhinebeck 

afternoon in the year of 1800, to this exciting 
tale : " A female, by the name of Catherine 
Berrenger, residing with her parents near 

Kirchehoek, in Rhinebeck precinct, fell a vic- 
tim to death on the 4th day of November, 
1800, by swallowing a portion of Arsenic, 

Why and H herefore *^41 

supposed to be administered to her by John 
Benner, to whom she was promised in mar- 
riage, and who is now confined in the goal at 
Poughkeepsie for the same offense." This 
extract is from an old paper. Benner was 
tried, but the jury disagreed. He afterwards 
became a useful, respected and prominent cit- 
izen of the town. 

The why and wherefore always interested 
the old-timers. They met at the Bogardus- 
Potter- Jacques' tavern, now the "old hotel," 
in the village, and talked over happening's 
and events of moment. The picture shows 
the tavernkeeper of 1800, Bog-ardus, stand- 
ing-, his wife is in the doorway. Martinus 
Schryver sitting-, cane in hand, is telling- the 
exciting- story. A stranger who has just 
arrived, his trunk behind him, a Van Wag- 
enen and the landlord's son are listening in 


In Aug-ust, 1824, Gen. La Fayette, of revo- 
lutionary fame, paid a visit to this country. 
He arrived in New York city on the 15th, and 
after a few days' rest started up the Hudson 
river on a steamboat to visit his old friend, 
Chancellor Livingston, at Clermont. On the 
reception and entertainment committee Rhine- 

1 2 Historic Old Hhinebeck 

beck was represented by Gov. Morgan Lewis ? 
Gen. John Armstrong", Thomas Tillotson, 
Freeborn Garrettson, Peter R. Livingston 
and Dr. David Tomlinson. On the trip up the 
river, when the boat reached the residence of 
Gov. Lewis, a stop was made and the party 
landed. The booming- of cannon and an 
enthusiastic multitude welcomed them into 
"ye olde town." The party marched to the 
Lewis mansion, where a sumptuous collation 
was served. In the afternoon the party- 
returned to the boat and proceeded up the 
river to the Livingston manor house, the 
residence of Chancellor Livingston. A set- 
tlement east of the village was named 
"La Fayette" in honor of this event. 


Political feeling' was always strong* in "ye 
olde town." From the days of the federal- 
ists and republicans of early times to the 
present day, ardent supporters of rival faith 
could be found to do strenuous battle for their 
respective sides. Feeling was so bitter as 
early as 1800 that Dominie Romeyn, of the 
oJd Dutch church, then refused to give the 
name of Thomas Jefferson to a child in bap- 
tism, but persisted in naming it John, giving 
as his reason that Jefferson was an infidel. 

Why and Wherefore 243 

John Adams was a federalist, and the candi- 
date opposed to Jefferson for the presidency. 
The dominie' was a federalist. In religion 
Adams was a Unitarian, which was only a 
degree removed from infidelity in the domi- 
nie's religious belief. It must have been pol- 
itics and not religion that substituted the 
name of John for Thomas on this occasion. 
In the stirring log cabin and hard-cider cam- 
paign of 1840, when " Tippecanoe and Tyler 
too" swept the country, a sad event occurred 
on the flatts by a premature discharge of a 
cannon called " Old Tip." Henry Hogan and 
"Jack," a colored boy working for Barnet 
Wager, were killed, and Mose} 7 Miner lost his 
arm. In 1855 the "queer election " occurred. 
It was for town officers. Lewis Livingston 
headed the democratic ticket for supervisor 
and George Lorillard the republican. A 
dark lantern, or native American, candidate 
appeared the evening before election in the 
person of Richard R. Sylands. He defeated 
both of his opponents. On many occasions 
the town election has been very close. Some- 
times one side and then the other would win. 
Fortunately the town has had good officials 
regardless of party. As a matter of fact pol- 
itics have cut little, if any, figure in the hand- 
ling of town affairs. 

244 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

During* the past five years Mandeville S. 
Frost, a democrat, was supervisor (1903-5), 
to be succeeded by John A. Traver, a repub- 
lican, in 1905. Mr. Frost was again elected 
in 1907, and is now in office. Jacob H. Pot- 
tenburgh, the town clerk, a republican, has 
held that office continuously since 1877. The 
right man in the right place. In addition to 
officials mentioned elsewhere, in 1856 William 
Kelly was elected State senator. David Tom- 
linson was a member of Assembly in 1819 ; 
John Cox in 1822 ; Peter K. Livingston, 1823 ; 
John Armstrong, Jr., 1825 ; Francis A. Liv- 
ingston, 1828 ; George Lambert, 1833 ; Free- 
born Garrettson, 1835-45 ; Ambrose Wager, 
1855-8 ; Richard J. Garrettson, 1860 ; John 
N. Cramer, 1864; Alfred T. Ackert, 1868; 
John O'Brien, 1882; William A. Tripp, 
1898-9-1900. Rhinebeck has had two sheriffs, 
Allen H. Hoffman, 1901-3, and James H. 
Kipp, 1904-6. It has also had other county 



"" The days are short, the weather's cold, 
By tavern fires tales are told. 
Some ask for dram when first come in, 
Others with flip and bounce begin." 

N. E. Almanac, 1704. 

THE list of those who have been tavern- 
keepers in "ye olde town " is a long- one. 
The landlord of colonial days may not have 
been the greatest man in the locality, but he 
was generally the best known, and as a rule 
the most popular. He made many acquaint- 
ances. Travelers especially remembered him, 
and if he was of the right sort did not fail to 
pay tribute to his worth. The first tavern 
was Traphagen's. It was the predecessor of 
the present "old hotel." Then there was 
Monfort's, Moul's, Kip's, Bonesteel's, Mar- 
quart's, Wilson's, and others, all in operation 
prior to 1800. In fact, the farmhouse upon 
" a publick road " was from necessity a tavern 
at which casual travelers could "put up" and 
be treated as members of the family. On the 
flatts there were seven or eight so-called 
taverns. The Bowery had two, the residence 


Historic old RhinebecJc 

of the late Stephen and James C. McCarty 
being- one before they owned it, and the 





Vi £ 
o oo 

.2 o 

Brinckerhoff-Pultz, later called the Bowery 
house, the other. At these taverns the hun- 

Taverns 247 

gry, thirst3 T and worn traveler found rest, 
comfort, shelter, good suppers and wine. 

In the Traphagen and Kip taverns of 1709 
the "betste" was an important part of the 
main room. The word "betste" meant bed- 
stead, but that is as near as it came to the 
real article known by that name now. It was 
constructed like a cupboard in the partition, 
and made a door, closed wmen unoccupied, 
so that one sleeping- apartment of an inn 
could accommodate several travelers with 
sleeping accommodations, and yet, in the day- 
time, the room would answer for a public 
room, and afford a neat and unencumbered 
appearance. In houses of more humble pre- 
tensions, the "slaap-banck," or "bunk," of 
modern parlance, was the place to sleep trav- 
elers. The sleeping-car is on this plan. 

It was the business of the good vrow of her 
maid to show up the traveler, and open the 
<loor in the smooth partition and make the 
bed to receive his weary limbs for the night. 
Otherwise he might not be able to discover 
his bunk. After he crept into it, she came 
back again to blow out the candle, and in 
the morning to draw the curtains of the win- 
dows at the hour he fixed to rise. There was 
generally one room in which all the guests 
were received, and where there was a pleasant 

248 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

reunion in the evening, and all the visitors 
ate, drank and smoked. It had in one corner 
a closet, which when opened (and, honestly, 
it was not unfrequently opened), disclosed 
sundry decanters, glasses and black bottles; 
and on one side of the room a rack in which 
were suspended by their bowls a score or two 
of very long pipes, each one inscribed with 
the name of a neighbor, its owner. This was 
the room of Mynheer the landlord, who found 
all his occupation here in attending to the 
pleasure of his guests. He had no care 
beyond this ; mevrow was the head of the 
house ; she attended to all the wants of the 
guests, and gave them the information which 
they might desire. She was always on the 
spot as when, with a " tvel te rusten," like a 
good mother, she bade one good-night, and 
when, with a "hoo-y-reis" like an old friend, 
she bade him good-by. 

Saturday evenings from over- the town men 
came to the nearest tavern to hear the news. 
Monfort's on the south end, Marquart's in 
V\ iii-iemburgh, Moul's at Kirchehoek, Kip's 
in Kipsbergen, the "old hotel 7 ' on the flatts, 
found goodly numbers discussing politics, 
theology and the crops; playing checkers, 
dominoes and cards; telling stories in the 
capacious tap-rooms around a cheerful blazing 

Taverns 249 

fire on a winter's night, whiling away the 
time with mugs of flip and malted cider. In 
the days of Potter, farmers brought pork, 
poultry, butter, eggs, grain, and other prod- 
ucts for him to market for them. The tap- 
room was an important part of tavern equip- 
ment. In tbe "old hotel" it was in the 
northeast room. The bar was an enclosed 
nook in the corner beyond the chimney. A 
short counter, with grill work above, a closet 
and shelves behind and shelves underneath, 
made the bar. It was entered on the lower 
side; a narrow passage was left for the pur- 
pose; it had a wooden portcullis, raised or 
lowered as required. Quoit-pitching, run- 
ning, wrestling and shooting- matches were 
common. The dining-room and kitchen were 
in the rear of the tap-room. The guests' 
chambers on the upper floor. This portion of* 
the "old hotel " is practically the same to-day, 
that is the old stone part, as it was when 
Traphagen built it. 

The tavern has ever played an important 
part in social, political and business life. It 
has helped make history. The story of one is 
that of many. To-day the "old hotel" is a 
monument to the past. It is the pride of 
the townspeople. It is well located. The 
builder, following 1 the good old Dutch custom. 


Historic Old Rhinebeck 

put a gable-end to the road which then ran 
within a few feet of the north side of the stone 





















j 1 













































I - 













c ; 




























part of the structure. The Sepasco road turned 
in front, and on the east side formed the high- 

Taverns 251 

way, and continued south to the church, and 
then east to the interior. What is now the 
frame portion on the north end was erected 
later by Asa Potter for a store ; the Sepasco 
road had been straightened and extended east 
by the Ulster and Saulsbury Turnpike Com- 
pany. This was about 1802. We assume 
that it was Arent Traphagen, a grandson of 
William of 1706, who erected the stone tavern. 
His grandfather, William, died in 1740, about 
sixty-nine years of age. Arent followed his 
trade as an artificer. He was skillful as a 
builder. He erected many houses. He died 
about 1769, aged forty-one years. In the 
division of his grandfather's property in 1741 
that portion where the tavern stands fell to 
his father. We find the Traphagen tavern 
on the river road as early as 1709 in a stone 
house which in later years was called the 
" old state prison." It was kept by the grand- 
father and father of Arent for many years. 
It was the first tavern on the flatts. The 
river road, as early as 1749, from the mills 
to the Beekman, now Heermance house, 
near the Slate dock, was a road district, and 
Isaac Kip was the roadmaster. Beekman's 
mills, on the flatts, was the attractive point 
towards which gravitated locally the main 
avenues of travel. In 1766, where the "old 

Historic Old Rhinebeck 

hotel'' now stands, Arent found an ideal spot 
for a tavern. He grasped the idea. Travel 
on the highway, and also on the river road, 
was increasing-. During- most of the year the 
journey from New York to Albany was made 
over this road. 

Even during- the summer months this road 
competed with the river. Travel was on 
horseback. When the river was closed the 
road was the only avenue of travel. The 
transportation of freight and passeng-ers was 
an absolute necessity at all seasons of the 
year, hence taverns along- a traveled route 
were plenty and, according- to their merits, 
prosperous. The first old Traphag*en tavern 
was not well located. In 1766 the younger 
Arent concluded to erect what is now the " old 
hotel.'" He had no difficulty in obtaining- on 
his land the timber, stone and lime needed for 
the structure. The timber was well selected, 
cut and dressed, the stones quarried, the lime 
burned and the bricks baked all on his own 
g-lebe. The blacksmith near the mill made 
the spikes and nails required. The saw mill 
turned the trees into boards for flooring*, trim- 
ming*, etc., and there were enough skillful 
mechanics in the neighborhood to do the rest. 
The tavern was certainly substantially built. 
It still stands a well-preserved edifice, an 

Taverns 253 

enduring monument to the builder. It is all 
that remains to recall the name of Traphagen. 
It has always been a tavern. It has a great 
history — authentic, legendary, traditional. 
When completed, which was before 1767, it 
was opened by Arent Traphagen, the builder, 
and at once became a favorite and popular 
resort for travelers. It served as the stage- 
house for the locality in 1788. Large stables 
were erected to accommodate the relay of 
horses, changed here before again starting in 
either direction. It gained, and undoubtedly 
deserved, great reputation because of its 
bountiful table and the well-cooked food sup- 
plied to guests. This reputation it has never 
lost. About 1765 a spring on the roadside 
made the well which for a century and a half 
thereafter was famous as the "town pump." 
(See pages 93-4-5.) 

The tavern continued under Arent's man- 
agement until his death in 1769, when Eve- 
rardus Bogardus became the innkeeper. He 
came into the town as a merchant prior to 
1769 with Dr. Hans Keirstead, and both 
became active in the upbuilding of the local- 
ity. He purchased the "old hotel" property 
from the heirs of Traphagen. He was a 
great grandson of the "Dominie" Bogardus 
who figured in the early history of New York, 

254 Historic Old Rkinebeck 

and who was the second husband of the famed 
" Anneke Jans." He was assisted at the 
tavern by his son Benjamin, who succeeded 
him at his death, which occurred in 1799. He 
was the innkeeper during- the Revolutionary 
war, and the " Bogardus tavern" was the 
headquarters of the patriots of the locality, a 
large number of whom entered the continen- 
tal army. A company, with Henry B. Liv- 
ingston as captain, was raised as early as 
1775 in the town, and it drilled and camped on 
the Bogardus lot near the tavern. Other 
companies followed. The Livingstons, Schuy- 
ler s, Montgomery s, Armstrongs and other 
leading' families of this section were promin- 
ently and actively identified with the patriots 
of the colonies in their struggle for liberty. 
They were leaders. Dr. Ananias Cooper, an 
aged physician, was a trusted local leader and 
worker, ever on the spot ready to help the 
cause. At this tavern friends met from far 
and near, frequently during 1 the war, to plan 
and counsel, and devise ways and means to 
defeat the King- and free the colonies from 
British rule. Very few tories lived in this 
section, none that were active or troublesome. 
It was not a healthy section for them. It 
would be impossible to name all of the distin- 
guished men who, during the revolutionary 

Taverns 255 

period, passed to and i'ro over the post road, 
and made the Bogardus tavern a resting- 
place. Washing-ton, La Fayette, Hamilton, 
Burr, Schuyler, Gates, Arnold and others 
were surely among the number. Stop with 
Bogardus ; consult Dr. Cooper, were the direc- 
tions given trusted messengers. It would be 
hard to find the name of aiw one prominent 
in revolutionary or State annals prior to 1802 
who journeyed between New York and Albany 
over the post road who did not make the 
Bogardus tavern a place to bide for refresh- 
ment and rest. Here they were sure of a 
cordial welcome and courteous treatment. 
The Bog-ardus era was historical. The "old 
hotel " deserves a tablet from the Sons and 
Daughters of the Revolution. Asa Potter 
purchased this tavern from the son, Benjamin 
Bog-ardus, in 1802. He was then a resident on 
the flatts and a successful merchant as well 
as tavernkeeper. The historic house grew in 
favor. A Masonic lodge held its meetings 
occasionally on the top floor. Gov. Lewis and 
other leading citizens were Masons. Potter 
wanted room for a store, and he built a frame 
one-story annex for it on the north end. The 
turnpike company had straightened the old 
Sepasco or river road, extending what is now 
Market street east, and making: it connect 

Historic Old Rhinebeck 

again with the Sepasco road. It then became 
a turnpike from the river to the " Still" and 
east. At the "old hotel" the turnpike and 
post road made "the corner," as it came to 
be and is still known. On the southwest cor- 
ner the tavern and store held sway. Potter 
died in 1805. He had been prosperous, and at 
his death left a considerable estate. The 
death of Potter brought Capt. William 
Jacques and his family to the tavern. The 
time was opportune. Rhinebeck was forging" 
ahead. Its population was 3,662 by the cen- 
sus of 1790. This was the precinct. The 
tavern was its centre, ready and waiting for 
the right man. He was found in Capt. 
Jacques. From the start a model tavern- 
keeper, he made the "old hotel" jump to the 
foreground as a hostelry. From local repute 
of long standing its name and fame as 
"Jacques' tavern" spread far and near. To 
stop with Capt. Jacques was an event in the 
life of a traveler. The guest chambers were 
never empty. In early life Jacques had been 
captain of a river sloop. His boating experi- 
ence proved a valuable asset. He was tall, 
broad, muscular and had a commanding pres- 
ence. His force of character was great ; his 
will power strong-; his speech sharp and deci- 
sive : his manner genial : his action quick and 

Taverns 257 

positive. His physical powers were large ; he 
could lift a heavy barrel of cider by the chimes 
and carry it into the cellar. He deserved and 
received respect from all. He admirably filled 
the very difficult position of tavernkeeper dur- 
ing- stirring- and trying- times and until fail- 
ing* health forced him to retire. He was for 
more than a quarter of a century in the har- 
ness. This, too, during- an eventful period in 
the history of the State and nation. The sec- 
ond war with Great Britain was fought. 
Rhinebeck sons did their duty in this war. 
The Schells, De Lamaters, Platts, were then 
on the flatts. Martin Van Buren became the 
"Sage of Kinderhook," filled many State 
offices up to governor; then United States 
senator, minister, vice-president, and finally 
reached the goal, the presidency. He and 
his political friends were frequent guests of 
Jacques. The "old hotel" was a rendezvous 
for politicians. By the way of Rhinebeck 
his trusted followers easily reached him. 
Peter R. Livingston of "Grasmere" was 
also a leader of note. He had a national rep- 
utation. He was at the tavern almost daily. 
It was a headquarters for his friends. Gen. 
Armstrong lived there for a time. This period 
was the heyday of the road traveler, horse- 
back rider, the stage coach and the post road. 

258 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

Rhinebeck village was a thriving- and grow- 
ing community. The tavern was a powerful 
magnet. The "White Corner" was built. 

The frame annex to the hotel was rebuilt 
first for an enlarged store, but soon after- 
wards, because of increasing business, it was 
used for hotel purposes. The "old hotel" 
kept pace with the times. "Aunt Polly" 
(Mrs. Jacques), assisted by her handsome 
daughters, was queen of the establishment; 
her son, Benjamin, was clerk ; " Dinah " ruled 
the kitchen, and black Joe looked after the 
stables. The equipment was perfect in every 
detail. Rhinebeck, soon after the advent of 
the steamboat, became an important market 
town. Two barges made weekly trips to New 
York city. Market day drew crowds to the 
village ; its trade drained the northern and 
eastern sections of the county. Jacques' 
tavern was the headquarters of drovers^ 
traders, buyers and sellers for many years. 

As usual death made inevitable changes. 
The captain and his son, Benjamin, died. 
In 1837 Jacob H. Tremper became the land- 
lord, with " Wash " Nichols, clerk. Tremper 
became better known afterwards as "Capt. 
Jake " of the Romer & Tremper Steamboat 
Company of Rondout. He was popular and 
successful in the "old hotel," but preferred 

Taverns 259 

steamboating. In 1840 he was succeeded by 
Robert T. Seymour, son-in-law of the well- 
remembered Capt. and Mrs. Jacques. "Bob" 
was his sobriquet. A genial, popular, whole- 
souled man, he knew how to run a hotel, and 
for fourteen years he did it. It was a jolly 
place during- this period. Dr. Lorillard, 
" Billy " James, " Mose " Conger, " Lew " 
Teal, "Cris" Darling- and a host of other 
congenial and convivial spirits made it a 
pleasant resort, and under the eye of the ever- 
present "Bob," good-natured sport was not 
lacking- to drive away dull care. A thriving 
village had come on the flatts. The Mexican 
war, the California gold fever, the hard-cider 
and Tippecanoe tight of 1840, the Clay-Polk 
battle in 1844, and the free-soil campaign of 
1848 were exciting- events, and the " old 
hotel " witnessed many notable gatherings 
of the clans. The big men of the times vis- 
ited Rhine beck, and the people were always 
interested and never one-sided on public ques- 

Until May 1, 1848, the property had been 
owned by Elisha R. Potter of Kingston, 
Rhode Island. He sold it to Garret Van 
Keuren, Henry De Lamater and William B. 
Piatt. Three families, Traphagen, Bogardus, 
Potter, owned it prior to .1848. Gen. John A. 

260 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

Quitman, a Rhinebecker by birth, was a Mex- 
ican war hero, and the town furnished a dozen 
or more forty-niners. Seymour determined 
to "go west" ; in 1853 the tavern had a new 
landlord, Oliver V. Doty, who remained for 
two years. He was followed by David F. 
Sipperly, a brother-in-law of Martin L. Mar- 
quart, who had purchased the hotel property. 
Marquart built the building- now owned and 
occupied by William E. Luff, on the hotel lot. 
Edward Pultz followed Sipperly. Then came 
Hunting- Germond. Short stays seemed to be 
the rule from 1853 to 1860. 

Then another never-to-be-forgotten, ever- 
memorable period in the nation's history was 
reached. Burnett M. Conklin and his father- 
in-law, Lansing- T. Mosher, a tavernkeeper 
from Milan, in 1860, succeeded Germond. The 
Lincoln-Douglas canvas of that year stirred 
the old town as never before, and brought to 
the front two of the town's most prominent 
citizens : Hon. William Kelly of Eilerslie, who 
became the Douglas candidate for governor, 
and Hon. Ambrose Wager, who was named 
on the same ticket for Congress. Worthy, 
deserving men, with hosts of supporters. 
Partizans joined the "Little Giants" or 
" Wide- A wakes," according to their political 
faith, and a battle royal was waged daily 

Taverns 261 

until election. The " old hotel " was, per 
force, neutral ground, and for weeks prior to 
election day was filled with visiting- citizens 
from the north, south, east and west. Cir- 
cumstances made it a storm centre. Excite- 
ment ran high in town, county, State and 
nation, and did not wane when the result was 
known, for then the dark cloud of Civil war 
commenced to spread, and as the "old hotel " 
completed' a century of existence, the country 
was engulfed in bloody conflict, and Rhine- 
beck boys went forth to do battle for the 
integrity of the Union and the defence of the 
flag of our country. 

In 1862-4 James N. McElroy was the land- 
lord. He was followed by Griffin Hoffman, 
who had been a successful farmer, and was 
possessed of some means. He made extensive 
improvements ; placed lawns, flower beds and 
walks in front ; planted trees, using what had 
been the road in earlier times for the purpose, 
giving- the entrance a yard appearance. He 
reconstructed the building, making- sleep- 
ing rooms on the upper floor. He sold to 
the town the plot on the south where the 
town hall now stands. He remained until 
1873. During his occupancy the Greeley- 
Whitehouse campaign of 1872 made exciting 
times in the town and about the hotel. The 

202 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

Whitehouse-Ketchara contest will be long- 
remembered. In 1883 the Tremper brothers 
came. For ten years they ran an acceptable 
house, but were unsuccessful in the latter 
part of the term. 

Griffin Hoffman, the owner, returned for 
a short period, followed by the well-liked 
Lorenzo Decker, an experienced hotelkeeper. 
While he was in charge, in 1888, the Har- 
rison-Morton campaign gave Rhinebeck a 
boom. Levi. P. Morton, a resident, was the 
candidate for vice-president. He was then 
living at "Bois Dore," a few yards from the 
"old hotel." When notified of his nomina- 
tion Gen. Harrison was with him, and the 
"old hotel" was filled as never before with 
representative men from all parts of the 
country. Harrison and Morton were elected^ 
and for four years the second office, in rank, 
was ably filled by a Rhinebecker. In 1894 
Mr. Morton, who then resided at Ellerslie, was 
nominated and elected governor of the State, 
and again "ye olde town" was crowded with 
statesmen of more or less prominence both 
before and after the election. Most of them 
were entertained at the "old hotel." Gov. 
Morton made an ideal executive, and was the 
choice of his State in 1896 for the presidency. 
The name of Morton is cherished by those 

Taverns 203 

who love "ye olcle town/' as that of its first 
citizen. The good he and his family have 
unostentatiously done will live after them. 

Mr. Decker remained until 1891, when he 
opened the "Rhinebeck Inn/' on Livingston 
street, in the building- formerly the " De 
Garmo Institute/' Edward Lasher took 
charge of the hotel, and remained until 1893 ; 
then E. M. Vanderburgh had it for a short 
time, until Vernon D. Lake took possession in 
1894. Mr. Lake was a popular host. Under 
his supervision the "old hotel" prospered. 
Modern improvements were introduced, and 
up-to-date methods employed in the manage- 
ment. Automobiles came in vogue. Parties 
adopting this mode of travel kept the "old 
hotel " filled with livery and merry guests. 
Good beds, good meals, good service at 
Lake's assured a full house. Ill health forced 
Mr. Lake to retire, and in 1906 Halleck Welles 
tried his hand, followed by the present genial 
proprietor, Arthur Shuffle, in 1907. 



" How often have I paused on every charm — 
The shelter'd cot, the cultivated farm, 
The never-failing brook, the busy mill, 
The decent church that topp'd the neighboring hill/ 7 


WILLIAM TRAPHAGEN is responsible 
for the location of the village. The 
Kings highway made it possible. Traphagen 
had purchased, in 1706, of Judge Beekman, 
all the land west of this highway, bounded 
north, south and west by the two creeks. In 
1709 he erected the first house in the present 
village, near the intersection of the Sepasco 
road to the river, with the highway. (See 
page 246.) Traphagen was a mechanic, but 
circumstances soon made him a tavernkeeper. 
The two thoroughfares of the times forced 
travelers to his abode. He had to provide for 
their wants. Food, shelter and drink were 
necessaries. He could and did furnish them. 
This condition continued for many years. A 
village grew near his tavern. The blacksmith, 
the shoemaker, the tailor, the waggoner, 
and the handicraftsmen generally, found the 

The Village 265 

localit}^ convenient for their trades. By 1720 
"the flatts," as he called his purchase, had 
developed in a marked degree. Traphagen had 
erected a mill for Col. Henry Beekman, beside 
the highway, on the north bank of Landsman 
kill, below the Sepasco road, and at the foot 
of Mill hill. William Schut was the miller. 
Traphagen opened a wheelwright and black- 
smith shop adjacent to his tavern. He did 
jobbing and building. He was handy and 
skillful as an artisan. 

The farmers wanted many things that he 
could make or get for them. His tavern and 
shop became popular. The first, because the 
hungry and thirsty found shelter and comfort 
there with plenty to eat and drink ; and the 
latter because required repairs were promptly 
and properly made, odd jobs done and needed 
supplies furnished to order. On Saturday 
evenings the burghers and farmers of the 
vicinity came to the tavern to gossip and 
fraternize. Traphagen accepted pork, butter, 
eggs, poultry, potatoes, grain or other eat- 
able commodities in exchange for work and 
wares. He knew a thing or two. He pros- 

Prior to 1730 a minister of the Dutch Re- 
formed church frequently held services on 
Sunday in his tavern. Traphagen was a 

2 66 Historic Oh J Ehinebeck 

member of that church. Conditions continued 
to improve on the flatts, and in 1730 it was 
decided to have a church. Laurens Osterhout, 
Jacob Kip and William Traphag-en, for them- 
selves, and " the rest of the inhabitants of the 
North Ward in Dutchess County/' obtained a 
deed of gift of forty-six and one-half acres of 
land from Col. Henry Beekman for church 
purposes. (See pages 125-7.) The land is 
now covered with houses on the easterly end 
of the village, and is known as the church 
land. The occupants pay rent to the church. 

The church was erected soon after under 
Traphagen's supervision. It was on the site 
of the present "Old Dutch church." Simon 
(Kool) Cole was the first merchant in the 
present town. He was a grandson of William 
Traphagen. His father's name was Isaac 
Kool, his mother's Geesje Traphagen. His 
parents succeeded Traphag-en as tavernkeep- 
ers in 1740, when he died, and on June 25, 
1741, Geesje's brothers, Arent and William, 
deeded to her the "home lot" on which the 
tavern stood. They continued the wheel- 
wright and smithery business of their father. 
They had assisted him in tavern and shop for 
many years. 

William Schut's house was a small frame 
affair neat' the east end of the pond lot. This 

The Village 2GT 

lot contained about twenty acres of land, and 
was the miller's grange. He cleared and 
worked it. Bounded by the Kings highway 
on the west, the Sepasco road on the north, 
the church lands on the east, and the kill and 
pond on the south, it was compact. The 
"pond lot," as it was named, served for many 
years as the village park. Circuses and tent 
shows used it. On general training days it 
was the drilling- ground. Games and sports 
were enjoyed there by "the boys" and spec- 
tators. It is now covered with attractive 
homes, but the memory of the old pond lot 
still lingers. 

The Schut house was removed, after the 
revolution, across Sepasco road to the lot 
opposite. When Centre street was opened it 
faced on that street. It was used at one time 
for a school, then a store, and it is remem- 
bered by this writer as the abode, fifty years 
or so ago, of one William (Billy) Porter, an 
eccentric character of the town. It was finally 
torn down, and Cornelius A. Rynders erected 
a dwelling near its site, which is there now. 
A stone house was erected about 1735 for the 
miller on the side hill above the mill. This 
was removed about 1880 by Lewis Asher. 

A man named Wibling succeeded Schut as 
miller. He and his wife, Sarah, lived in the 

2G8 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

miller's house. Here Col. Beekman met and 
transacted business with his tenants. 

The mill was the depot of cereal deposit for 
a large section of country. The tenants on 
the farms paid their rent in wheat for a long" 
time at the mill. Col. Beekman often fur- 
nished horses, cattle, swine and sheep ; also 
necessary tools, seeds, plows and other imple- 
ments for farming-, and took his pay in farm 

The following - copy receipt furnished this 
writer in 1870 by Henry Latson is interesting. 
It was made at the mill. Mrs. Wibling was 
the wife of the miller. 

" Dutchess County, May 25, 1738. This day made up 
accounts Between Col. Henry Beekman And Peter 
Dinel And Ballanced By me. 

Sarah Wibling. 

To a bottle wine 2 sh after making up accounts." 

At this time we find many farmers around 
the flatts. Tunis Pier had a farm east of the 
church land and south of the kill. His first 
house w T as a square pit dug in the ground, 
cellar fashion, six or seven feet deep, about 
twenty-five feet long, and ten or twelve feet 
wide. The entrance was made on the south 
side or end. This pit was cased with logs to 
prevent caving in. A sort of mud mortar 
made the sidewalls. Whitewash improved 

The Village 269 

them. Planks were used for flooring-, wains- 
coting and ceiling*. Openings in the gables let 
in light and air. Spars made the roof. These 
were covered with bark and sod. Partitions 
divided this room into two or more apart- 
ments. We are told that such structures 
were warm and dry, and could be adapted to 
any sized family. Many houses of this kind 
were built in the town by the earhy comers. 
They disappeared in a generation. 

In 1764 a son of Tunis Pier built a stone 
house south of the kill. A stone, inscribed 
"W. T. P., 1764," fixes this date. Another 
son, Jan Pier, erected a stone house on the 
Sepasco road before the revolution. This 
house is now owned and occupied by Jacob L. 
Tremper. There is a stone, inscribed "Jan 
Pier, 1774," but there is reason to believe this 
was placed in an addition to the first house 
built several years earlier. This property, in 
1790, was owned by Isaac Davis, who erected 
a mill on it. In 1739 Christoffel Cramer 
became the owner by purchase from Col. 
Beekman, of the farm on the north side of 
the Sepasco road, in recent years the property 
of George F. Cookingham. He built a stone 
house on it soon afterwards. 

Johannes Benner's house was on the Kings 
highway below Beek man's second mill, and 

270 Historic Old K/tut check 

was on land he leased of Col. Beekman in 
1739. It was probably erected in 1740. In 
recent years it was the property of Mrs. Ann 
O'Brien. Benner's land included the Schell- 
Clark property on the post road. 

In 1730 lands on "the flatts " were laid out 
by Garret Van Wag-en en for Coh Beekman, 
described as being- "in Dutchess County, in 
the North Ward, situated on the southwest- 
erly side of a large plain near the river grist 
mill of the said Henry Beekman." This cov- 
ered the church site and farm ; present ceme- 
tery grounds ; Grasmere land on both sides of 
the Kings highway as far as Staatsburg-h. It 
was for the "Low Dutchers " the land was 
laid out. The tenants built houses near or con- 
venient to Beekman's upper and lower mills. 

The first four mills erected were of the 
Traphag'en desig-n. An oblong* frame building*, 
about 30x40, two stories in height. A peeked 
roof and a larg-e overshot wheel on end gable. 
Double doors in front on each floor and a 
window on each side of the doors. Three 
windows on sides on each floor. A block and 
fall on the second floor front. Mechanics were 
at hand to do required work. 

Ananias Teel was a waggoner. A man 
named Phillips," a cooper; Johannes Ber- 
ringer, a seinemaker : Jury Shever, a shoe- 

The Village 271 

maker ; Laurens Teder, a mason ; Henry 
Shop, a saddle and harnessmaker ; Jacob Van 
Ostrander, a linen weaver ; J. Jury Cremer, 
a tailor; Johannes Van Steenburgh, a gun- 
smith ; Johan Christover Armburster, a tan- 
ner ; Jacobus Van Etten, a cordwainer; Wil- 
liam Traphagen, Jr., a wheelwright ; Jacob 
Drum, a blacksmith ; John Kip, a carpenter. 

Where the town pump was located for over 
a century was a spring. The ground was low 
and wet. A small stream ran west from this 
spring-, bearing south until near the black- 
smith and wagonmakers' shops below, where 
it turned south from the.Sepasco trail or 
road leading to the river. This was the Trap- 
hagen spring and brook. It emptied into 
Landsman kill. The ground along its course 
was low, springy and wet. The spring water 
was pure and cool, and used for drinking by 
the Indians and white men when near it. 
Because of the low, web ground the highway 
was laid out west of it. Traphagen, about 
1712, made a stone wall around it to protect 
it, and the low ground was gradually raised 
by filling in until it was necessary to use a 
bucket and sweep to lift the water. A log' 
roughly hollowed out was placed near it for a 
trough. For fifty years this was the " water 
works" of the locality. About 1762 Arent 

272 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

Traphag*en, Jr., cleaned, deepened and re- 
walled it and put in a suction pump of home 
make. For over one hundred years it did 
service on the Traphag-en plan. 

The town pump described on pages 93-4-5 

became the centre of a growing villagre before 
the revolution. The tavern shown on page 
250 : the red store on the east side of the high.- 
way and Sepasco road, and its rival opposite 
on the south ; the workshops along- the road 

The Village 273 

and highway ; the travel north, south, east 
and west, focused around the pump, the busi- 
ness of a prosperous and growing- settlement. 
William Traphagen had planned well, but did 
not live to see the result. His grandson, 
Arent, Jr., the tavernkeeper, was there, and 
must have viewed the outlook with pride. 
Simon (Kool) Cole, a merchant, and the 
wheelwright and blacksmith, were also his 
grandsons. The flatts and the Traphagens 
were gradually but surely' making a village. 
In shape it formed the letter T, which stood 
for Traphagen. The perpendicular was the 
road to the river, the horizontal the Kings 
highway, the pump the junction. Dr. Ana- 
nias Cooper, north of the Hog bridge, and 
Dr. Hans Kierstead, just starting, on the 
flatts, were the physicians. Everardus Bo- 
gardus, a storekeeper on the highway south 
of the pump, became the tavernkeeper at 
the "old hotel" in 1769. 

This condition continued until and during 
the Revolutionary war. William Traphagen, 
Jr., and his brother-in-law, Isaac Kool, had 
built the lower grist mill on the flatts in 
1750, and Isaac Kool and his son, Simon, Jr., 
operated it. Dominie Van Voorhees was the 
minister at the Dutch church. Col. Henry 
Beekman was justice of the peace and law 

274 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

giver of the precinct until his death, in 1776. 
He was succeeded by William Radcliffe. Wil- 
liam Beam was the precinct clerk from 1766 
to 1785. The story of this period has been 
told in preceding- chapters. The next one 
hundred years witnessed greater develop- 
ment than the first hundred. 

By 1790 the demand for more room for vil- 
lage expansion led to the opening of a street 
from the pump east to the church farm. The 
extension through the flatts became Market 
street. A map was made by John Cox, Jr., 
for Mrs. Gen. Montgomery, the owner, who 
was then living at Grasmere. She lived, at 
the time of the general's death in 1775, in a 
house on the premises now occupied by Mrs. 
A. F. Olmsted, on Montgomery street. This 
house is still standing, having been moved in 
1860 by Thomas Edgerley to upper Livingston 
street. The timber and lumber in it would 
build three or four houses of the same size 

Half way between the post road and the 
church land a street running north from the 
Sepasco road was opened. This came to be 
called Centre street. The post road north of 
Market street was given the name of Mont- 
gomery street in honor of the general. South 
it was called Mill street, because of the mills 

The Village 275 

at the foot of the hill. North of Market 
street, and parallel with it, a street was made 
on the Cox map running from the post road 
east to the church land, which was later given 
the name of Livingston. 

The lots east of the pump on Market street 
were about one acre each in size. The north- 
east corner of the post and Sepasco roads was 
the church lot. Further north was a square 
lot which was purchased 03^ Koert and Henry 
Du Bois. This made the Market street cor- 
ner on the southeast. Further east another 
square lot, purchased by Levi Jones, a nephew 
of Mrs. Montgomery, made the southwest 
corner of Market and Centre streets. On the 
southeast corner of these streets Philip Bo- 
gardus bought a square. Rutsen Suckley, 
later, bought the one further east. On the 
southwest corner of East Market and Centre 
streets Alexander Baker erected, in 1845, the 
" Baker building," which for many years was 
occupied by Cyrus B. Morse as a factory. In 
1861 the present brick building was erected 
by Mr. Morse and called the "Union Iron 
Works." It became a busy corner. For sev- 
eral years a large number of men were em- 
ployed there. The spinning machinery for the 
new Harmony mills at Cohoes, in which Mr. 
Alfred Wild, then a resident of the town, was 

276 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

interested, was made by Mr. Morse, and at 
that time over one hundred and fifty men 
were employed. Machine work in all forms, 
and an iron, steel and brass foundry kept the 
men busy. In 1875, Capt. J. H. Baldwin 
bought the property, and engaged in the man- 
ufacture of the "Little Monitor" sewing ma- 
chine with a man named Du Laney. The 
venture was a failure. Frank Herrick then 
became its owner, and it is now occupied by 
T. J. Herrick, who conducts a flour, feed and 
lumber business there. John N. Cramer had 
a lumber yard west of it for many years. 

Returning to the pump, on the northeast 
corner, John T. Schryver and Tunis Conklin 
bought a lot which included the "red store." 
Next, east, a lot was bought by Gen. Arm- 
strong. Adjoining him Asa Potter bought a 
lot. Next, Frederick Kline bought one. On 
the north side of Market street, east of the 
post road, the lots were half a square in 
width and two squares in depth. The red 
building on the corner was a store and post- 
office in 1790, when the first census was taken. 
Asa Potter built a house on his lot, which 
later was the residence of Abraham Adriance, 
Koert Du Bois, Henry F. Talmage, Richard 
H. Ruggles, Mrs. Caroline Davison, and was 
finally purchased by Dr. Isaac F. Van Vliet. 







The Village 277 

He rebuilt the old house making" the building- 
no w there. East of it, and on a part of the 
Potter lot, after its purchase by Mrs. Davi- 
son, the dwellings, called "Livingston Row," 
were erected by Peter R. Livingston, he bu}'- 
ing* the land of her for the purpose. In the 
west end William Luff had his printing office, 
and the Gazette was printed there until 1871. 
On the Kline lot a store and dwelling were 
erected . H . & E . Hi! 1 carried on busin ess there 
for many years. Nicholas Drury lived next 
door, and Jacob Schaad had his livery and resi- 
dence there afterwards. Calvin Rikert is now 
there. All of the acre lots were subdivided, 
and the divisions have had several owners 
during the one hundred and twenty years 
that have passed. 

The Du Bois brothers had a store on their 
lot as early as 1800. A man named Spauld- 
ing had a tailor shop next to the Schry ver and 
Oonklin's corner opposite. Miner W. Sprague 
afterwards had a shoe store there ; George 
W. Hogan a cigar store. Further east Peter 
Brown and Christian Schell had a store where 
Louis Rosencrans is now located. Henry W. 
Mink, Peters G. and Peter R. Quick, Monfort 
and Westfall also kept store there. Nicholas 
Drury had his barber shop on these premises. 
Nathan W. H. Judson had his well-remem- 

278 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

bered tin and hardware store where Hamlin 
is now located. William Williams built the 
store now occupied by Williams & Traver. 
Adjoining-, Ira Kellogg had a hat store. 
The old landmark, Piatt 8c Nelson's drug- 
store and office, was next door to Judson's. 
This was the sanctum of village oracles. 

On the Du Bois square, John Fowkes, Chris- 
tian Schell, John Davis, William J. Styles, 
Peter Barnes, Henry and James Hoag, 
George Schryver, John Benner, Alexander 
Baker, Marshall E. A. Gear, James W. Jen- 
nings, Georg-e E, Ring, Stephen Jennings,, 
Cyrus B. Morse, Moses Ring-, Georg-e Fellows, 
John Drury, Alfred Drury, Edward Soper, 
John A. Bailey, Manson Pultz, William 
Peters, George E. Storm, John A. Van 
Steenberg-h, Carroll & Curtis, William Bates 
& Sons, M. L. Marquart, Nelson Nichols 
and others had carried on business. Some 
of them until the "big- fire," which occurred 
on Sunday morning, the ,8th day of May, 
1864. This fire made homeless many fami- 
lies, as well as destroying one-half of the 
business section of the village. It caused 
a reconstruction of the "corner." Brick, stone 
and iron were thence used for building. The 
accompaning picture shows the fire burning 
at sunrise on that eventful morning in May. 

280 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

On the ruins made by this destructive fire 
substantial brick structures soon appeared. 
The Styles' stores and dwelling- on Mill street. 
The Vonderlinden building- on the corner. 
The Latson, Van Steenbergh, Carroll, Bates 
and Marquart building's on East Market 
street. Enterprising- merchants occupied 
them. George E. Ring-, succeeded by Kill- 
mer & Slauson; then Sherwood had a gro- 
cery ; Isaac F. Collins & Son, a dry goods 
store in the Latson, with a dressmaking- and 
millinery parlor, and a printing office on the 
second floor, and the Masonic hall on the 
third. Van Steenbergh had his harness shop, 
and Barton & Williams a grocery, on his first 
floor, with dwelling's above. Carroll had his 
large furniture and undertaking business, 
with Ackert's shoe and hat store ; Edward 
Brooks, merchant tailor, and a dentist's par- 
lors and offices upstairs. 

Bates & Sons' building had their drygoods 
store ; Marquart's was occupied by Charles L. 
Morse, and then his successor, Dr. B. N. Baker, 
as a drugstore, with the Odd Fellows' hall on 
the upper floor, and a dwelling on the second. 

On the west side of the post road, north of 
the pump, was William Barnes' shoe shop, 
Butler & Bartholomew's market, then Crap- 
ser & Pells, John I. Smith's tailor shop, 

The Village 281 

Schoonmaker & Heermance's carriage fac- 
tory. Opposite were dwellings. Tammany 
Hall was above what is now Chestnut street. 
On page 90 an error is made in calling this 
street Livingston. Mr. Judson erected i ' Tem- 
perance hall " north of the red store. 

West of the pump John T. McCarty had a 
workshop and tinware store; John G. Os- 
trom a carriage works ; Robert D. Hevenor 
a blacksmith shop ; Edward Holdridge a 
paint shop ; William Bates a tinner's shop. 
Conrad Uhl, Henry C. Teal, John Hyslop, 
Joshua Traver, Bartholomew and Alonzo 
Noxon, expert mechanics, were located here. 
This was the old village beehive. Garden 
street, then a road, was filled with stage 
barns. Marquardt's bakery was on the cor- 
ner. A stage house adjoined it on the east, 
the Blue Bird line. Dr. Nelson's residence 
was below. William J. Stewart's on the Oak 
street corner. On the hill Barnet Wager 
followed Dr. Kiersted about 1836, and his son 
Ambrose and his grandson, Ambrose Lee, 
have continued in occupation since. On the 
north side of the road the Tellers have held 
sway for a century. Further west, Capt. Na- 
than Darling lived. At the toll-gate below 
the hill George Hagadorn was gatekeeper 
until the gate was removed. (See page 7G.) 

282 Historic Old Bhinebeck 

On the "red store " corner, John T. Schry- 
ver, Tunis Conklin, William Teller, Benjamin 
Schultz, John A. Drum, Henry De Lamater, 
Freeman Jennings, John M. Sandford, Wil- 
liam Bates, Simon Welch, were merchants 
from early times down to its rebuilding' by 
Charles R. Pultz, the successor of the old 
firm of Thompson & Pultz. It is now occu- 
pied by Harry Smilie and James Mulrein, 
plumbers, dealers in hardware, builders' sup- 
plies, etc. A busy corner. 

The store annex of the "old hotel " had for 
occupants Asa Potter, Henry F. Talmage, 
Smith Dunning-, John G. Ostrom, Isaac F. 
Russell, George Bard and William Bates, 
merchants who sold dryg-oods, groceries, etc. 

Then Christian Schell built the renowned 
"White Corner." Here Aug-ustus and Rich- 
ard Schell were initiated in the political mys- 
teries of the day, having- for their instructors 
the redoubtable "Little Mag-ician," the sage 
of Kinderhook, Martin Van Buren, and his 
friend and pupil, Samuel J. Tilden. They 
were apt students. Their political career is 
part of the history of the State. This store 
soon became the business forum of "yeolde 
town." Henry De Lamater and William B. 
Piatt, starting- as clerks, succeeded Schell as 
merchants. The postoffice was in this store 




The Village 283 

for years. It was also the village bank, hav- 
ing- connection with a Poughkeepsie bank. De 
Lamater and Piatt were looked upon as pru- 
dent, careful, reliable men in the conduct of 
business affairs. Their advice was constantly 
sought by farmers and mechanics from far 
and near. Dr. Martin Freleigh had his office 
in the west end of the building. Succeeding 
Mr. Piatt came Alfred Drury, then Drury & 
Cramer, James C. Hamlin and Andrew Grube. 
On the west end the bank was located for sev- 
eral years. The "white corner" was a lead- 
ing factor in town, village and county affairs. 
On the north was a frame annex used for 
many purposes. West was the Teller store, 
for many years kept by William S. Cowles 
& Company ; later by David E. Ackert ; 
now by Mrs. Gaul. 

The act incorporating the village was 
passed in 1834 and amended in 1867. The 
first election under it was held on the 2Gth of 
May, 1834, and the officers elected were as 
follows : Trustees, Eliphalet Piatt, Peter 
Pultz, John Drury, John I. Smith, John T. 
Schryver, Jacob Heermance, John Jennings; 
assessors, John A. Drum, Theophilus Nelson, 
Stephen McCarty ; treasurer, Nicholas Drury. 
On the 17th of June following, John T. Schry- 
ver was elected president of the board of 

284 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

trustees, and Nicholas V. Schryver, secretary. 
The president appointed John Drury, John 
Jennings and Peter Pultz a committee to 
ascertain and report the extent of sidewalks 
necessary to be flagged ; John I. Smith, John 
Drury and John Jennings a committee on fire, 
and Eliphalet Piatt, John Drury and Jacob 
Heermance a committee on nuisances. 

For seventy-five years the village has been 
well officered and managed under its charter. 
Elections are held annually. Appropriations 
for expenses are limited, and must be voted 
by the taxpayers. For benefits obtained the 
taxes are small. The village tells the story 
of its development. Strangers passing through 
it involuntarily exclaim, " Beautiful!" Vis- 
itors never tire of singing its praises. There 
it is; it needs no enconiums. Editor Strong, 
in the Gazette, truthfully and tersely says 
of it: 

"The village of Rhinebeck is 200 feet above 
sea level; population, 1,G00; the village of 
homes and business combined ; the parlor of 
Dutchess county and the vacation spot of 
hundreds of cit} 7 people. Every corner is a 
beauty spot. It has paved streets, two banks, 
six churches, a Y. M. C. A. branch, a board 
of trade, a weekly paper, pure water in plenty, 
the oldest hotel in America, day and night 

The Village 285 

electric light and power service, one theatre, 
adequate schools and fire protection, good 
government and an exceptionally good public 
library. In fact, everything- that any well- 
regulated village of 2,000 inhabitants is 
expected to have, it has. It is the centre of 
the violet growing" industry, and supplies all 
markets east of the Mississippi river with the 
blooms. Two railroads pass through the town 
limits, the New York Central and the Central 
New England, and the service is the best." 

In addition it has ferry connection with the 
city of Kingston. The Thompson Home, a 
combined hospital and home for the sick, 
aged, infirm and unfortunate. It needs a 
sewer system for sanitary reasons, and a 
trolley connection with the county seat, 

It has an electric plant, named the Dutchess 
Light, Heat and Power Company. The di- 
rectors are Frank Herrick, Dr. George N. 
Miller, M. V. B. Schryver, T. A. Traver, Tracy 
Dows, A. Lee Wager and R. Raymond Rikert. 

It has a coal company to provide the people 
with that necessary fuel. The directors are 
Dr. George N. Miller, Frank Herrick, M. V. 
B. Schryver, T. A. Traver, A. Lee Wager 
and R. Raymond Rikert. 

It has a water company that furnishes an 

286 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

adequate and very satisfactory supply of pure 
water for all required purposes. This com- 
pany has solved a serious problem that con- 
fronted the village. 

It has a realty and development company; 
its object being- to open and develop available 
land in the village for the building of homes. 
Dr. George N. Miller, Frank Herrick, Theo- 
dore de la Porte and R. Raymond Rikert are 
interested in it. 

Mr. R. Raymond Rikert is the efficient sec- 
retary of all the companies named. 


What became known as general training 
clays had early origin in "ye olde town." A 
Capt. Cyrus De Hart located here soon after 
the revolution. His name is on the census of 
1790. In his family were four males over six- 
teen, one under; three females and one slave. 
He brought with him his warhorse. He was 
very proud of it ; loved it as if it was a son. 
Under his direction training day was regu- 
larly observed. Capt. De Hart, with his gay 
trappings, soldiery bearing, full of martial 
valor, mounted on his big dapple gray horse 
of war-like spirit, would have attracted atten- 
tion and commanded respect anywhere. The 
horse was indeed a noble steed. In its war- 

The Village 


dress it pranced and curvetted over the 
parade ground, the admiration of all. Capt. 

De Hart was an able drill officer. The picture 
shows him drilling- a squad. 

288 Historic Old Bhinebeck 

Capt. Nathan Darling, an officer who had 
some experience in the Florida Indian wars, 
settled in the town. This was about 1838. 
He had charge on general training days for 
several years. He occupied the Darling lot on 
the west side of Teller's hill, and introduced 
many southern ideas in way of living. He had 
one or two Indian. servants. He was a protege 
of Martin Yan Buren. 

He was active in town affairs and a forcible 
politician. In 1855 he was elected doorkeeper 
of the house of representatives. In Wash- 
ington he had an extensive acquaintance. 
Two Khinebeckers, James C. McCarty and 
George A. Mann, were given appointments 
under him. Andrew Z. McCarty, brother of 
James C, was a member of that Congress. 

The well-remembered Col., afterwards Gen. 
John Watts De Peyster, also took great 
interest in training days and military displays 
in the village. He was always on hand at 
fourth of July celebrations as master of cere- 
monies. His "general orders" were worth 

Capt. De Hart's warhorse must not be 
forgotten. He, in 1807, laid himself down 
and died, to the great grief of his owner. 
Most persons would have merely hitched a 
rope to the animal's neck, dragged him away 

The Village 289 

to some secluded hollow, and there uncere- 
moniously put him out of their sight; but 
not so did Capt. De Hart. He shocked the 
" Dutchers " by claiming- that horses had souls 
as well as people, especially if they were 
good horses. He further insisted his defunct 
war-steed should be clothed in his armor and 
buried with military honors. Great prepara- 
tions were made for the funeral ceremony. 
Two or three companies of militia assembled, 
full-plumed, each member wearing crape 
around his left arm. They formed on each 
side of the vehicle on which reposed the body 
of the horse, and the procession moved for- 
ward to the sound of martial music. Capt. 
De Hart followed behind, in the capacity of 
chief mourner. He was buried near what is 
now the Driving park, in the village. A 
strange coincidence but a deserved tribute to 
a good horse. 

Arrived at the place of interment the mili- 
tary surrounded the grave, and as the horse 
was being lowered into his last resting place, 
the band played the "Dead March in Saul." 
A deep hole had been dug, into which the ani- 
mal was placed in a standing position. He 
was clad in all the usual trappings that were 
wont to grace his form in the days of his 
strength. Solemnly the earth was closed 

290 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

over him ; a mound was made over the spot, 
and covered with green turf. The race-course 
was unconsciously located near his grave ; 
it can be surmised that his ghost still haunts 
the vicinity, and infuses a little of his old 
mettle into the equines racing there. At 
an exhibition of wax-works in the village, in 
1859, De Hart's warhorse appeared to the 
audience, clad in his armor; and so life-like 
did he seem that one was almost ready to 
admit he had really broke away from the 
grave, and was again ready for service. 

All able-bodied white male citizens between 
the ages of eighteen and forty-five, and not 
exempt for cause, were required to appear 
annually on a fixed date for muster and drill. 
This was known as general training. Failing 
to attend subjected the delinquent to a pen- 
alty. The drill grounds were either the hotel 
lot or the pond lot. Training days became 
holidays. They rivaled circus days. Festiv- 
ities were not lacking ; amusements were 
provided, and the occasion was made popular 
in many ways. The huckster did a thriving 
business. Mrs. Bell made molasses candy 
and popcorn cakes. Schutt, the baker, gin- 
gerbread. O'Harra, root beer, and these 
popular delicacies have been talked about 
ever since. These trainings were of no ad- 

The Village 291 

vantage in fitting men for military duty. As 
a general frolic they were a success. About 
1849, an organized militia was provided for, 
divided into companies, regiments, brigades 
of infantry, cavalry and artillery. Rhinebeck 
had its home company, which was a part of 
the twentieth regiment. 


This tavern was erected about 1800 by 
Abram Brinckerhoff for a stage house. Large 
barns were connected with it. Until 1801 it 
was reached from the Sepasco road. In that 
year a street was carried through the church 
lands, which made East Market street as it 
now is. Because of this tavern, the church 
land on September 2, 1801, was released from 
the restriction forbidding occupancy by liquor 
sellers, peddlers, etc. Peter Pultz, a respected 
citizen, succeeded Brinckerhoff. He had an 
interesting family, and Pultz's tavern became 
a town institution, rivaling the "old hotel." 
It had its own clientele. The "Yellow Bird" 
stage line quartered there. No pains were 
spared to attract custom. 

Novelty in entertainment or instruction 
was one of the variety of uses to which the 
Pultz tavern was put from its earliest days. 
Within its walls there was a constant mov- 

292 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

ing panorama; before its doors distinguished, 
picturesque and unwonted guests passed and 
repassed. For those on duty or pleasure bent 
it was a gathering- place. It was the centre 
of life and affairs for a large section. Here 
the local judge and jury settled the disputes 
of the neighborhood. The eminent stranger, 
the humblest wayfarer, the lowliest citizen, 
were entertained alike. Its assembly room 
for years was the exhibition place of travel- 
ing shows and the ballroom of the town. Its 
popularity waned after the retirement of Mr. 
Pultz, because of old age. It was given the 
name of the "Bowe^ House," and is still 
standing, but no longer a tavern. 


Rhinebeck was a business centre in its early 
days. Its products had a market. Its me- 
chanics had fame. In cereals its mills had a 
large trade. The name Linwood, Rutsen, 
Wurtemburgh, Ellerslie, Hobbs, on bag or 
barrel, was a recognized guarantee of merit. 
The fulling and paper mills equaled the best 
in their line of work. In the manufac- 
ture of what to-day is called colonial or 
antique furniture ; chairs, tables, sofas, bed- 
steads, bureaus, stands, etc., the homes of 
the old families from New York to Albany, 

The Village 293 

and even in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, 
bear evidence of the skill of Rhinebeck cabinet 
makers. It was an extensive industry, and in 
its prime as many as fifty experts at the trade 
were engaged in production. Pieces of furni- 
ture made in "ye olde town" by Uhl, Zerfus, 
Merfelt, McCarty, Barnes, Morse, Quick, 
Hanabergh, Teal, Carroll, and other of the 
old-school mechanics, bring fabulous prices 
to-day. Shipments of chairs, bureaus, etc., 
were made to distant places. In 1843 a boat 
was loaded at the Slate dock to carry a cargo 
to Charleston, South Carolina. In the mak- 
ing of vehicles the town had no superior. 
Fine carriages, coaches, wagons and sleighs 
of all kinds, bearing the Rhinebeck mark, 
were in use throughout the New England and 
Middle States. The name of John G. Ostrom, 
as maker, was sufficient to sell a wagon or 
sleigh at a good price. Hyslop, Schoonmaker, 
Heermance, Hevenor, Holdridge, Noxon and 
Bates, names of good mechanics connected 
with the vehicle trade, are remembered. 
Rhinebeck work was sought for. The supply 
never met the demand. Marquart's rakes, 
harrows and plows satisfied the farmers. 
Kellogg's hats, Betterton's boots and shoes, 
Smith's clothes, found wearers in remote sec- 
tions. Their reputation as skilled workmen 

294 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

reached far and wide. For sash, blinds and 
doors, northern Dutchess, Columbia and 
Ulster county came to Rhinebeck. In tin- 
ware a dozen peddlers' wagons traversed the 
country, obtaining their supply from Rhine- 
beck makers. Styles cared for the clocks, 
watches and silverware of the neighborhood. 
The cooperage business was very extensive, 
the tubs, pails, barrels, casks, kegs, made by 
Jennings, Paulding, Row, Traver, and others, 
found a ready sale, and kept a large force of 
mechanics constantly busy. In leather goods, 
the Drurys, followed by Van Steenbergh, met 
the demand of those who would have only the 
best. The blacksmiths, carpenters, painters 
and masons of the town were experts in their 
trades. Business problems were met and 
solved without difficulty prior to the Civil 
war. Brainy mechanics lived in Rhinebeck. 


Through the efforts of Henry De Lamater, 
William B. Piatt, William Kelly, N. W. H. 
Judson and others the "Bank of Rhinebeck " 
was incorporated, in 1853, with a capital of 
one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Mr. 
De Lamater was its first president, succeeded 
by Mr. Piatt, and then Edwin Hill. Each 
served as long as life or health permitted. 




The Village 295 

John D. Judson is now president. The cash- 
iers were De Witt C. Marshall, John T. 
Banker, William M. Sayre, James H. Thorn, 
William H. Sen oil, and now William H. Jud- 
son. It became a national hank soon after 
the enactment of that banking- law. Its tellers 
and bookkeepers have been Horatio Fowkes, 
George A. Cramer, Henry C. Carroll, Wil- 
liam H. Thorn, Philip F. Radcliffe. It is, and 
always has been, a well-managed and pros- 
perous institution. Its report at close of 
business, Jury 15, 1908, showed resources, 
$458,852.03; deposits, $193,065.02; surplus, 
$25,000 ; undivided profits, $29,901.57. It has 
a fine banking house on Mill street, valued, 
with furniture and fixtures, at $14,000. It 
has proved a sheet anchor to the merchant, 
manufacturer and others in time of need. 

The great panic of 1857 laid low some of 
the strongest financial institutions of the day. 
Among the incidents of this terrible time was 
the suspension of the payment of specie by 
nearly all the banks of the country. It was 
the proud boast of the Bank of Rhine beck 
officials that their bank was one of two banks 
in the State of New York that never sus- 
pended specie payment. The other bank was 
the great Chemical Bank of New York city, 
a bank of most extraordinary strength. 

29G Historic Old Rhinebeck 

The currency issued by the Bank of Rhine- 
beck, like that of its cotemporaries, had an 
average circulation of so many days, and found 
its way back to the bank mostly through its 
redeeming agent in New York city, the Me- 
chanics Bank, then one of the strongest banks 
in the great metropolis. As the panic pro- 
gressed the life of the note in circulation be- 
came shorter and shorter, and the pile of bills 
in vaults became larger and larger. A sug- 
gestion was made by an officer of the bank 
that relieved the situation very materially. 
He proposed that $25,000 of these bills be 
sent to the bank department in Albany, ask- 
ing that the bills be retired and $25,000 of 
stock be returned to the bank. This had 
never been done before, and most of the offi- 
cials argued that it couldn't be done, but 
finally bills representing $25,000 were packed 
up and expressed to the department. The 
latter promptly responded, and soon $25,000 
in New York State bonds, then the only 
security taken for the issue of bills, was in 
hand. It was at once sent to New York, 
sold and put to the credit of the Bank of 
Rhinebeck. This stayed the flood of bills for 
a period, and then more cash was necessary. 
At that time there were less than half a dozen 
stocks that could be sold without serious 

The Village 297 

depreciation. Among- these was Delaware & 
Hudson Canal Company stock, which was as 
firm as a rock. 

One day, Hon. William Kelly, the owner 
of Ellerslie, and as fine a replica of an En- 
glish nobleman as could be found in a year's 
travel, came driving up to the bank, of which 
he was a director. Upon entering he took 
from his pocket a large envelope, and hand- 
ing it to the cashier, said, " There, send that 
to New York, and sell it for the bank's ben- 
efit. You can replace it to me when the 
trouble is over." There were $14,000, face 
value, in the bundle of Delaware & Hudson 
stock, and it stiffened up affairs so the with- 
drawal of currency was met, and everything 
went right until matters resumed their nor- 
mal character. But a Bank of Rhinebeck 
note commanded gold whenever presented. 


An institution that is the pride of the town 
is the "Rhinebeck Savings Bank." It was 
organized in 1862, during the Civil war period. 
Joshua C. Bowne was its first president, and 
Simon Welch, its secretary and treasurer. 
During the forty-six 3 7 ears of its existence it 
has well served the purpose of its organiza- 
tion. On July 1, 1908, its resources were 

298 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

$826,913.42. Its surplus, $39,430.73. It had 
on deposit, $774,117.62. It owns its banking 
house on Montgomery street, which is valued 
at $5,000. It is managed as a savings bank 
should be, conservatively and intelligently, 
with a due regard to the interests of the 
depositors. The officers in charge are men of 
experience, long connected with the bank. 
Augustus M. Traver is the president, and 
Thaddeus A. Traver the treasurer. 


When it became certain that the town had 
been successful in the bonding litigation, and 
was to escape that heavy burden of debt, it 
was advocated to erect a town hall to com- 
memorate the event. The story of "town 
bonding" is told in chapter XV. A special 
act of the Legislature was secured and an 
election was held. By a vote of 238 ayes 
to 128 nays it was decided to erect the hall at 
an expense of $20,000. It was built in 1873, 
under the direction of Ex-Supervisor Virgil 
C. Traver, who had served as supervisor dur- 
ing the bonding litigation. He was appointed 
by the town board construction superintend- 
ent. A better selection could not have been 
made. The site was purchased of Griffin 
Hoffman. The carpenter work was done by 


Granddaughter of Gen. Philip Schuyler; wife of Hon. William 
Starr Miller. Founder of the Starr Institute 


The Village 299 

Henry Latson, and the mason work by James 
D. Hogan and Rensaelear C. Worden, all 
home mechanics. The building* is an orna- 
ment to the village. The postofflce is located 
on the south side ; Dr. Latson 's drugstore on 
the north. A courtroom is on the west end, 
and a public hall on the second floor. A 
lock-up is underneath. It saves the town, 
annually, considerable expense; the rentals 
make it self-supporting. On the town 
board at that time were John G. Ostrom, 
supervisor ; Jacob Rynders, town clerk ; Tunis 
Wortman, Isaac F. Russell, Conrad Mar- 
quardt and Theophilus Gillender, justices of 
the peace — all anti-bonders. 


An institution of great value to the village 
and town is the Starr Institute. It was 
erected by Mrs. Mary R. Miller, who became 
a permanent resident of the town in 1858. 
Mrs. Miller was a granddaughter of Gen. 
Schuyler. She bought, reconstructed and 
occupied the Schuyler mansion east of the 
village. She was at this time the widow of 
Hon. William Starr Miller, a prominent citi- 
zen of New York. He had been 'a represen- 
tative in Congress from the third district in 
1845-7. He died in 1854. The .building was 

300 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

intended as a memorial to him. It was pre- 
ceded by a free reading-room and circulating 
library as an experiment. The success in 
that field of usefulness led to the erection of 
the larger building. A special act of incor- 
poration was passed April 18, 18C2. On the 
24th day of July, 1862, the board of trustees 
organized. Hon. William Kelly was elected 
president ; Nathan W. H. Judson, treasurer ; 
Theophilus Gil lender, secretary. The present 
suitable, commodious and handsome building 
was erected and furnished at a cost of $15,000. 
It is an ornament to the village, admired 
by all who see it. Few villages have libraries 
to compare with those in the Starr Insti- 
tute. The Standard, on the second floor, 
is filled with works of great value ; for 
reference use, to which it is limited, it serves 
every purpose. The circulating library, on 
the first floor, has several thousand books ; 
all the popular, readable works ; it is replen- 
ished from time to time with the latest publi- 
cations. It is a sourse of intellectual pleasure 
and profit to hundreds. The free reading- 
room contains the leading daily and weekly 
papers, magazines, etc., for visitors' use. 
They are many. The large hall for public 
purposes ; the kitchen and dining-room below 
have long met the wants of the community 






The Village 301 

when lectures, concerts, fairs and social enter- 
tainments were given. In 1907, a branch of 
the Young- Men's Christian Association was 
organized. The institute was set apart for 
its use. The building- was enlarged and 
altered to meet the requirements of that com- 
mendable enterprise. It is now more than 
ever a pleasant resort for the young- men of 
the locality. It affords all the advantages of 
the Y. M. C. A. It has a gymnasium, swim- 
ming* pool and other accessories. As reor- 
ganized, it is doing* a grand work that makes 
this institution in every way an appropriate 
monument to its noble donor, Mary R. Miller, 
and her worthy husband, for whom it was 
first erected as a memorial. It should and 
will carry the name of Miller in grateful 
remembrance down the river of time for 
many generations to come. 


Some years ago Rhinebeck was visited by a 
citizen of Massachusetts named Thomas 
Thompson. He liked the place and was 
well treated by the townspeople. He was 
possessed of large wealth. In his will he pro- 
vided a trust in favor of certain needy persons 
of the town, which trust, on the 19th day of 
March, 1901, was established by a decree of 

302 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts. 
The administration of this trust rests entirely 
in the discretion of trustees. The trust fund 
is large, and it is satisfactorily and judiciously 
handled by the very competent trustees. 
Rhinebeck has received substantial benefit 
through the Thompson fund. Property was 
purchased on Livingston street in 1901, which 
has become a home for the aged, a hospital 
for the sick and the centre of administration 
of various philanthropic undertakings. It 
answers the call in time of need. Few local- 
ities are so well favored. The interesting ori- 
gin of this beneficial institution is worthy of 
mention. The good work the trust fund is 
accomplishing endears the name of Thomp- 
son and the trustees who are managing the 
fund to Rhinebeckers and their friends. The 
women of the town have an auxiliary organi- 
zation which serves as an advisory board, and 
secures the best posible results for the afflicted 
and unfortunate. 


On the river road south of the old Kip- 
Beekman-Heermance house is the Holiday 
farm, a home for convalescent children. It 
was established in 1901 by Miss Mary Morton. 
During the summer of 1908 it had at one time 

The Village 303 

nineteen children under its care. Miss Lynch 
is the efficient matron, assisted by a compe- 
tent staff. The farm has done and is doing a 
most humane work, and deserves generous 
support. There is always a waiting list, for 
whom application for admission has been 
made. This charitable work of those able to 
carry it on is a practical way of doing good, 
and is far-reaching in life-saving results. 


As stated on page 184, John T. Schryver, 
one of the members of the so-called im- 
provement company, occupying the church 
farm from about 1800, erected a house in the 
track of Livingston street. This was his res- 
idence for many years. After his death, his 
son, Mathew V. B. Schryver, continued to 
reside there. The question of opening Liv- 
ingston street east to the Teal-Cookingham 
farm was agitated from time to time. It was 
a necessity. Finally, about 1883, steps were 
taken by the village authorities to open the 
street. This required the removal of the old 
Schryver homestead. The project was bit- 
terly fought by the son, Mathew. After a 
long and expensive litigation he lost. The 
street was opened. The old house was re- 
moved. The village was improved and bene- 

304 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

fitted. Mr. Schryver would not be reconciled. 
He could not forget or forgive. He removed 
from the town of his birth and long residence. 
Well advanced in years he made his home in 
Greenbush, fifty miles away. The mistake of 
the father cost the son more than dollars ; his 
peace of mind was destroyed. It is plain to 
everyone now that the building of the Lu- 
theran church in the track of Centre street 
has proved a serious drawback to village im- 


The history of the Methodist church will be 
found on pages 152-71. The account of its 
destruction by fire and its rebuilding, a vil- 
lage event, written for this history by its 
then pastor, Rev. Stephen F. White, is here 
given : 

An event which caused wide-spread sorrow 
throughout Rhinebeck and the surrounding 
country was the burning of the Methodist 
Episcopal church in the early morning hours 
of Sunday, February 12, 1899, Lincoln's 
birthday. The weather was bitterly cold, 
and the snow lay deep on the ground. On 
account of the severe cold, and in order to 
have the church comfortably warm for the 
Sabbath services the sexton had built a fire 

The Village ■ 305 

early on Saturday, and kept the furnaces run- 
ning- at nearly full blast all day. He was 
watchful, however, caring for them at fre- 
quent intervals, and making- his last visit to 
the furnace-room about 9.30 in the evening-, 
when everything-, so far as he could observe, 
was safe and in g-ood order. Tho pastor's 
study was a room directly back of the pulpit, 
lined with bookcases, in which were a thou- 
sand volumes belonging- to the church, and 
several hundred volumes belonging- to the 
pastor. The latter was at work in the study 
until quite late Saturday evening-, and when he 
left everything- about the edifice seemed secure. 
About two o'clock in the morning- of Sunday 
a man passing- down the street in search of a 
physician, saw fire in the church. He gave 
the alarm at once, but almost as soon the 
flames burst through the roof, and the whole 
interior was a mass of fire. The fire com- 
panies responded to the call, but were delayed 
by frozen hydrants, etc., and could not arrest 
the work of destruction. In fact, the fire 
was beyond control before it was discovered. 
Originating-, it is supposed, in a defective 
flue, it worked its way slowly but surely 
under the floor and along the walls, and as 
the building was of stone and roofed with 
slate the wiiole interior was burning before 


Historic Old Rhinebeck 

the alarm was or could be sounded. Pastor r 
people and firemen were helpless, and could 


only watch with sad heart the destruction of 
the sacred building-. Suddenly, the flames 

The Village 807 

Slaving- burned off the ropes, the great bell 
hanging- in the tower swayed, giving- forth 
three notes, as if tolling- for the dead, and 
then went crashing- to the cellar below. When 
the morning- of the blessed Sabbath broke 
over the scene a mass of broken, discolored 
walls and smoking- ruins were all that 
remained of this historic church. 


Before the ruins of the old church had 
ceased to smoke the pastor called a meeting- 
of the official board and presented the matter 
of immediate rebuilding-. The board acted 
promptly, and the following- were appointed 
the building- committee: P. F. Radcliff, W. 
R. Carroll, F. G. Cotting-, Oscar Cooking-- 
ham and M. E. Clearwater. The pastor, 
ex-officio. It was thoug-ht at first that the 
old walls could be used, but upon examination 
by skilled mechanics they were found to be in 
an unsound condition. It was then decided to 
build an entirely new structure, and differing 
in style from the old church. A call for plans 
was at once issued, and in due time several 
were submitted. Afjber careful discussion by 
the committee, the plan submitted by Ackert 
& Brown, builders, of Rhinebeck, was ac- 
cepted, and the contract for building- was 

308 Historic Old Khinebeck 

awarded that firm. All this required time r 
so that it was early summer ere work was 
begun. In the meantime the pastor was 
busy soliciting- subscriptions for the building 
fund. There was but $5,000 insurance on the 
old church, and the congregation was far 
from being a rich one. Hence, an appeal to 
the general public was necessary, and gen- 
erous was the response. Members of sister 
denominations and men of wealth living in 
the vicinity responded promptly to the appeal. 
The pastor received a subscription from as far 
away a place as Switzerland. Ever3 7 body, 
rich and poor alike, showed a disposition to 
help. It is no reflection upon others to 
say that the late Phebe G. Hunt of Pough- 
keepsie, widow of a Methodist minister who 
had once been pastor at Rhinebeck, was a 
most liberal helper. 

On July 22, 1899, the cornerstone of the 
new church was laid with impressive cere- 
monies, the Rev. Clark Wright, presiding 
elder of the Poughkeepsie district, having 
charge of the exercises. All through the 
summer and autumn work went on. Un- 
avoidable delays occurred, difficulties arose, 
but by the Divine favor all were overcome. 

On Wednesday, February 14, 1900, one 
year and two days from the burning of the 

The. Village 309 

old church, the new church, .completely 
equipped with every comfort and convenience 
for public service, at a cost of $16,200 was 
dedicated to the worship and glory of Al- 
mighty God. Bishop Andrews of New York 
preached the dedicatory sermon, and with 
glad hearts the large congregation joined in 
the service. The church is gothic in style 
and an ornament to the beautiful village of 
Rhine beck. 

As stated on page 170 the records of the 
church were burned in the fire of 1899. The 
-collection of complete data has been difficult. 
Names of ministers who were stationed here 
between 1845 and 1860 are omitted on page 
171. Those of Rev. Dr. Ferris, H. Mercein, L. 
W. Peck are recalled. Active workers in the 
church during the fifty years prior to this fire 
who should be named were Hector Bronson, 
Le Grand Curtis, Henry Latson, John Mc- 
Kown, William Carroll, Reuben Hanabergh, 
David Norris, Dr. William Cross, James Ho- 
gan, Lewis Asher, Peter Welch and their 


It is proper that mention be made of the 
professional men in "ye olde town," and it 
would seem that doctors come first. In 1769, 

PIO Historic Old Jl/unebeck 

Dr. Hans Kiersted was here. He was £ 
young 1 man under thirty years of age. Dr. 
Ananias Cooper had preceded him. As early 
as 1638 there was a Dr. Hans Kiersted, a prac- 
tising physician, surgeon and apothecary on 
Manhattan Island. From that time until 
recent years the name of Kiersted was on the 
roll of physicians in the metropolis. In 1751, 
the Weekly Post-Boy of May 20th said : 

" Friday last died here Dr. Roelof Kiersted, a Gen- 
tleman eminent in his Profession, altho' not skilled in 
the technical Terms thereof, which often drew on him,' 
the Contempt of his Brethern ; yet his great knowledge 
in the Simples, his extensive Charity and successful 
Cures to poor People has made his Memory precious to 
them, and his Death a real publick Loss. n 

This was the father of Dr. Hans. Thence,, 
for over one hundred years the name Kier- 
sted was connected with Rhinebeck. It has- 
been spelled different ways. Until 1800 we 
find Cooper and Kiersted administering to 
the sick of the town. The name of Geissel- 
bractit is also given. (See page 87.) Drs. 
David Tomlinson, Abraham De Lamater, 
Walter Land on, Eliphalet Piatt, Theophilus 
Nelson, A. H. Hoff, George Lorillard, Martin 
Freleigh. Federal Vanderburgh, Isaac F. Van 
Vleit, Garret C. Lansing, Benjamin Lansing, 
Benjamin N. Baker, C. S. Van Etten, F. H. 
Roof, Pierre A. Banker, James F. Goodell.. 

The Village 311 

M. M. Lown, S. H. Basch, are names on the roll 

of physicians. Dr. Tomlinson introduced the 
one-horse shay. Dr. De Lamater and Dr. Lan- 

;>12 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

don followed him in its use. Dr. Nelson pre- 
ferred to ride horseback. Some used shanks'* 
mare. Rhinebeck has furnished to the medical 
profession many distinguished members. 


Commencing* with Judge Beekman, who 
transacted law business in "ye olde town " as 
early as 1706 ; then his son, Col. Henry, who 
was an expert in the phrasing of legal docu- 
ments, and a legislator for many years, skilled 
in drafting- laws; then the Livingstons, all of 
whom appear to have had legal education ; in 
fact, law seemed to have been the profession, 
if not the practise, of their sons. Even while 
non-residents of the ward, precinct or town, 
some one of them came whenever necessary 
to transact required legal business. Henry 
B. Livingston was on the ground before, and 
returned after the revolution. William Alex- 
ander Duer opened an office here as early as 
1802. (See page 97.) Gen. Morgan Lewis 
was a lawyer and in the town in 1785. (See 
page 96.) Edward Livingston passed to and 
fro several years earlier. (See page 98.) 
Francis A. Livingston was in active practise 
before 1812, having an office on the premises 
now occupied by J. Howard Asher on Mill 
street. William and Jacob RadclilTe were 

The Village 313 

lawyers. (See pages 99-100.) Alexander 
Thompson, if not a lawyer, did law work. 
John Armstrong 1 , Jr., commenced practise 
soon after 1800, and continued for nearly fifty 
years. Following these notables were Ed- 
ward E. Cowles, Augustus Schell, Ambrose 
Wager, John H. Piatt, Gouveneur Tillotson, 
Andrew Z. and James C. McCarty, Moses 
Conger, Henry M. Taylor, George Esselstyn, 
Howard H. Morse, Robert L. Garrettson, 
Alfred T. Ackert, P. Edgar Ackert, Augustus 
T. Gillender, Frank T. Van Keuren, Charles 
Ten Broeck, Martin Heermance, De Witt 
Heermance, A. Lee Wager, Mathew V. 
B. Schryver, Walter W. Schell, Charles L. 
Holf, Frank H. Gray, Charles E. McCarty, 
all of whom at some time lived in the town 
and practised or were entitled to practise 
law. Then there were others born and raised 
in the town who either read law r at home 
and located elsewhere, or after removal be- 
came lawyers and gained distinction at the 
bar in the place of their residence. Some 
reached the bench. Born in Rhinebeck, is 
said of several distinguished lawyers. Many 
local practitioners have won deserved fame as 
lawyers. Rhinebeck has never lacked able 
members of the bar to do any legal work 
required by its inhabitants. 

314 Historic Old Rhinebeck 


The first newspaper in the town was the 
Rhinebeck Advocate, published by Robert 
Marshall in 1841. This was followed by the 
Rhinebeck Gazette, published by Smith & 
Camp, then by Edward M. Smith, William 
Luff, Schutt & Dunning", L. R. Blanchard; 
then again by William Luff. In 1859 Thomas 
Edgerly bought the office and made George 
W. Clark the publisher. In 1875, W. W. 
Hegeman bought it and became the publisher. 
It has since had several changes in manage- 
ment. It is now published by Jacob H.. 
Strong, and is a well-edited representative 
home paper, deserving the patronage of 
Rhinebeckers and their friends. 

The American Mechanic was published in 
1850 by George W. Clark. The plant was 
sold to S. T. Hoag and removed to Pine 
Plains, and the Herald^ started about 1859. 

The Rhinebeck Tribune was published by a 
stock company from 1869 to 1873. The plant 
was sold to T.G. Nichols and removed to Pough- 
keepsie ; the Sunday Courier was established. 

Several Rhinebeck boys won fame as type- 
setters. William Mink and John N. Near 
have had repeated mention. Horatio Fowkes 
became a journalist of distinction. In this, 

The Village 315 

as in other fields, "ye olde town" has held 
its own. 


Passing' through the business section of the 
village to-day the drugstores of Dr. Baker 
and Dr. Latson ; the groceries of Williams & 
Traver, Coon & Rhynders, Mrs. Gaul; the 
meat markets of Rikert, Tremper, Pultz ; the 
general store of Hamlin ; the furniture ware- 
houses of W. R. Carroll and Andrew Grube 
the hardware emporiums of Louis Rosencrans 
Harry Smilie & Co. and O. E. Cookingham 
the furnishing stores of George E. Ackert 
O. V. Moeslin and Jacob Borowsky ; the jew 
elry store of Haen ; the liveries of Rikert and 
Fraleigh ; the flour, feed and lumber plant of 
T. J. Herrick; the bakeries of A. C. Mc- 
Curdy and J. B. L. Mann ; Luff's and Deck- 
er's news depots; the smithery of John C. 
Milroy ; Weckesser, the painter; Steenbergh, 
the electrician ; Secor, the marbleworker ; 
Ackert & Brown, A. M. Quick, the building 
contractors; Pottenburgh, Bucchoini, Miller, 
Lown, Snyder, Smith, and others in various 
lines; Deichelman and Moeslin, the barbers; 
the Gazette printing establishment ; the dress- 
makers and milliners ;Heeb's and Ritter's shoe 
stores: Decker's cafe: the "old hotel": im- 

316 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

press one with the fact that business men are 
still in "ye olde town/' and that the wants of 
the people are supplied as of yore. Manufac- 
turing- alone is not apparent. 


Several Rhinebeckers became distinguished 
clergymen. Philip Milledoler, S.T.D., born 
in "ye olde town" September 22, 1775; 
graduated, Columbia, 1793; ordained, 1794; 
president Rutger's College, 1825-40 ; died, 
September 23, 1852. Rev. Stephen Schuyler, 
a Methodist minister of repute. Rev. John 
B. Drury, D.D., editor Christian Intelli- 
gencer, a clergyman of wide reputation. Rev. 
Chester EL Traver, D.D., pastor Lutheran 
church, Berne, New York, an earnest, de- 
vout minister. Rev. David H. Hanabergh, 
D.D., a well-known Methodist minister, for 
many years president of the Drew Seminary. 
Rev. Robert Johnston, an Episcopal divine 
just entering upon his duties. 

Reference is made in chapter VIII to min- 
isters of the town. The history of its churches 
is, in fact, a history of the locality, hence the 
extended chapter covering ninety-two pages 
of this book. There may be others not men- 
tioned. If so, it is for want of information as 
to them. 



" Long ago, at the end of the route, 
The stage pulled up, and the folks stepped out." 


THE stage coach and tavern have a history 
in common, but the story of the stage 
coach on the old post road, through "ye olde 
town/' did not begin until seventy- five years 
after Traphagen's first tavern was opened 
and nearly twenty years after the " old hotel " 
was built. 

On the 4th day of April, 1785, at the eighth 
session of the State Legislature, an act was 
passed granting the "exclusive right to Isaac- 
Van Wyck of Fishkill, Talmage Hall of Al- 
bany, and John Kinney of New York, of erect- 
ing and carrying on a stage to promote the 
ease and benefit of the people of this State on 
the east side of the Hudson river, between 
the cities of New York and Albany, for the 
term of ten years, to commence on the 1st 
day of June, 1785, and all other persons are pro- 
hibited from carrying on stage conve,yance on 
the said east side of the river under a penalty of 
two hundred pounds." Van Wyck, Hall and 

318 Historic Old Rkinebeck 

Kinney were to furnish at least two good and 
sufficient covered stage wagons, to be drawn 
each by four able horses, and were to charge 
each person not to exceed 4 pence per mile, 
and each person was permitted to carry four- 
teen pounds in weight of baggage. The stage 
wagons were to proceed once at least in every 
week during said term, unless prevented by 
the badness of the roads or some uncommon 

Prior to this some attempt had been made 
to carry passengers and freight by means of 
crude vehicles, and at times by what was 
known as the Conestoga wagon, drawn either 
by horses or oxen. Freighting finally became 
their only business, and that was irregular. 
For freight transportation this wagon was 
as perfect a vehicle as could be made. It 
resembled the "prairie schooner" of later 
days. The pump was a favorite stopping 
place. "Grub" for the driver and feed for 
the horses were frequently carried on the 
wagon. The driver had his own blankets, 
and often a straw mattress upon which he 
slept. In cold weather he would sleep on the 
tap-room floor, feet to the fire. Then, he 
would stable his horses and get his breakfast 
at the tavern. 

In 1T97 an advertisement reads : "Albany 

Stage Coach Days 3 ID 

stages will leave New York every day at ten 
o'clock in the morning-; arrive at Albany the 
fourth da3 r at nine o'clock in the morning-. 
Fare of each passenger seven dollars." 

The New York Post of February 13, 1803, 
then a sheet 16x26, contains the following-: 
"New York and Albany Mail Stag-e leaves 
New York every morning- at 6 o'clock, lodges 
at Peekskill and Rhinebeck, and arrives in 
Albany on the third day. Fare of each passen- 
ger through $8, and Gel. per mile for way pas- 
sengers. For seats apply to Wm. Vandevoorb, 
No. 43, corner of Cortland and Greenwich 
streets, New York, and of T. Witmore, Al- 
bany. Potter, Hyatt & Company." 

The names given the early vehicles varied ; 
stage chaise, stage waggon, stage chariot, 
stage carriage, stage coach, omnibus, barge, 
etc., were common. The first in "ye olde 
town " was the stage waggon shown in the pic- 
ture on the next page. A coach called the 
"Concord " became the most popular. Many 
of them were made in Rhinebeck. A man 
named Uhl was an early builder. It has 
justly been pronounced the only satisfactory 
traveling vehicle ever made. The first one 
appeared about 1802. They are still in con- 
stant use. The "whips" to-day prefer the 
name "tallyho." There was great rivalry 


Historic Old Bhinebeck 

between competing lines. It extended to 
drivers, passengers and partisans along the 
route. For years staging- was a profitable 

business. Taverns, with barns attached, be- 
came stopping- points ; blacksmith forg-es were 
sary, horses were in demand, repair 

btage Coach Days 321 

shops must be convenient along- the line. 
Rhine beck had all these adjuncts. It was a 
great stage town. 

Traveling- in the old stage coach was not 
tantalized by the fleeting* half-glimpse of 
places. Ample time to view an attractive 
spot, with leisure to make inquiry about an 
interesting locality, and to hear the driver's 
or fellow-travelers' tales, was given. "One 
would talk constantly," says an old-timer, 
" query frequently, grow deeply versed in the 
route's lore and history. The driver would 
know the g-ossip of each village, the secrets 
of each house he passed, the traditions and 
tales of every neighborhood. Every mile of 
the road was a point of interest." Rhinebeck, 
with its eminent families, its early history, 
its reputation as the place to get what was 
needed in every line, was a welcome sight. 
Here the weary traveler found rest and re- 

Passengers were not compelled to stop at 
the "old hotel." There were several places 
where meals and lodging- could be had. In 
the Livingston house on Mill street, nearly 
opposite the "old hotel," there lived for sev- 
eral years a very popular, motherly lady, 
Mrs. De Witt. She kept a boarding house. 
Her table was justly celebrated. Many patrons 

322 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

came to her house. Under her hospitable roof 
young- men employed in the village found a 
home. She had two notable sons. Col. David 
P. De Witt, U. S. A., and Charles A. De 
Witt, for many years superintendent of the 
United States Express Company. Col. De 
Witt married a daughter of Harvey H. 
Seymour. His son, Seymour De Witt, is 
president of the First National Bank of Mid- 
dletown, New York. Charles A. De Witt 
married a daughter of Lewis Marquart. The 
De Witts never forgot "ye olde town." They 
were an honor to it. Peter De Witt was one 
of the names on the revolutionary roll. He 
was also recorded in the census of 1790. His 
family then consisted of two males over six- 
teen, three under, and one female. 

It is said of the stage drivers on the post 
road that they were a dignified and interest- 
ing class of men. In their prime they were 
a power. They were often entrusted with 
important and delicate messages. They had 
a characteristic mode of speech, terse and 
quaint in expression that showed what was 
termed "good horse sense." The winter was 
their heyday. Wearing bearskin caps, vast 
greatcoats, heavy long-legged boots ; driving 
fine horses, heavy harness, brass-trimmed, 
ivory rings ; clean, newly painted coaches, the 

Stage Coach Days 323 

outfit was a pleasant sight to look upon. 
Prudent, kind-hearted, intelligent and accom- 
modating, they carried the news of the day 
from place to place ; messages to doctors in 
cases of sickness along the route, and cheer- 
fully did such errands as were within their 
power where necessity required. They were 
character-readers of both man and horse. 
Hank Pultz, a Rhinebeck stage driver, is 
said to have had a record of covering on his 
stage over one hundred thousand miles. ' ' Ye 
olde town " furnished a dozen or more drivers. 
Traveling by stage the passenger was 
taught by Nature, a great teacher. He saw 
the many duties of country life, the round of 
work on the farm, the succession of crops; 
learned the names of grasses and grains; 
saw the timid flight of wild creatures, rab- 
bits, squirrels, woodchucks, and even the 
wily fox. He heard strange sounds, the 
screech of the owl, the snarl of the cata- 
mount, the singing of birds. Was shown by 
the driver " the biggest ellum in the county/' 
the " finest grove in the State," the "purtiest 
birch on the road," and the "wildest flowers 
that grow." Counted the milestones; the 
one on the flatts, "98 miles to New York," 
bringing him to the "old hotel." Guide 
boards stood at the crossings of traveled 

324 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

roads. They are still most welcome. Dis- 
tances were guessed at; "nigh on to a mile," 
" about two miles," "hard on to three miles," 
"a little better than four miles," was the 
information given the road-jogger. The dis- 
tance was rarely underestimated. A wayside 
friend was the watering trough, a log of wood 
hollowed out, Indian fashion, like a dug-out, 
filled with cool, pure water from a hillside 
spring. On the flatts the pump furnished the 
supply. The stage-coach clays were great 
days for "ye olde town." They brought 
wealthy strangers who, resting for an hour, 
walked about the streets, saw and wanted 
many things made in the town. This carried 
its name and fame to distant places. Every 
trip the stage had new passengers who became 
customers at a Rhinebeck shop. These days 
finally came to an end in 1851, when the Hud- 
son river railroad was finished to Albany. 



41 She walks the waters like a thing of life, 
And seems to dare the elements to strife." 


AS ear ly as 1712 the sloop carried freight 
and passengers from Beekman's landing 
on Vanderburgh cove to New York and other 
market places. The first home sloop was 
named the " Maria/' and one of the Roosas 
was its owner and captain. For a century the 
sloop held undisputed sway upon the Hudson 
river. A dozen or more during the busy sea- 
sons plied between "ye olde town" and the 
big city. Coenties slip was the landing place 
there. In the town the names of Beekman, 
Kip, Radclift'e, Tillotson, Lewis, Sleight, Rut- 
sen, Schultz, Mills, Schatzel, Tyler, and one or 
two others not traced, were given to landings 
prior to 1812. There were a number of them, 
and sloop navigation was a profitable busi- 
ness. Bogardus, Pells, Ostrander, Jacques, 
Ackert, Kipp, Elmendorf, Jennings, Schultz, 
Mills, Briggs, Hanaburgh, were noted cap- 
tains in their day. Often the sloop was the 
home of the captain and his family. It was 

326 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

usually named after the owner's mother, wife 
or daughter. Roomy cabins in the stern fur- 
nished accommodations for passengers, and 
they were ingeniously contrived to meet re- 
quirements. Home comforts were not lack- 
ing. The meals were substantial. Neatness 
was the rule. Grain and farm products were 
carried down to the New York market, and 
on the up trip merchandise, manufactured 
articles and raw material were brought to 
the merchants, farmers and mechanics of the 
period. A trip to New York was an event long 
remembered and talked about by those for- 
tunate enough to take it. Very few could do 
so. It was an expensive luxury. The coming 
of the steamboat in 1807 was an unexpected 
as well as a fatal blow to the sloop as a pas- 
senger craft. It had often required a week to 
reach the city by the sloop, although at times 
it was only a day's journey. The quick trip 
the captain was always ready to tell about. 
Wind, tide and weather were important fac- 
tors. The first and last were uncertain. A 
long, tedious journey on the river made life 
miserable for those on board. Mr. Robert 
Fulton and Chancellor Livingston, the first 
well known in and a frequent visitor to "ye 
olde town," and the latter a Beekman de- 
scendant, proposed to make the journey in a 

River Travel 


day, regardless of wind or weather, and 
they did it. On August 18, 1807, about noon, 
the "Clermont" passed the Radcliffe and 
Ferry landings, now the Slate and Long docks, 
vomiting- fire and smoke to the consternation 
of those who saw it. Pete Sleight fled to 
Jacques' tavern on the flatts, telling those he 
met that "the devil had gone up the river on 
a saw mill." At this time the horseboat did 

service as a ferry. It was an improvement on 
the ferry, shown on page 64. The wheel to 
propel a craft had been tested. Horse power 
turned it. The steam engine in place of the 
horse worked a great change in navigation, 
and traveling by water was shorn of many 
difficulties. Slow travel by sloop and stage 
coach had ended. The fast-sailing craft pro- 
pelled by steam became the favorite method. 

328 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

It was not cheap at the start, as the fare to 
or from the city was four dollars, and that 
was all a man could earn in a week. Its pop- 
ularity increased as new and faster boats with 
many improvements were put upon the river, 
and it is to-day, with its large and magnifi- 
cent craft, the wonder of many ; the delight 
of travelers and pleasure seekers. 

The barge was a valuable feature of "ye 
olde town." It was the successor of the 
sloop, and soon followed the steamboat upon 
which it depended. It carried freight and 
passengers. It made lively market days. It 
drew traffic from a wide area. One could 
"travel on it, propelled by steam, without 
danger of accident from bursting boilers or 
defective machinery," said the advertisement. 
The " Milan" was one of the first barges 
on the river. Its captain was William S. 
Cramer. Its stewardess, Jennie Pierce. For 
years these names were familiar to the towns- 
people. "Rhinebeck and New York" is the 
heading of a poster. Then a picture of the 
barge. "The elegant and commodious barge 
MILAN, Capt. Wm. S. Cramer, will leave 
the Slate Dock for New York every Tuesday 
at 6 p.m., landing at the foot of Robinson 
Street, N. R. Carries freight and passengers. 
Returning every Saturday, leaving at 5 p.m. 

River Travel 


Particulars from Captain on board, or, at 
office on dock." The barge had two decks 
and a hold. In the hold at the stern was a 
room for men, with a bar, table and seats. 
Around the sides were berths. In the rear 
was a wash-room and lavator} 7 . On the main 
deck above was a fine cabin, with a few sleep- 
ing- rooms and berths for women in front. A 

dressing-room on the end ; windows along the 
sides. The centre was a saloon or sitting- 
room, provided with chairs, sofas and small 
tables for the use of passengers. Here quiet 
games were played ; books and papers read ; 
conversation enjo\ 7 ed. At the upper end of 
this cabin was a long table at which meals 
were served. A kitchen, with china and linen 
closets adjoined. The meal was a feature of 

330 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

the trip. The table was bountifully supplied. 
The food well cooked. The passengers, as a 
rule, hungry. The captain was seated at the 
head ; he directed the serving and was 
a great entertainer. The meal hour was 
thoroughly enjoyed. It was anticipated with 
pleasure. Expectations were realized. The 
fifty cents charged for the meal was well 
invested. The "Milan," after years of ser- 
vice, was succeeded by the "Rhinebeck," and 
that by the "Enterprise." These were the 
Slate dock barges. The Long dock barge 
was the "Clinton." The history of one is 
that of all. The barges were towed by steam- 
boats, the Chancellor Livingston, Indiana, 
Robert L. Stephens, in the early days. The 
freighting trade was large and profitable. 
On page G2 are the names of the persons car- 
rying it on.- Townspeople visiting the me- 
tropolis for a few days often lived on the 
barge during their stay, returning home on 
the up trip. The barge carried a varied 
cargo. Farm products, baled hay and straw, 
flour, grain and feed, live stock, cows, calves, 
sheep, lambs, poultry, bound for the city 
slaughter houses. Frequently horses for the 
streetcar lines. "Balling," bleating, neigh- 
ing and crowing were musical accompani- 
ments of the down trip. The names of Hicks, 

River Travel 331 

Schultz, Walter mire, Killmer, Pitcher, Le 
Roy, Hedges, extensive buyers, drovers and 
shippers are remembered. Much produce was 
received on consignment from farmers and 
others and sold by the captain in the city to 
the best advantage ; returns were made before 
the next down trip. The home merchants, 
millers and manufacturers found the barge a 
great convenience. There are some who still 
remember barge days. For many years a 
night boat stopped at the Slate dock on the 
way up or down. In recent years the Rhine- 
beck dock was the landing place of the day- 
line steamers. In summer the mountain 
travel brought hundreds daily to the town 
dock. This has been changed. Now it is nec- 
essary to go to Poughkeepsie to get the day 
boat. A Saugerties boat makes the ferry 
dock a landing point. This is all that remains 
to the town of river travel. Rhinebeck is no 
longer an important place on the river map. 
Home enterprise can and should restore it to 
deserved prominence. 



" A hundred years of regret pay not a farthing of 

German Proverb. 

NO debt. No reg-rets. The escape of "ye 
olde town " from a burdensome bonded 
indebtedness was fortunate indeed. "Them 
were exciting- times," exclaims an old resi- 
dent. They were. A great legal light was 
made and the right prevailed. To-day it is 
almost forgotten. It should not be. "Debt 
has a small beginning, but a giant's growth 
and strength," said Beaconsfteld. The tax- 
payer would have found it so. On April 26, 
1870, after much preliminary agitation and 
discussion, the "Rhinebeck and Connecticut 
Railroad Company " was organized. Its cap- 
ital was $1,000,000, divided into ten thousand 
shares of $100 each. The railroad was to be 
a connecting link between the coal regions of 
Pennsylvania and the manufacturing districts 
of the east. A proposition large in promise 
that proved very small in performance. The 
home promoters may be credited with good 
intentions. The directors of the company 

Bonding The Town 333 

from Rhinebeck were William Kelly, Alfred 
Wild, William B. Piatt and Ambrose Wager. 
Four good men and true. Mr. Wild was presi- 
dent. There were in all thirteen directors. 
An ominous number. The Delaware and Hud- 
son Canal Company, which then had its outlet 
at Rondout, was supposed to be behind the 
scheme. Surveys were soon made and a route 
laid out through Rhinebeck to Red Hook, and 
then easterly. Of course, the town was ex- 
pected to help build the road. It promised 
to be of substantial benefit to it. Wealthy 
and influential citizens were at the front. 
They knew. Town bonding was then an easy 
way to raise money for such a purpose and 
comparatively a simple matter. Two hun- 
dred and fifty thousand dollars was the sum 
expected, but to make things run smoothly at 
the start only $100,000 was named in the first 
application. That obtained and expended it 
was plain that the balance would have to 
come to save the town from loss of its 
$100,000. It looked easy. All that the law 
required was the signatures of a majorit} 7, of 
the taxable inhabitants representing a ma- 
jority of the taxable property, as shown by 
the last assessment roll of the town, to a 
petition addressed to the county judge. Early 
in 1871 such a petition was prepared and sig-- 

334 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

natures obtained to it. This petition was 
presented to Judge Anthony, and he gave the 
following notice, which was published in the 
village papers : 

IN THE MATTER of the application of the tax payers 
of the Town of Rhinebeck, in the County of Dutchess, 
under chapter 907 of the laws of 1869 and the acts 
amendatory thereof, to issue the Bonds of said Town, 
and invest the same or the proceeds thereof in the 
stock of the Rhinebeck and Connecticut Railroad. 

To whom it may concern : 

Notice is hereby given that I shall on the 11th day of 
May, 1871, at ten o'clock in the forenoon of that day, 
at my office in the city of Poughkeepsie, in said county, 
proceed to take proof of the facts set forth in the peti- 
tion in this matter, as to the number of taxpayers join- 
ing in said petition, and as to the amount of taxable 
property represented by them. 

Allaed Anthony, 

Dated April 27, 1871. Dutchess Co. Judge. 

A hearing was had. There was some oppo- 
sition, but it failed to be effective, and Judge 
Anthony made and gave notice of his decision 
as follows: 

IN THE MATTER of the application of the tax payers 
of the Town of Rhinebeck, in the County of Dutchess, 
under chapter 907 of the laws of 1869 and the acts 
amendatory thereof, to issue the Bonds of said Town, 
and invest the same or the proceeds thereof in the 
stock of the Rhinebeck & Connecticut Railroad Com- 

Bonding The Town 335 

To whom it may concern : 

Notice is hereby given that I have made my final 
decision in this application, presented to me on the 
27th day of April, 1871, and find and determine that 
the petitioners do represent a majority of the tax pay- 
ers of the Town of Rhinebeck as shown by the last 
preceeding tax list or assessment roll, and do repre- 
sent a majority of the taxable property upon said list 
or roll, not including those taxed for dogs or highway 
tax only, and have filed my determination with the 
Clerk of the County of Dutchess reference being had 
to such determination or Judgment will more fully 
and at large appear Allard Anthony, 

Dated May 18, 1871. Dutchess Co. Judge. 

He appointed three representative men of 
the town bonding- commissioners, viz. : John 
J. Hager, Herrick Thorn and James C. Mc- 
Carty. They met and organized. Mr. Mc- 
Carty was made secretary, and he published 
the following notice : 

$100,000. — Any person desiring one or more of the 
Bonds of the Town of Rhinebeck, may leave their 
order with J. C. McCarty, one of the Commissioners, 
and thereby be entitled to preference. The bonds are 
$1,000 each ; have thirty years to run, and bear inter- 
est at 7 per cent, from August 1, 1871, payable semi- 
annually at the Bank of Rhinebeck. Orders for these 
bonds will be entirely confidential. By order of the 
Commissioners. J. C. McCarty, 

Dated July 10th, 1871. Sec'y Corn's. 

An attempt was made during the summer 

336 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

to reverse the action of the county judge, but 
it came to naught. Matters drifted along 
until December. The bonds were then ready 
for issue. The commissioners gave notice to 
that effect : 


The Commissioners for bonding Rhinebeck offer for 
sale at par and accrued interest $90,000 of coupon 
bonds of the Town of Rhinebeck, payable in 30 years, 
with interest from August 1, 1871, at 7 per cent. In- 
terest payable semi-annually — February 1st and Au- 
gust 1. Apply to the undersigned Commissioners at 
Rhinebeck. John J. Hagek, 

Herrick Thorn, 
J. C. McCarty, 

Rhinebeck, Dec. 12th, 1871. 

By the fall of 1871 much opposition to the 
railroad as projected had developed. William 
Astor, through his counsel, Howard H. 
Morse, secured a change of its route over his 
premises. Joseph H. Baldwin, through same 
counsel, adjusted a controversy which also 
concerned the business and farming interests 
of the town, as the future of the barge was 
involved. The bonding question excited many 
active citizens. Early in December Mr. Astor 
instructed Counsellor Morse to find, if possible, 
a way to test the legality of the bonding pro- 

Bonding The Town 337 

ceedings in the Supreme Court. He desired 
the active co-operation of other taxpayers. 
Some one had to take the lead in securing" 
united action on the part of the taxpayers. 
Mr. Morse invited James H. Wynkoop, John 
G. Ostrom, Louis A. Ehlers, David Norris 
and Conrad Marquardt to act as a prelimin- 
ary committee as Mr. Astor had suggested. 
He retained Hon. Homer A. Nelson as coun- 
sel. He made copies of all the papers. After 
reviewing- all the facts it was decided to bring 
an action in the name of Wynkoop as a tax- 
payer against the commissioners, the railroad 
company and the town. The preparation of 
the papers was a long and tedious matter, 
They were voluminous. Many affidavits had 
to be obtained. Judge Barnard reluctantly 
granted an injunction, which, on January 9, 
1872, he made permanent. Hon. Ambrose 
Wager and Hon. Henry M. Taylor were the 
counsel for the railroad company. A public 
meeting, called by the preliminary committee, 
was held in the Starr Institute on the 5th clay 
of January, 1872 ; it was largely attended ; 
the following" is the record as made by the 
secretaries : 

"The meeting was called to order at 7.30 p.m., by 
John G. Ostrom, Esq., on whose motion Michael Tra- 
ver was elected president. 

338 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

" On motion of David Norris the following persons 
were elected vice-presidents : William R. Schell, Rut- 
sen Suckley, Lewis Livingston, M. V. B. Schryver,. 
William Astor, William B. Kip, Edwin J. Bergh, Virgil 
C. Traver, Samuel Ten Broeck, Charles I. Cramer. 

" On motion of Mr. C. Marquardt the following per- 
sons were elected secretaries : Louis A. Ehlers, John 
L. Elseffer, and Augustus M. Traver. 

"On motion of Mr. Ostrom, Thomas Edgerley was 
elected treasurer. The president invited Howard H. 
Morse, attorney for Astor, Baldwin, Wynkoop and 
others in certain railroad litigation, and in opposition 
to the bonding scheme, to address the meeting. Mr. 
Morse did so, and explained fully what had been done. 
He expressed confidence of favorable outcome in the 
injunction suit. 

" Mr. Ostrom introduced the following resolutions, 
which were adopted : 

"Whereas James H. Wynkoop, a resident, taxpayer 
and officer of the town of Rhinebeck, has commenced 
an action in the Supreme Court to test the legality of 
the bonding of the town in aid of the so-called Rhine- 
beck and Connecticut Railroad Company, and 

" Whereas, It is well known and understood that 
this whole bonding scheme has been accomplished by 
fraud, misrepresentation and deceit of a most scandal- 
ous character, and no fair, honest and unbiased ex- 
pression of the opinion of the taxpayers of the town 
on the subject of bonding has ever been obtained ; and 

" Whereas, It is notorious that the bonding law has 
been entirely disregarded by the men who inaugurated 
and carried forward this scheme to its present condi- 
tion, and its provisions openly ignored. Now, there- 
fore, we the taxpayers of the town of Rhinebeck in 
public meeting assembled, hereby resolve that we will 

Bonding The Town 339 

sustain and support the said James H. Wynkoop in 
the prosecution of the suit commenced by all honorable 
means at our command. 

Resolved, That we request the supervisor, town 
clerk, justices of the peace and other town officers, to 
unite with us in the name of the town by the author- 
ity and power in them vested, to sustain the said 
James H. Wynkoop in the successful prosecution of 
the said action. 

" Resolved, That we request our Senator and Assem- 
blymen to urge the speedy passage of a law, repealing 
all laws in relation to bonding of towns and munici- 
palities of whatsoever kind or nature. 

" Resolved, That the thanks of the taxpayers of the 
town of Khinebeck are due, and are hereby tendered 
to his excellency, Gov. Hoffman, for his recommenda- 
tions on the subject, contained in his annual message. 

"Resolved, That we disclaim any opposition to the 
so-called Khinebeck and Connecticut Kailroad Com- 
pany, but we protest against being made compulsory 
stockholders in that, or any other corporation. 

"Resolved, That the commissioners appointed by 
Judge Anthony to issue the bonds of the town, are in 
a measure officers of the town, to whose charge and 
care has been committed a sacred trust, and honor and 
duty, as well as a decent regard for the interest of the 
taxable inhabitants of the town, alike demand of them 
a faithful, fearless and impartial discharge of their 
duties, and any connivance, combination or intriguing 
with said railroad company or its officers will be a 
breach of trust deserving the condemnation of all 
good citizens. 

" Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be 
published in the Khinebeck and Poughkeepsie papers. 

" An invitation was then extended to all present to 

340 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

come forward and sign certain petitions, in opposition 
to bonding, and sustaining Mr. Wynkoop. 
" The meeting then adjourned. 

" Louis A. Ehlers, 
" John L. Elseffer, 
" Augustus M. Tra ver. 

" Secretaries.' 5 ' 

The town officers acted as requested and 
retained Hon. Charles Wheaton to represent 
the town. Certiorari proceedings were com- 
menced by John G. Ostrom, Tunis Wortman 
aud Thomas Edgerley. A restraining- order 
had been made upon these propositions : 

1. That a majority of the taxable inhabitants repre- 
senting a majority of the taxable property of the town, 
as shown by the assessment roll for the year 1870, 
never made or signed the application upon which the 
proceedings were based. 

2. That the assessment roll for the year 1870 was not 
a de-jure roll. 

3. That the incorporation of the railroad company 
was incomplete and defective and it could not sell or 
issue valid stock. 

4. The county judge had no jurisdiction to act. 

More than one hundred affidavits were 
taken of persons whose names appeared upon 
the petition, denying-, explaining, withdraw- 
ing, etc., signatures. 

The town assumed the prosecution of the 
injunction suit, and the certiorari proceedings 
by the vote of a special town meeting. 

Bonding The Town 341 


To Tunis Wortman, Esq., Town Clerk of the Town 
of Rhinebeck, Sir: The undersigned being twelve or 
more persons eligible to the office of Supervisor of the 
Town of Rhinebeck, hereby make application for and 
require a special town meeting to be called for the 
purpose of deliberating in regard to the proceedings 
in the case of the People ex. rel. John G. Ostrom and 
others against Herrick Thorn and others, and in the 
action of James H. Wynkoop against the Rhinebeck & 
Connecticut Railroad Company and others, which 
cases are being prosecuted for the purpose of discharg- 
ing the taxpayers of the town from liability for the 
payment of the principal or interest of any bonds in 
aid of the Rhinebeck and Connecticut Railroad Co., 
and also for the purpose of raising monies for the con- 
duct and prosecution of said suits or cases : 
George Lorillard, David Norris, 

Jacob L. Van Wagenen, Thomas Edgerley, 
P. R. Quick, B. B. Van Steenburg, 

Richard Shultz, Griffin Hoffman, 

William R. Schell, " John D. Judson, 

C. Marquardt, Gilbert Traver, 

William Bates, James Williams, 

William S. Myers. 
In pursuance of the above application I hereby call 
a Special Town Meeting to be held at the House of G. 
Hoffman, in the town of Rhinebeck, on 

when the following preamble and resolutions will be 
submitted to the qualified electors of said town, when 
all in favor of the said resolution will vote " aye," in 
opposition " No," by a printed or written ballot. The 

342 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

polls of said town meeting will be opened at 9 o'clock 
A.M., of said day, adjourned at 12 o'clock, for one- 
hour and finally closed at 4 o'clock of the same day. 


Whereas, An action in the Supreme Court was here- 
tofore commenced by Jas. H Wynkoop, and certain 
proceedings had by John G. Ostrom and others — which 
action and proceedings are now pending and have for 
their object the obtaining a judgment of the Court de- 
claring that the town of Rhinebeck has never been 
legally bonded to aid the Rhinebeck and Connecticut 
Railroad, and that the said town, and the taxable 
property therein and the taxpayers thereof are not in 
any way liable for the payment of the principal or 
interest of any bonds issued in any proceedings to 
bond said town, and 

Whereas, the conduct of the said cases is for the 
common benefit of all the taxable property and tax- 
payers of said town. 

Resolved, That the costs and expenses incurred and 
to be incurred by James H. Wynkoop, and John G. 
Ostrom, Tunis Wortman and Thomas Edgerley, in the 
conduct of said cases to final judgment be and the 
same hereby are declared to be a Town charge. 

Resolved, Further that the Board of Town Auditors 
be and they hereby are authorized, directed and em- 
powered to audit and allow to the said James H. Wyn- 
koop and others the said costs and expenses. 

Resolved, Further that the supervisor of the Town 
be and he is authorized, directed and empowered to 
pay the said costs and expenses out of any monies in 
his hands belonging to the town. 

Tunis Wortman, 

Dated Rhinebeck, March 11, 1872. Town Clerk. 

Bonding The Totvn 343 

These resolutions were carried by one hun- 
dred and twenty majority. Trials were had. 
The case finally reached the General Term of 
the Supreme Court on the facts as established 
before Judge Barnard. At the September, 
1872, term held in Brooklyn, judgment was 
"ordered setting- aside and vacating the pro- 
ceedings before the county judge and revers- 
ing his order and determination of May 18, 
1871 ; also vacating the appointment of said 
McCarty, Thorn and Hager as commissioners, 
and also vacating and annulling the acts and 
proceedings of the said commissioners under 
the said appointment." 

The form of the judgment to be settled 
before Justice Barnard. 

An appeal was taken to the Court of Ap- 
peals, where this judgment was affirmed, 
and thus ended the attempt to bond the town 
of Rhinebcck to build a railroad. The public- 
spirited citizens who led the movement to 
save the town from this burden of debt are 
entitled to be remembered. William Astor 
comes first; then John G. Ostrom, Conrad 
Marquardt, James H. Wynkoop. Other 
names that appear in this chapter can be cor- 
rectly placed. 



" An oaken, broken, elbow chair ; 
A candle-cup without an ear ; 
A battered, shattered, ash bedstead ; 
A box of deal without a lid ; 
A pair of tongs, but out of joint ; 
A back-sword poker, without point ; 
A dish which might good meat afford once ; 
An Ovid and an old Concordance." 

Dean Swiff s Inventory. 

THE voice of the past is audible to-day 
only in books, old buildings and relics. 
Material substances in one form and another, 
however, remain to prove its potency. Val- 
uable, indeed, is the chair, table, cup or dish 
used by our forefathers a century or more 
ago. The relies of the past are evidence of 
departed worth. That we treasure them is 
creditable. They are connecting* links attach- 
ing- a memorable past to the eventful present. 
From the tallow dip to the electric light the 
inventory tells a wonderful story. 

The Kips, Van Wagenens, and their fol- 
lowing-, the Beekman-Livingston families, the 
Palatine settlers, have all left in the shape of 
relics evidences of the early days, their strug- 

Colonial Times and Later 



gles and triumphs in "ye olde town," which 
to their descendants are priceless. 

In colonial times people 
lived much according to cir- 
cumstances as they do now. 
In 1700 there were burghers, 
both rich and poor, but homes 
of luxury were not common. 
The necessaries of life could 
be had by all, and with these 
provided, poverty was not 
very hard to bear. 

The Palatine settlers lacked 
many of the advantages possessed by their 
Kipsbergen neighbors. They were poor, but 
intelligent and thrifty. They did not eat the 
bread of idleness. Hewers of wood, drawers 
of water, subduers of the earth from neces- 
sity, if not from choice, "they had within 
them the elements of a perpetual growth, and 
they soon swelled beyond the measure of their 

They started as tenants, paying tribute in 
the shape of rent to a wealthy landlord. The 
head of a family had to be a "jack of all 
trades," and turn his hand to the making of 
the implements of labor and household uten- 
sils required. Home-spun and home-made 
goods satisfied the family wants. 

346 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

The hum of the vrows' spinning wheel, 
and the flight of the shuttle in the weaver's 
loom, made sweet music for the old and 
young. What could not be produced at home 
they cheerfully went without. That was the 
custom. It is no longer observed. 

Having felled the trees, removed the stumps 
and stones, cleared the ground, made fences, 
built houses and barns, dotting the hills and 
vales of "ye olcle town," they proceeded to 
till the soil and raise stock, soon reaping in 
good measure the benefits of their industry, 
skill and opportunities. They builded better 
than they knew. 

The patient, plodding housewife and her 
daughters baked and brewed toothsome, nour- 
ishing food and palatable beverages. Cook- 
ing was done in a fireplace large enough to 
use wood four feet in length, and deep enough 
to hold one-quarter of a cord of wood. Bread 
was baked in a "bake kettle " having a cover. 
The kettle was placed in the fire and covered 
with ashes and coals. Bread thus baked was 
excellent we are told. Later on a great im- 
provement was made by building ovens in 
which a fire was kept until a bed of coals was 
formed upon which the baking was done in 
stone or iron dishes. While the methods were 
crude, "cooking and baking" was not a 

Colonial Times and Later 347 

lost art with the early settlers. At most the 
"vrow's" ingenuity was constantly taxed to 
devise modes and means to do her work. 

Leather was home-tanned, usually by some 
one person for all who needed it. A large 
trough was used. This was nearly filled with 
pounded oak and hemlock bark ; the hides 
were placed upon it, weighted down and the 
trough was then filled with water to cover 
the hides. A strong astringent liquor was 
soon made and the hides tanned. This liquor 
was prized for its healing qualities. Bruised 
and chapped hands and feet bathed in it at 
night before retiring would heal and harden. 

One pair of shoes was allowed each person 
in a year. The shoemaker, like the peddler, 
traveled from one dorf to another. Attend- 
ing church or meetings, old and young, male 
and female, carried their shoes, and would 
put them on before reaching the place. Stock- 
ings were not in fashion. Logging, clearing 
and stone bees were frequent. Cider and lop- 
pered milk were unsparingly used on these 
occasions. Maple sugar was plenty, and by 
grating or shaving it over loppered milk a 
delectable dish was the result ; this was greed- 
ily devoured by those present. The "menu ' ? 
included sugared johnny cake, spiced pud- 
dings, porrage, pot cheese, bread and butter. 


Historic Old Ehinebeck 

Help one another was the rule, and in a few- 
years the "Sepeskenot" land teemed with 
luxuriant growths of grain and grasses. 

Regardless of the deprivations which these 
hardy settlers were forced to endure, amuse- 
ments were not lacking; sport was enjoyed; 
practical jokes were indulged in; life was 
taken seriously by parents, but not discontent- 
edly. It is doubtful if the descendants of 
these worthy people with all their modern 
conveniences enjoy life to-day any better than 
their ancestors did in the early days. 

Nearly every house- 
hold had its spinning 
wheels, one for flax 
and another for wool. 
Many had more. The 
s to r e of household 
linen was usually 
large ; Dairy utensils 
were numerous, 
churns, pails, pans, 
etc., were on every 
farm. Milk, butter and cheese were plenty 
and good. 

On the Sabbath day, the domestic duties of 
the week being discarded, the family, arrayed 
in their best, attended their church services. 
The "koeck," or bell ringer and sexton, was 


Colonial Times and Later 349 

an important person on that day. He was 
master of ceremonies and attended to the 
proper seating- of the congregation. 

Schools were early established, and the 
youthful members of the household, growing 
up into man and maidenhood, gave an im- 
petus of advancement, which was evidenced by 
the older ones in greater attention to out- 
ward appearances. 

The interior of the humble homes of the 
early settlers presented, as may be supposed, 
simply the necessary useful furniture for 
every-day purposes. The great chest, with 
its precious stores of household goods, was 
the most imposing piece ; chairs were supplied 
by stools, rough-hewn from wood cut and 
dressed as required. Tables and other arti- 
cles were also of home make. Crude shelves 
formed the cupboard. The bedstead was the 
"slaap banck," or sleeping berth, but upon it 
the great feather bed lay in state, and gave 
in comfort all that was wanting in display. 

Among the Dutch — high or low — the acci- 
dent of family descent was neither recognized 
or claimed. The question of rank, now the 
perpetual heartache of human society, did not 
trouble the early settlers. Sensible people, 
they solved the puzzle of caste by tabooing 
those differences in wealth, avocations and 

350 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

conditions that might have made the superior- 
ity of the fortunate over those less favored a 
disturbing- element in their daily life. Per- 
sonal worth counted then as now. At enter- 
tainments the roystering young farmhand and 
the lively dairy maid might stand the next 
couple in the dance to the heir of the patentee 
and the youthful belle of the manor house. 
This continued until after the revolution, 
although among the English, who came in 
colonial times, were not a few who could fairly 
boast of high social connections at home, and 
whose education and habits of life forced rec- 
ognition of distinctions more or less marked. 
A gradual change followed and the genera- 
tions succeeding the race of primitive early 
settlers, where position in life had been deter- 
mined by inheritance, found no sympathy in 
their hearts towards the common people. 
They were common people who made Rhine- 
beck. They have kept it alive. Two hun- 
dred years have worked little change in this 
respect. The common people are still at it. 
Of them is humanity principally made up. 
They make up the armies that fight. They 
are the force of men that till the soil, 
hold the levers of commerce, bear the bur- 
dens of trade, fill the churches, crowd the 
schools, build the homes of men where the 

Colonial Times and Later 


leaders of the future are to be born and will 
compose the vast multitude in the great Be- 
yond. Gocl has need of them, and as Lincoln 
said, "God best loves the common people 
because he made so many of them." 

The convey- 
ances of the 
early days look 
odd to - day. 
Mrs. Gertrude 
Beek man's 
sleigh, in which 
she would ride 
on Sunday, in 1788, and later, to the "old 
Dutch church" on the flatts, would hardly 
answer persons in her walk of life now. Still 
it was cosey and comfortable, with its fur- 
covered seats, big- buffalo robes and foot- 
warming- pan. 

As stated on page 84, slavery existed in 
"ye olde town " in the early days. In 1755 
there were 116 slaves; in 1790 the number 
reached 421. The old records show convey- 
ances of human flesh as well as of land. As 
a sample we copy this : 

" Know all men by these presents that I, Benjamin 
Van Steenburgh, of Rhinebeck Precinct, in the county 
of Dutchess, in consideration of four hundred and 
seventeen pounds, twelve shillings current hard money 
to me in hand, paid by Benjamin B. Van Steenburgh, of 

352 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

the precinct and county aforesaid, yoeman, Have bar- 
gained and sold and by these presents do bargain and 
sell unto the said Benjamin B Van Steenburgh, The 
Negors, horses, chattels, Sheep, Swine, goods, house- 
hold stuffs and implements of household, whatsoever 
mentioned in the Schedule hereunto annexed." 

The remainder of the instrument is in due 
legal form, warranting- and defending* pos- 
session of said property. It bears date the 
19th day of April, 1785. Then follows a 
schedule of the property, to wit: 

"Schedule of the Negurs, Horses, Hornbests etc., 
delivered by the within Bargain of Sale : 
A nigro man Peete, 17 yrs. old, £80 00. 

A negro wench Nancy 54 yrs. old 30 00. 

Their bedding, 1 00. 

A stallion 7 years old, 100 00. 

&c. &c." 

Another reads : 

" Know all men by these Presents that I, Anthony 
Hoffman, of Rhynbeck Town, in the County of Dutchess 
and State of New York, for and in consideration of the 
sum of Four hundred pounds current money of the 
said State already received to my full satisfaction, the 
receipts of which I do hereby acknowledge, have 
granted bargained and sold, and by these presents do 
grant, bargain and sell unto Anthony Rutgers, at 
present of the Town and County aforesaid, Esquire, 
the negro men negro women and children following, 
that is to say Dina and her children, old Tom his wife 
and children, Mathew and Enoch, which said negro 
named Enoch I have delivered into the possession of 
said Anthony Rutgers in the names of all the others, 

Colonial Times and Later 353 

To have and to hold the negro men, negro women and 
children aforesaid unto the said Anthony Rutgers his 
heirs and assigns forever. In witness whereof I have 
hereunto set my hand and seal in the City of New 
York, the eighth day of June in the year of our Lord, 
1789 " 
Sealed and delivered in presence \ 

John Van Deusen, > Anthony Hoffman. 

Richard Husted. ) 

Here is a short deed of manumission : 

"To whom these presents shall come know ye that 
I, Philip J. Schuyler, of the Town of Rhinebeck, in the 
County of Dutchess and State of New York, do hereby 
manumit and set free Chalk, a blackman. As witness 
my hand this 19th day of April, 1811. 

Philip J. Schuyler. 

Witness present Henry Shop." 

Many now living- remember old L/ydia John- 
son. She was several years over one hundred 
at the time of her death. A remarkable 
woman, well liked by all, and called " Aunt 
Lyd." Her exact age cannot be ascertained 
from the town record ; it can be, however, 
within twenty-seven years. There is a law of 
the State of New York passed in 1801, in 
relation to slaves and servants, providing for 
the emancipation of slaves, under certain con- 
ditions, between the ages of eighteen and 
forty- five. This document was made pur- 
suant to this law : 

" We whose names are hereunto subscribed, Over- 

354 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

seers of the Poor of the town of Rhinebeck, being 
applied to to examine into the age and ability of a 
female slave Lydia, owned by Henry B. Livingston, do 
hereby certify that upon due examination of her, the 
said Lydia, that she is under the age of forty-five 
years, and of sufficient ability to provide for herself. 
Given under our hands in the town of Rhinebeck, 
county of Dutchess and State of New York, this 
Twenty-first day of September, 1818." 

(Signed) Jacob Schultz, ) Poor 
Garrett Van Wagenen \ Masters. 

Then follows this certificate : 
" I hereby certify to all whom it may concern that 
by this instrument, and with the consent of the Poor- 
masters of this town, that I do emancipate my negro 
woman slave Lydia, Liddy or Lill, and discharge her 
from all further service. Given under my hand in the 
town of Rhinebeck, Oct. 5th, 1818. 

(Signed) Henry B. Livingston. 

Entered on record this 5th day of October, 1818. 
Henry F. Tallmadge, 
Town Clerk." 

Had Lydia been of the full age of forty-five 
years in 1818, she, of course, would, in 1874, 
have been one hundred and one 3^ears old. 
How much under that age she then was cannot 
be said, hut from the number of children she 
then had she could not have been far from 
forty-five years of age at that date. This 
writer knew her in the early seventies when 
she must have reached the century mark. 
She was a bright, happy, hard - working 

Colonial Times and Later 355 

woman until the last. Had a pleasant word 
for everyone. Her son, William J. Johnson, 
is still living, and is over seventy-five years 
of age. 

Slavery in "ye olde town " was devoid of its 
most objectionable features. It was never as 
popular as the apprentice or servitude sys- 
tem. In 1790 the largest slave holder was 
Henry Gr. Livingston, who owned 13 ; the 
next four largest slave holders were Andries 
Hermanse, Robert Sands, Volkert Whitbeck 
and Henry B. Livingston. They each owned 
11; Zachariah Hoffman owned 10; Moses 
Cantine and David Van Ness each owned 9. 
Morgan Lewis, John Stickle and Jeremiah 
Van Ocken each owned 8 ; Everardus Bogar- 
dus and Johannes Kiersted each owned 7, and 
so on through the list. 



*' Our country to be cherished in all our hearts, to be 
defended by all our hands." 


IT has been said that there were three great 
epochs in our country's history in which its 
national character was best developed. The 
first was the revolution, referred to on pre- 
ceding- pages ; that gave birth to a flag of 
liberty and a nation of equality. The second 
was the Civil war ; that declared for a nation 
of loyalty and upheld a flag of unity. The 
third was the Spanish- American war, forced 
upon the country to help a neighboring, strug- 
gling people entitled to its protection by many 
ties, and long victims of wrongs and oppres- 
sion ; that made a flag of humanity. During 
each epoch sons of "ye olde town," native or 
adopted, responded nobly to the country's 
call. One country, one constitution, one flag, 
was cherished in their hearts and defended by 
their hands. Loyalty and patriotism to them 
have never been unmeaning words. 

Repeating Longfellow's lines, in every 
crisis : 


Rhinebeck in War Times 


"Thou, too, sail on, ship of state ! 
Sail on, O union, strong and great ! 
Humanity — with all its fears, 
With all the hopes of future years- 
Is hanging breathless on thy fate ! " 

they have ever been found ready and willing 
to perform any required service, 

In a sightly and ap- 
propriate location be- 
tween the two entrances 
to Rhinebeck's charming 
resting place of the 
dead, overlooking the 
historic old post road, 
and at the southern 
gateway to the village, 
stands the soldiers' mon- 
ument, erected in mem- 
ory of the "boys in 
blue," who went forth in 
1861 and the .years up to 
1865, to do battle for the 
Union, and to make it 
what it now is, strong and great. Parts of 
three companies were recruited in the town. 
Company C of the One Hundred and Twenty- 
eighth Regiment ; Companies F and K of the 
One Hundred and Fiftieth Regiment. The 
following names are credited to Rhinebeck: 

358 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

Explanation—* Killed in battle ; t wounded ; t Sauls- 
bury prison ; § died in hospital. 

One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Regi- 
ment, Company C — Francis S. Keese, cap- 
tain ; Howard H. Morse, first lieutenant ; 
Charles W. McKown, orderly sergeant; J. 
Howard Asher,f second sergeant ; John W. 
Keese, fourth sergeant ; George Tremper, 
second corporal ; Frank W. Rikert,J. third 
corporal ; Derrick Brown, fifth corporal ; 
Clement R, Dean, sixth corporal; David 
H. Hanabergh4 eighth corporal. Privates- 
James. M. Braley,t John W. Kip,§ Lemuel 
Marquart, George W. Hamilton,! John H. 
Van Etten, Charles Rynders, Martin V. B 
Hawkins, William H. Hawkins, James A. 
Fraleigh,f John W. Myers, f Calvin Rikert, 
William A. Noxon,§ John Gay, Edward F. 
Tater, Evert Traver, Charles W. Marquart, f 
Albert Ostrom, Robert P. Churchill,* Jasper 
De Wint,§ Charles Wooden,} Patrick Lyden, 
Robert H. Hayner,§ Benjamin H. Brown, 
Peter Scally, John E. Cole, Nathan Day, 
Robert Riseley, James L. H. Holdrige, James 
K. Brown, William B. Brown,} Joseph 

One Hundred and Fiftieth Regiment, 
Company F — John L. Green, captain ; Isaac 
F. Smith,* corporal ; Elias A. Briggs, cor- 

Rhinebeck in War Times 359 

poral ; James M. Sneak, corporal ; William 
T. Francisco, wag-oner. Privates — Philip Bow- 
man, Jefferson Champlin, William B. Doyle, 
Thomas M. Fraleigh, Joseph La Bonta, John 
E. Odell, Stephen H. Rynders, Samuel K. 
Rupely, John McKinny. Company G — Ren- 
selaer Worden, Alexander Worden,§ Philan- 
der Word en, § Walter R. Bush. Company K 
— Wade H. Steenburgh, first lieutenant ; A. 
Landon Ostrom, first sergeant; Enos B. Sy- 
lands, third sergeant; Henry Lamp, fourth 
serg-eant ; Jacob Heeb, fifth sergeant ; Benja- 
min J. Hevenor, corporal. Privates — Charles 
M. Buckland, Leopold Oswold, George W. 
Clark, William H. Dederick, John Griner, 
Amos T. Lillie, Jacob Miller, De Witt Shaffer, 
Charles Wynans, Lawrence O'Brien, Fred- 
erick W. Pottenburgh, Stephen R. Tater, 
Harvey M. Traver, George A. Wager, § Al- 
fred Wooden, George W. Buckmaster. Com- 
pany B — William Holdridge, Edward Tater, 
Elisha Holdridge, Adam Weishaupt. 

Forty-Fourth (People's Elsworth Regi- 
ment) — Privates — Jacob Z. Hegeman, Charles 
Luff,* William E. Luff, Peter A. Norris, 
Samuel Risely, John Raymond, Philip R. Sy- 
lands, Stephen Hamilton. 

Twentieth Regiment, N. Y. State Militia 
— Jacob F. Teal,f Andrew J. Kip, George A. 

SGO Historic Old Rhinebeck 

Mann, Charles Asher, William Norris, Wil- 
liam Rikert, George Traver, Doug-las Mar- 
quardt, Thomas Price.* 

Other Regiments — Albert Prosius,f Thos. 
O'Brien, Alfred Lewis,§ James W. Lewis,§ 
Abner Proper, Samuel De Wint,§ John De 
W T int,§ Andrew Fraleig-h,§ Ambrose Ostrom, 
Richard R. Sylands, Georg-e Gay, Jacob 
Handschue, David McCarty. 

Col. David C. Wager on Gen. Halleck's staff. 


Soon after the outbreak of the war with 
Spain, F. J. Keenan, U. S. A., came to 
Rhinebeck, and held a meeting- in the Town 
hall on May 24, 1898. The following- were 
enlisted : George L. Williams, John Zaisser, 
Alfred Griffith, Wesley A. Mann, Arthur 
Merry weather, Charles Holdridg-e, Edward 
Casey, Walter Ostrom, Clarence Slauson, 
John R. Brig-g-s, Stephen Brigg-s, and assigned 
to Battery D, Sixth U. S. Light Artillery. 
Frederick Feller, assig-ned to Twenty-first 
U. S. Infantry. Paul H. Putzig\ Other 
recruits were : Henry Esselstyn (in Astor 
Battery), Frank Galvin, Leon Tice, Charles 
Fowler, Robert Ostrom, Georg-e Tapping-, 
Jacob Brigg-s, Thomas Kennaug-h, Herbert 

JRhinebeck in War Times 361 

Numerous battles, skirmishes and engage- 
ments were experienced by the boys from old 
Rhinebeck, as their discharges will show, such 
as "Manila," February 4 and 5, 1899; "San 
Pedro, Maeati," March 13, 1899; "Cemetery 
Hill," February 17 to 20 and March 14; also 
"Pasig," from March 14 to 21; "Malolas," 
"Calooeau," "Bag-bag River," "Pasig City," 
"Cavite" and other engagements without 
losing one man, although several received 
wounds. Comrades and friends fell all about 
them, but our boys all returned, some broken 
in health, but still able to march to martial 
music when they were given a grand recep- 
tion by the citizens of Rhinebeck on Monday 
evening, August 28, 1899 ; the entire fire 
department, with T. A. Traver as grand 
marshal, paraded. We are indebted to George 
L. Williams, the leader of the Rhinebeck 
boys, for this data. 


Armstrong Post No. 104, G. A. R., is an 
effective organization of veterans of the Civil 
war. Comrade A. C. McCurdy is commander 
and Comrade Benjamin H. Brown adjutant. 
It holds regular meetings, and provides for 
the proper observance of Memorial day. The 
following is a list of present members : Wil- 

362 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

liam B. Brown, James K. Brown, Frederick 
Bauman, B. N. Baker, Edward Delemater, 
Peter Funk, John H. Hager, Charles Lewis, 
Douglas Marquardt, Charles March, Augus- 
tus McCurdy, Frederick Obermier, A. L. Os- 
trom, Calvin Rikert, F. Rikert, R. E. Stickle, 
George Tremper, Joseph Toneu, R. C. Wor- 
den, Henry M. Ackert, B. H. Brown, Le 
Grand Graham, V. D. Lake, Henry Miller, 
S. B. Roome, C. A. Nichols, J. H. Asher, S. 
R. Tator, M. Joyce, William E. Luff, Wil- 
liam Pottenburgh, George Ellsworth, Myron 

Company C, One Hundred and Twenty- 
eighth regiment holds annual reunions, which 
are well attended by the comrades. 



" Give me possession of a burying-place with you, that 
I may bury my dead out of sight." 

Genesis xxiii 4. 

THE first grant of land for burial purposes 
on "the flatts" was made by Col. Henry 
Beekman on the 26th day of August, 1730. 
The plot was adjacent to the " Old Dutch 
Church." On the 3d day of March, 1822, the 
Methodist church received from Mrs. Janet 
Livingston-Montgomery, through Miss Mary 
Garrettson, title to land where the church 
now stands, and a burying ground was made 
back of the church. On June 30, 1832, Mrs. 
Catherine Garrettson presented a half acre of 
ground for burial purposes, south and east of 
Landsman kill, and a few feet west of the 
post road, on condition that the church 
trustees " surround it with a good fence and 
permit no more interments in the ground 
attached to the church." The deed for this 
ground bears date the 27th day of March, 
1835. On the 19th day of February, 1856, 
Miss Mary Garrettson gave five acres adjoin- 
ing for an addition to the cemetery, and thus 

364 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

enlarged it was designated as the "Rhine- 
beck Cemetery of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church." On the 28th day of December, 1823, 
Mrs. Janet Livingston-Montgomery gave a 
lot on the post road north of the turnpike for 
a Baptist church, and afterwards some inter- 
ments were made on this lot. 

The village was incorporated on the 23d 
day of April, 1834, and in 1845, by an ordi- 
nance, prohibited burials in these cemeteries 
adjacent to the churches. At that time a 
prominent, public-spirited citizen, Mr. Henry 
De Lamater, interested himself in establish- 
ing a new cemetery. He selected the grounds 
on the post road south of Landsman's kill and 
overlooking it. He devoted much time and 
considerable means to the undertaking. He 
is entitled to credit as the projector of the 
present "Rhinebeck Cemetery." 

The Episcopal church received a grant of 
five acres from Mr. Lewis Livingston in 1871 
for burial purposes. This land was south and 
west of the Methodist cemetery and adjoined 
it. On the 27th day of August, 1853, Miss 
Mary Garrettson gave a half acre of ground 
for a cemetery for the "people of color." 
This ground was west of the De Lamater pur- 
chase, and reached through it. All these 
acres are now in one cemetery under one 

The Cemetery 365 

management. Additional ground on the post 
road, south of the first gate, has also been 
acquired. The whole is now a union ceme- 
tery, and bears the name of "Rhinebeck." 
It is non-sectarian. 

It is a lovely spot for a cemetery, well 
located, amid rural surroundings, and easily 
accessible. It makes an idealistic resting- 
place for the dead, certain never to be wan- 
tonly disturbed by the hand of man or other- 
wise diverted from the sacred use to which it 
is now consecrated. Its knolls command long- 
stretches of charming- scenery. Its dells are 
alluring-. The Landsman's kill, a rippling 
stream, runs merril} 7 below it. The site is 
admirable. Over one thousand dead are rest- 
ing- there. It is the Mecca of many a pil- 
grimage. Thousands of dollars have been 
expended in memorial work and beautifying 
the grounds. Good taste is everywhere ap- 
parent. Time will by natural law add to its 
attractiveness. Death is stripped of many of 
its pangs when it brings all that is mortal to 
rest amid such surroundings. The noise, bustle 
and confusion incident to city life, with possi- 
ble disturbance or encroachment to meet the 
demand's of a metropolis with its great popu- 
lation are not to be feared. Here the dead 
will sleep in peace. 

366 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

On the 3d day of November, 1883, the 
" Rhinebeck Cemetery Association " was duly 
incorporated. It is managed by a board of 
trustees. The lots are laid out sixteen feet 
square. Larger lots can be purchased. In 
developing- these grounds credit must be given 
to Simon Welch, Edwin Hill, Virgil C. Tra- 
ver, William Carrol], and the present faithful 
superintendent, William Thomson. 

The cemetery belongs to the plot owners, 
each one of whom is entitled to a voice in its 
management and control. It is in every 
sense a practical, earnest effort to supplement 
the beautiful homes of the locality with a cor- 
responding resting place for the dead. Every 
dollar received is used frugally for the en- 
largement, management or improvement of 
the grounds. Its lands are exempt from tax- 
ation. The plots cannot be sold upon execu- 
tion for debt issued against the plot owner. 
The plots become absolutely inalienable after 
a burial is made in them, except with the con- 
sent and upon an order issued by the Supreme 
Court. The humane policy of the law pro- 
vides that the repose of the dead shall not be 
disturbed by hungry greed or by cruel mis- 

Somewhere the early settlers buried loved 
ones. Succeeding generations are doing the 

The Cemetery 367 

same. " Where are our dead ? " The sons and 
daughters of the present should know. Can 
they locate graves? Some may he in the 
"Kerk Hof," near the entrance to the Holi- 
day farm on the river ; others may repose in 
the old German yard at Kirchehoek ; others 
still in the forgotten Fraleigh ground on the 
post road. Then there is the old Dutch cem- 
etery, the Methodist back of the church, and 
the graves on the Baptist church lot; all in 
the village proper. These, with the Stone 
church, Wurtemburgh and Rhinebeck ceme- 
teries, hold the dead of "ye olcle town " for 
more than two centuries. In these grounds 
repose pioneers, soldiers, statesmen, scholars, 
merchants, inventors, mechanics, farmers ; 
men and women who were, in their day, 
active in all the affairs of life. The senti- 
ment of the twentieth century demands for 
the departed a convenient depositor, made 
beautiful and attractive, a pleasant spot to 
visit, and what was once a country grave- 
yard becomes a carefully supervised ceme- 
tery. How reminiscent to find recorded in 
marble the names of parents and children 
from the earliest clays. The shafts, the cubes, 
the slabs, the sculpture, the vaults, the 
graves, are not only historical reminders of 
persons and dates, but we frequently find "a 

368 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

sermon in stone " more expressive than words 
and more eloquent than speech, that attracts 
the eye and inspires the soul. 

The "Rhinebeck Cemetery Association" 
has for its officers the following- well-known 
citizens of the town: Trustees, 1908 — George 
Esselstyn, William Thomson, Dr. Benjamin 
N. Baker, John D. Judson, Martin Heer- 
mance, Wesley I. Miller, M. V. B. Schryver, 
F. G. Cotting, William R. Carroll, O. E. 
Cookingham, William H. Judson, Dr. C. S. 
Van Etten, A. Lee Wager, Dr. J. F. Goodell. 
Officers — Dr. Benjamin N. Baker, president; 
A. Lee Wager, vice-president ; William Thom- 
son, secretary and treasurer; Wm. Thomson, 
superintendent ; Wesley I. Miller, assistant. 
Executive committee — Dr. Benjamin N. Ba- 
ker, A. Lee Wager, George Esselstyn, W. 
H. Judson, W. R. Carroll. The officers give 
personal attention to cemetery affairs. 

The trustees have made suitable provision 
for the care of lots at a reasonable expense. 
The superintendent and his assistants are 
competent to do the required work. It should 
be the pride, as it is the sacred duty, of the 
living relatives of the dear ones buried there 
to assist these officers to the extent of their 
ability. The cemetery association has no reg- 
ular income, but depends entirely upon the 

The Cemetery 369 

voluntary contributions of the lot owners to 
make all needed improvements, as well as to 
take proper care of the grounds. 

A receiving- vault was built in 1898 at a 
cost of $950. Interments in this vault are 
subject to a charge of $5 ; bodies to be re- 
moved from vault prior to May each year. 

Annual meetings of the board of trustees 
are held on the first Saturday in November 
at three o'clock p.m. 

The cemetery association is authorized by 
law to receive gifts or bequests for the pur- 
pose of applying the income thereof to the 
preservation or renewal of any improvements 
which may be made on lots, or to the embel- 
lishment of the general cemetery grounds. 
To the very natural wish that one's own 
place of final repose should ever be decent 
and respectable, a still stronger motive is 
added by a regard for the memory of others. 
Hence, the need of proper and certain pro- 
vision to that end. 

Any inquiry in regard to pertinent matters 
addressed to the secretary of the association 
receives prompt attention. This is also true 
in connection with the "Old Dutch," Stone 
Church and Wurtemburgh cemeteries, except 
the inquiry should be made of the pastor, who 
wull refer it to the proper officer. 



" They have their exits and their entrances." 


ENTRANCE to "ye olde town," and, as for 
that matter, the exit too, is the depot of 
the New York Central and Hudson River 
railroad and the town dock adjacent. This is 
the landing" of the Rhinebeck and Kingston 
ferry, and occasionally a steamboat stops at 
the dock. Prior to 1852 it was the Schatzel 
farm and dock. It is mainly on the Artsen or 
Van Wagenen lot, No. 6, in the partition 
made by the five partners, as shown on page 
13. The railroad is less than two miles from 
Rhinebeck village. This depot is about three 
miles away. 

When the question of location of the rail- 
road depot was under consideration, Charles 
H. Russell, a director of the company, bought 
the Schatzel property, and the depot was 
established where it now is. This necessitated 
a change of the ferry landing. Then Mr. Rus- 
sell had a vision of a city springing up around 
the station. He mapped the land accordingly. 
It was at the start known as Schatzelville, 

Rhinecliff 371 

but James Boorman was president of the rail- 
road company, which was then simply the 
Hudson river railroad company, and ib was 
deemed wise to call the place "Boormanville." 
This would not stick, and for a long- time it 
was designated as Rhinebeck station, with 
the words "ferry to Rondout and Kingston " 
added for information in the printed matter 
of the company. 

An enterprising architect and builder, 
George Veitch, located in the town about the 
time the railroad was opened for travel, and 
Mr. Russell interested him in the depot and 
embryo cit}^ venture. He bought a lot on 
what he called " the cliff," and erected a dwell- 
ing there. He located, designed and built the 
hotel now there. Some lots were sold and 
houses erected lor the accommodation of rail- 
road employees. Capt. B. F. Schultz of the 
ferry, Isaac F. Russell, the railroad agent ; 
Samuel Hester, the freight agent, and others 
entered into the spirit of the enterprise, and 
the boom had a fair start. Natural condi- 
tions, however, proved «a barrier. 

Mr. Veitch, who was the master mind at 
this time, did not like the name "Boorman- 
ville." He thought perhaps there might be 
something in a name, and after wrestling with 
the problem for a year or more he solved it, 

372 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

as he thought, by striking the "beck" off of 
Rhinebeck and adding "cliff" in its place, 
making the incongruous name of " Rhinecliff " 
apply to a railway station on the Hudson river 
shore. It was a misnomer. East Rondout 
would have been more appropriate. It is 
opposite that place, and that fact might have 
served as a reason. There is none for Rhine- 
cliff. " It makes me laugh," said Wm. Kelly. 

For twenty-five years or more the railroad 
company ignored this appellation, and con- 
tinued to call this station Rhinebeck. The 
day boats did the same. The historic old 
town having a name with a reason for it, 
going back for two hundred years, was re- 
spected and recognized. Now it is no longer 
placed on the railroad time-table or the river 
map. This ought not to be so. 

Rhinecliff never met the expectations of 
Mr. Russell or Mr. Veitch. They labored 
without avail. It is a small hamlet of about 
two hundred and fifty people. It has a local 
postofifice. Rev. Michael Scully in his life- 
time did much towards the upbuilding of the 
locality. His enterprise was considerable. 
Upon his death most of his projects were aban- 
doned. It is now only the railroad entrance 
to Linwood, Ellerslie, Ferncliff, and the 
village of Rhinebeck. It contains three 



Rhinecliff 373 

churches, Catholic, Methodist and Episco- 
pal. It has a fine school ; it is district No. 
2 of the town. Gov. Morton and Col. Astor 
have kept the roads to the depot in fair con- 
dition. There are two or three stores, a good 
hotel and the usual accompaniments of a 
railroad station. Kingston Point and the 
West Shore railroad have shorn it of much of 
its early prestige. North and south there are 
scattered homes of families attending church 
there. Stages connect with Rhinebeck village 
nearly three miles beyond. 

Its prominent residents are Rev. M. F. 
Ay 1 ward, W. B. Noxon, H. H. Pearson, T. 
E. Hester, G. W. Cutler, F. J. Cornwell, J. 
S. Merritt, R. B. Schultz, Daniel O'Connell, 
R. Beach, R. C. Champlin. 


The only public building in Rhinecliff is 
known as the Memorial building, erected by 
Mr. Levi P. Morton as a memorial to his 
deceased daughter. It is a spacious structure. 
Has all modern and requisite facilities for the 
purposes to which it is devoted. A good 
library, a reading room, an auditorium. It 
has two departments, one for men, another 
for women. Clubs for men, women and boys 
have been organized. No pains are spared to 

374 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

interest one and all in this laudable undertak- 
ing- for the betterment of local conditions and 
the improvement of members. Mr. and Mrs. 
William W. Hughes are in charge of the 
building, and supervise the work with ability 
and good judgment. 

There is a great need in small hamlets of a 
place where young people can meet— where 
the environments are uplifting — and the Me- 
morial building is supplying this need in 
Rhinecliff. As time goes on the influences 
going out from this building should result in 
truer and nobler manhood and womanhood. 

Gov. Morton has done much for the locality 
in other ways, especially in the line of good 
roads. The Episcopal Church of the Ascen- 
sion enjoys the favor of his family. On page 
193 we find ourselves in error as to the donor 
of the Morton church organ to the Church of 
the Messiah in the village. It was the sister, 
Miss Morton, and not the parents, who was 
the donor. 

st. Joseph's cemetery 

There is also a large cemetery, well located 
and managed, at Rhinecliff, established in 
connection with St. Joseph's Catholic church, 
where for a quarter of a century interments 
have been made. 



" Bright firesides, warm palms, and loving hearts, 
They are the fragrance of the rose of life ; 
The worth that must abide — ideal made real, 
In fraternity's bond united." 


THE world is better because side by side 
with the school house and the church 
fraternal societies have labored to add to our 
comfort and happiness by enabling* us better 
to appreciate and enjoy our natural liberties. 

Fraternity develops a loyalty and conser- 
vatism which dwells in the hearts of men, 
delves in the mines, toils in the workshops, 
gleans in the harvest, shines in the profession, 
traverses the rivers and seas, and supplies 
mankind with its charity, its benevolence and 
its worth. Fraternity is the union of hearts, 
hands and heads for beneficial purposes. 

The first fraternal society in "ye olde 
town " was a Masonic lodge. It came soon 
after the revolution, and was named ' ' Mont- 
gomery." Gen. Lewis, Dr, Tillotson, Bo- 
gardus, Kiersted, Radcliffe, Livingston, Pot- 
ter and others of the early days were Masons. 

376 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

Stephen McCarty, a member of this lodge, in 
his old age united with Rhinebeck No. 432. 
Koert Du Bois, John Cox, Jr., Isaac F. Rus- 
sell and Stephen Jennings are also recalled as 
members of the old lodge. This lodge at first 
held its meetings in the "old hotel," and later 
had a lodge room in Kip's tavern, or Tam- 
many Hall, as it was known. During the anti- 
Masonic crusade of 1827-37 it passed out of 


Some years later the Odd Fellows came. 
In the summer of 1845 Rhinebeck contained 
three Odd Fellows. Ambrose Wager, then a 
young man, a rising, talented, ambitious, 
respected lawyer w^ho rapidly advanced to 
first place at the bar, was several times 
supervisor of the town, twice a member of 
the State Legislature, and once the candidate 
of his party for representative in Congress. 
Woodward Frisbee and Jacob M. Hogan, 
then active, enterprising young business men, 
and earnest Odd Fellows interested in extend- 
ing the institution and giving others an oppor- 
tunity to unite with the order. Wager,. 
Frisbee and Hogan founded Rhinebeck Lodge 
No. 162. Mr. Wager was its first N. G., Mr. 
Frisbee V. G., and Mr. Hogan its treasurer. 

The Fraternities 377 

At the first meeting of the lodge, held on the 
afternoon of July 16, 1845, Cyrus B. Morse, 
Edward Holdridge and Hiram T. Van Keuren 
were initiated, and Mr. Holdridge was elected 
secretary. From this beginning the lodge 
grew and prospered, Its initiates came from 
Rhinebeck, Red Hook, Milan, Pine Plains, 
Clinton and Hyde Park. Fully one thousand 
members have been added to the order be- 
cause of the organization of Rhinebeck 

The lodge is now cosily housed in a large 
hall with convenient ante-rooms on the third 
floor of the Hamlin building on East Market 
street. It has a history. It has been over 
sixty years in the making. It has held over 
three thousand meetings. It has buried over 
one hundred and fifty of its members. It 
counts its fraternal visitations to sick brothers 
by the thousands. Its friendly hand, laden 
with relief, has been open at all times in the 
hour of necessity. It has never failed to 
answer the sign of distress, and the cardinal 
principles of the order— visit the sick, bury 
the dead, educate the orphan, protect the 
widow — have never had anywhere more loyal 
and faithful exponents than the brothers of 
Rhinebeck Lodge No. 162. 

This lodge is a flourishing organization 

378 Historic Old Bhinebeck 

to-day. In 1895 it celebrated its fiftieth anni- 
versary. It was a memorable occasion. The 
officers of the grand lodge attended. Past 
Grands James C. McCarty and William S. 
Myers, made members in 1845, were present ; 
also Past Grands Alonzo C. Noxon, James H. 
Kipp, John W. Fulmer, Daniel H. Guilfoil, 
Elmore Rikert, Jacob H. Pottenburgh, Nel- 
son Traver, James H. Snyder, William C. 
Ackert, and others on the half century list. 
Past Grand Howard H. Morse, son of the 
first initiate, delivered the historical address. 
The lodge holds weekly meetings every Mon- 
day evening. It owns a fine piece of real 
estate, a three -story brick structure opposite, 
which it hopes to turn into an " Odd Fellows' 
hall" in the future. It now numbers over two 
hundred members. Jazar Encampment is a 
separate branch of the order. A. M. Quick, 
Louis Rosenkranz, M. H. Traver, O. V. 
Moeslin, J. C. Milroy, W. L. Allen, W. R. 
Carroll, John H. Brown, Edwin Y. Marquardt, 
Lee Van Vredenburg, Ernest Steenbergh, are 
active workers in the order. 


Rhinebeck Lodge, No. 432, F. and A. M., 
was organized on the 9th day of July, 1857. 
The charter members were Smith Quick, 

The Fraternities 379 

James Hogan, De Witt C. Marshall, Richard 
R. Sy lands, Ambrose Wager and Henry M. 
Taylor. Among- its earliest members are the 
names of Isaac F. Russell, Cyrus B. Morse, 
Albert A. Rider, Horatio Fovvkes, Homer 
Gray, Robert J. L. Marshall, William Carroll, 
John D. Judson, Henry Latson, George Lor- 
illard, Hiram T. Van Keuren, John W. 
Moore, Martin Freleigh, M.D., and others. 
Its W. M's were Smith Quick, Homer Gray, 
R. J. L. Marshall, William M. Sayre, James 
C. McCarty, George Esselstyn, Virgil C. 
Traver, M. H. Wygant, Martin Heermance, 
A. Lee Wager, James M. De Garmo, Frank 
Cramer, William A. Tripp, William C. 
Ackert, and the present incumbent, R. Ray- 
mond Rikert. The lodge celebrated its fif- 
tieth anniversary on the 9th of July, 1907, 
and its first W. M., Smith Quick, then over 
eighty years of age, presided. It has over one 
hundred members, representative business 
men of the locality. Holds regular com- 
munications every Friday evening at 8 o'clock 
in Masonic hall, except between the second 
week in June and the third week in Sep- 


This is a strong co-operative society. Most 

380 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

of its members are farmers, or engaged in 
vegetable, fruit or flower culture. Men and 
women are admitted. There are over thirty 
thousand subordinate granges. It favors 
postal savings banks, pure food laws, regula- 
tion of corporations, parcel post, anti-trust 
laws, good roads, etc. 

Rhinebeck Grange No. 896 was organized 
in November, 1900. It has over sevent3 7 -flve 
members. Charles R. Traver, T. S. Barnes, 
Miss A. H. Lambert, J. D. Lown, W. R. 
Tremper, C. E. Wynkoop, Seymour Smith, 
are leading members. It is a power in many 
ways, and its possibilities are far-reaching. 


There is a council of the Royal Arcanum, a 
strong insurance society. Its number is 1999. 

There is a branch of the National Protec- 
tive Legion, a benefit society. Its number 
is 730. 


The Rhinebeck, Clinton, and Hyde Park 
Society for the Detection of Horse Thieves 
was organized prior to 1860. The earliest 
record now at hand states that Jacob H. 
Ackert was president, Philip H. Moore, vice- 
president ; John H. Traver, secretary, and 

The Fraternities 381 

Ephriam W. Pultz, treasurer, and that then 
there were one hundred and five members 
enrolled. The society holds its annual meet- 
ing- on the 1st day of January, unless that 
day comes on Sunday, when it is held on the 
second day. The funds are obtained by lining' 
the members twenty-five cents for non- 
attendance. In case a horse is stolen, riders 
are appointed to scour the country to find it, 
if possible. In case the horse is not recov- 
ered the owner is paid its value from the 
funds of the society. For over forty-two 
years only one horse belonging to a member 
of the society has been stolen, and that was 
recovered. The society now numbers ninety- 
seven members. R. M. Green served as sec- 
retary for thirty -seven years. George H. 
Shultz, the present treasurer, has served in 
that capacity for twenty -five years. The 
societ3^ has about five hundred dollars in the 
treasury at present. The officers for 1908 are : 
J. D. Lown, president; Frank Lown, vice- 
president ; Charles R. Traver, secretary ; G. 
H. Shultz, treasurer. 

farmers' town mutual insurance com- 

Another noteworthy organization of the 
town is the Farmers' Town Mutual Insurance 

382 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

Company. Organized in 1880, with about 
thirty members and $100,000 insurance in 
force, it has steadily gained in favor and 
strength, until now it has one hundred and 
twenty members and $300,000 insurance in 
force. Over four-fifths of the farmers of the 
town belong to the organization. During the 
twenty-eight years of its existence it has 
had only three assessments. But one building 
insured in the company has up to the present 
been destroyed, and that by lightning. The 
working officers are : Robert M. Greene, pres- 
ident ; Charles R. Traver, secretary ; Henry 
J. Lown, treasurer. These with John P. Her- 
mans, Mandeville S. Frost, Alveron C. Mar- 
quet, Jacob Class, William Edgar Ackert, V. 
S., and William H. Cramer, constitute the 
board of directors at the present time. Its 
first board of directors was as follows : 
Philip H. Moore, Alfred Moore, Hiram A. 
Pultz, Michael Traver, Frederick Cotting, 
Albert G. Traver, Samuel Ten Broeck, David 
H. Schryver, Robert M. Greene. 


Rhinebeck Lodge, No. 345, Knights of 
Pythias, was instituted June 29, 1893, with 
an enrollment of thirty-four charter mem- 
bers, a dispensation having been granted by 

The Fraternities 383 

Grand Chancellor William Ladew, May 19, 
1893. The instituting officers were : grand 
chancellor, William Laclew ; supreme repre- 
sentative, Aaron B. Gardenier ; State deputy, 
David J. Auchmoody ; deputy grand chan- 
cellor, C. W. N. Arnold. George Esselstyn 
was elected its first chancellor commander, 
A. M. Quick, vice-chancellor, and E. Holley, 
Jr., the first representative to the grand 
lodge. At the time of its institution Rhine- 
beck lodge was assigned to the 43d district. 
It is now in the 13th district. George C. 
Lang of Rhinebeck lodge is the present 
deput} 7 grand chancellor of this district. 

Throughout its entire career this lodge has 
maintained a policy of conservatism estab- 
lished at the outset. It has enjoyed a steady 
and wholesome growth, and has now a mem- 
bership of 103, and a reserve fund of nearly 
twenty-five hundred dollars in its exchequer. 
Upon its roster are found the names of many 
representative citizens, prominent in the 
various walks of life. 

Being an order founded on the principles of 
friendship, charity and benevolence, its benefi- 
cent influences are recognized on every hand, 
and by the exercise of these virtues it has 
won for itself a prominent place among the 
various humanizing agencies of the com- 

384 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

munity, striving for the elevation, the better- 
ment and happiness of mankind. The present 
officers of the lodge are : chancellor com- 
mander, H. A. Burger; vice-chancellor, G. 
C. Lang; prelate, M. W. Traver; keeper of 
record and seal, Piatt V. Gray ; master of 
finance, M. J. Dederick ; master of work,' 
William M. Sleight; master of exchequer, 
Stanton Rockfeller. 


The Blithewood Light Infantry is a military 
organization of young men of the town, 
supported and drilled by Capt. Andrew C. 
Zabriskie. The Rhinebeck company is desig- 
nated "B," and it has some sixty members. 
Its officers are : first lieutenant, Harr} 7 Sims ; 
second lieutenant, Charles H. Coonrod ; first 
sergeant, W. W. Brundage ; quartermaster 
sergeant, Charles Suckow ; sergeants — 
Chester Haen, Lee Stickles; corporals — James 
Kearns, Jr., Edward Forbes, Harry Shook. 
A store on West Market street has been 
rented as headquarters for the company, and 
two drills are held each w r eek, one indoors 
with guns and the other movements outside. 
The members are appropriately uniformed 
and supplied with new Springfield U. S. Cadet 
magazine rifles. The benefits to be derived 

The Fraternities 385 

from such an organization are far-reaching-. 
Capt. Zabriskie is engaged in a commendable 
undertaking, and his public spirit cannot fail 
to be appreciated by the young men he com- 
mands and citizens of "ye olde town" he 
benefits. A fife and drum corps, with about 
thirty members, is attached to the company. 
This corps is also properly uniformed and 
furnished with the best instruments for use ; 
it is under the direction of an able instructor. 


The village is favored with a well-organized 
and officered fire department. This, with an 
adequate water supply, supplemented with 
hydrant facilities for its delivery and use, the 
pressure being sufficient to carry the water 
over the highest building, assures proper fire 
protection. In addition there is the old and 
reliable hand engine "Pocahontas," of well- 
deserved fame ; a steamer, a hook-and-ladder 
outfit and hose jumpers. For parade pur- 
poses there is a superb hose carriage. The 
hose company formerly bore the name of 
"Walter W. Schell." It is now "Henry S. 
Kip." The officers of the department for 
1908 are : Augustus M. Quick, chief engineer; 
Charles Heeb, first assistant ; N. Noraby, 
second assistant; William H. Judson, captain 

386 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

hook and ladder and engine company ; James 
Newman, foreman hose company ; Edward 
Casey, foreman steamer. Fireman's hall is 
fitted up and well furnished for the use of the 
fire laddies. It is a popular resort. In the 
social life of the town the companies play an 
important part. Fairs, balls, entertainments, 
are given from time to time, and the " home 
day" gatherings and exercises under the 
auspices of the department in 1904 and 1908 
will be long remembered as enjoyable events. 

ladies' auxiliaries 

There are no local fraternities like the 
"Eastern Star" for Masons' wives, daugh- 
ters, etc., or the "Rebeccas" for Odd Fel- 
lows, or Pythian sisterhood for the Knights. 
There are one or two societies that admit 
women as members. The women, however, 
are first and foremost on occasions when their 
helping hand is needed, and they organize, 
appoint officers and committees, and do their 
full share in making a success of affairs under 
the auspices of the several societies. 



" Weep no more, nor sigh, nor groan, 
Sorrow calls no time that's gone ; 
Violets plucked, the sweetest rain 
Makes not fresh nor grow again." 


VIOLET culture is a business. The crop is 
worth more than $1,000,000 a year. 
Only the rose, carnation and chrysanthemum 
outrank it among* florists' greenhouse pro- 
ducts. In two decades Rhinebeck has become 
known far and wide as the violet town. Here 
it is certainly a business. It owes this condi- 
tion to George Saltford, who came to "ye 
olde town " in the eighties. He understood 
violet culture and inaugurated it on practical 
lines. His success was marked from the start. 
One-fourth of the yearly crop now goes to 
market from Rhinebeck. It is said that 
$250,000 was brought into the town from 
violets this year (1907-8). Violet houses in 
some parts of the village are almost as numer- 
ous as dwellings. The outskirts, north, south, 
east, and west, are dotted with them. Violet 
culture has become epidemic. It is very prof- 

388 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

itable. A single crop in the early years of 
the industry often paid the cost of the house 
three or four times over. 

Nearly one hundred persons now own violet 
houses ; several possess two or more houses. 
A house holds over five thousand plants. Ten 
thousand flowers a week is an ordinary yield. 
Walking* through the village streets the glass 
roofs in the back yards present to the eye a 
queer appearance. There are many " glass 
houses," and therefore very little throwing of 
stones. The adage is observed. 

The standard violet house is one hundred 
and fifty feet long and twenty to twenty-four 
feet wide, with a low-pitched roof of glass 
like any greenhouse. A small shed is built 
across the end. Here the packing is done. 
At one end of the shed, and usually at a lower 
level, are the heater and coal bin. Pipes 
from the boiler run around the walls and a 
couple go down the middle of the house. Two 
aisles a foot or two deep separate the three 
beds by just space enough to walk in. Every 
possible inch of surface is planted. About 
twenty tons of coal will keep such a house in 
proper temperature, which must not exceed 
60 degrees in the day time, and it can run 
down to 40 degrees at night, for the season. 

The houses are usually well built ; so simple 

Violets 389 

is the plan that any man can build one with 
the local carpenter's help. Frames for the 
glass are reasonable in price in standard 
greenhouse sizes. The owner is often his own 
painter, glazier and even plumber and steam- 
fitter. The piping is done with cheap boiler 
tubing. Having installed a boiler and stocked 
a house with plants, zeal for expansion fol- 
lows. The same boiler will heat two or three 
houses as well as one. Cuttings are easily 
provided. The trebling of the capacity of 
the establishment does not multiply the ex- 
pense nor the care by three. The tempta- 
tion to enlarge is generally irresistible. The 
supply is never equal to the demand. 

Winter is the violet raiser's busy season. 
The plants bloom for seven months steadily, 
from September till May. Picking is a con- 
stant occupation. The beds are picked in reg- 
ular sequence. It is wasteful to let a plant 
go a week unpicked unless the weather has 
been unfavorable. On such days the plants 
stand still. An average plant yields sixty 
blossoms in a season. Many approach one 
hundred. The best growers are those who 
make the culture a study. There is much to 
learn. Few know T it all. 

This industry began in 1890, and to-da} 7 the 
growers own approximately 450,000 square 

390 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

feet of glass. Under these roofs 1,000,000 
plants are grown, which represent an annual 
income of over $200,000 for a season's pro- 
duction. There is money in it ; not easy but 

Picking violets may be a picturesque and 
poetical occupation in woodland glades in the 
sweet spring time, bat in winter in the violet 
house it is a prosaic and wearisome business, 
the most exacting in the whole round of the 
grower's varied program. At corn husking a 
man is on his feet and can exert his muscular 
force effectively. Here it must be restrained. 
A violet plant must be treated tenderly. The 
flowers must be chosen with intelligence. The 
bud is a bud, no matter how large, until the 
recurving of the outer petals entirely con- 
ceals the green disk. All buds and discolored 
or imperfect flowers are left by the picker. 

The beds are six to eight feet wide, with the 
aisle on one side. Picking from the aisle 
there are four rows to do. This means a 
reach of about a yard and a stoop that is 
backbreaking to the beginner. The shallow 
beds are, of course, the worst. Picking the 
outer rows, the picking board is required. 
The picker may lie on it at full length, but it 
is not at all like a hammock It is a narrow 
plank hooked by curved iron straps over a 

Violets 391 

heating- pipe. Wooden cleats secure it to the 
frame of the bed at the aisle. The positions 
the picker can assume are not many. Some 
may be less uncomfortable than others. One 
rule is fixed— the picker must not roll off. 
Boys become expert pickers. They get used 
to the board. Women and girls help in the 
rush season, but the work is too hard for 
them. The stooping and the twisting are 
painful, wearisome operations. 

Towards the last comes the picking of the 
leaves. They are heaped on a table before 
the "leafers," who receive the bunches from 
the tank. The flowers have freshened won- 
derfully in the short time since they left the 
warm hand of the picker. The string is 
loosened, and a row of overlapping leaves 
soon form a frill around the bunch. A coil of 
the string around each two or three leaves 
keeps them in place. The ends are securely 
tied and the stems wrapped in tinfoil. 

There is one sought-for violet grown in 
Rhinebeck. That is the Marie Louise, a 
thrifty double flower with luxuriant, lustrous 
foliage, long stems and deep, even color. It 
is the violet the New York market prefers. 

While shipments are made as early as the 
middle of September, the better stock comes 
for Thanksgiving and the Christmas holidays, 

392 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

when spending- money is plenty. The flowers 
get finer with every picking' until about the 
last of February, which is the zenith of the 
vigor and productivity of the plants. 

The well-being of the plants is the first con- 
cern of the cultivators the year round. They 
must be "cleaned" vigilantly in and out of 
season. In the midst of the harvest season 
boys follow the pickers. They take out 
blasted buds, broken stems, "false leaves" 
(little malformed ones), over-ripe flowers and 
unhealthy leaves. In short, any member 
showing a blemish or any lack of vitality is 
removed. The amount of waste that the beds 
3 r ield to these keen-eyed collectors is past 
belief, and the energy added to the plants is 

Rhinebeckers have accepted a formula for 
violet culture, and they are not afraid of hard 
work, but over-confidence in a formula should 
not prevent that serious study on broader 
lines that alone can make success permanent. 
There is always room for improvement. 

There is a noon express for New York which 
the violet growers very generally patronize. 
The express wagon starts for the depot about 
an hour before train time. So the picking 
and packing for this train must be done by 
eleven o'clock. The flowers are fresher and 


Violets 393 

more fragrant for the morning picking-, and 
have better keeping qualities. It is said that 
the lazy man waives these considerations, 
preferring to pick the day before and leave 
the bunches over night in the tank. 

Easter is the end of the violet season. The 
plants then have exhausted their powers. 
For months runners have seized the space 
between the rows, and the bed has become a 
solid mass of plants. The next step is all- 
important. Cuttings are to be made for next 
year's crop. Only the youngest, tenderest 
shoots are selected. Their tops are pruned to 
two or three leaves. If a root is started it is 
pinched off. These tender cuttings are set 
in boxes of clean, sharp sand and watered 
freely. They are kept in sheltered places and 
covered with newspapers. In four to six 
weeks they will be rooted and ready to set in 
the new beds. 

This culture course from one season to 
another, in experienced hands, is a continuous 
performance, both pleasant and profitable. 
To-day the violet industry is practically the 
main source of revenue in the town. It solved 
a serious problem at the right time. It should 
prove an "open door "to equally good oppor- 

who's who and was 

" Who that hath ever been 
Could bear to be no more? 
Yet who would tread again the scene 
He trod through life before ? " 


READERS will find in the preceding* pages, 
commencing- with the pioneers, Artsen- 
Van Wagenen, Roosa-Van Etten, Elton-Du 
Bois, Kip-Sleight, with the Heermance, Rad- 
clift'e, Van Vredenburg-h, Ostrander, Elmen- 
dorf, Schell, De Lamater, Piatt, and other 
connections; continuing- with the Beekman- 
Living*ston-Tillotson-Lewis - Garrettson - Rut- 
sen - Schuyler - Armstrong - Astor alliances; 
embracing- in addition the Palatine settlers 
and later comers, all that is necessary in the 
way of information as to "who that hath 
ever been" prominent in "ye olde town." 
The "Century Dictionary" says that history 
is "a past worthy of record," and Bacon said 
its true office is "to represent the events 
themselves tog-ether with the counsels, and to 
leave the observations and conclusions there- 
upon to the liberty and faculty of every man's 

Who's Who and Was 395 

judgment." A history could not be written 
without mention of those who played their 
part in making- it. So far as possible this has 
been done. The names found are of record. 
Nearly every pag-e contains one or more; who 
they were and what they did is told and 
deserved credit given. Every descendant or 
relative, direct or remote, of these worthy 
sires should be proud of his or her Rhinebeck 
affiliations. To trace ancestry as far back as 
possible is now a pleasing- task. 

The w r ard, precinct and town officers hav- 
ing- been named and the early freeholders 
listed, the postmasters are entitled to men- 
tion. In 1710 a postal system was proposed 
for the colonies. It was fifty years before it 
could be said to be in operation. In 1789 the 
United States assumed control. Postage then 
was from eig-ht to twenty-five cents a letter, 
according- to distance. Asa Potter appears to 
have been first postmaster on "the flatts." 
He was followed by John Fowkes, Christian 
Schell, William B. Piatt, Eliphalet Piatt, 
M.D., Albert A. Rider, Theophilus Gillender, 
John M. Keese, John N. Cramer, Andrew J. 
Odell, Allen H. Hoffman, Albert L. Rider, 
James C. McCarty and the present worthy 
incumbent, George Tremper. Up to 1857 the 
postoffice was located in one of the principal 

396 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

stores, the merchant being" also the post- 
master. Albert A. Rider was the last post- 
master of this class. The office had during 
his term so increased in importance as to 
require separation from other business. Mr. 
Rider made a first-class official. He had been 
town clerk for several years. His store com- 
manded the trade of a large farming section. 
His successor was engaged in no other busi- 
ness. Mr. Rider's eldest son, John P. Rider, 
like his father, is an able business man, and 
president of the Matteawan National Bank. 
The postoffice is now located in the Town 
hall, and has a rural free delivery annex. 

From the start homes took precedence in 
the town. The people were home makers. 
Some of the old homes became noted. That 
of Col. Henry Beekman, originally the Kip 
house of 1700, and Beekman-Livingston from 
1726 to 1840, and then Heermance, shown in 
frontispiece, is first on the list. (See pages 
6, 7, 26, 27, 89.) " Grasmere " stands second ; 
the first house having- been erected in 1773 by 
Gen. Richard Montgomery. (See pages 29, 
96, 97, 238, 274.) The present occupants are 
Mrs. F. A. Crosby and her son, Maunsel S. 
Crosby, the widow and son of Hon. Ernest 
H. Crosby, deceased, an eminent citizen of 
international fame, who was the son of the 




Who's Who and Was 397 

distinguished clergyman, Rev. Dr. Howard 
Crosby, deceased. From the Livingstons to 
the Crosbys the fame of Grasmere stands 

"Linwood" comes next. This estate is on 
Roosa lot No. 1. (See map, page 13.) In 
1790 it was the Van Etten farm. Dr. Thomas 
Tillotson bought it, erected a mansion and 
resided there until his death in 1832. Dr. 
Federal Vanderburgh then purchased it. He 
sold the land west of the creek to his son-in- 
law, John B. James, and he sold it to his 
brother, Augustus James, who lived there for 
thirty years. He sold it in 1868 to Alfred 
Wild, and it is now the property of Jacob 
Ruppert, a wealthy brewer who has erected 
an up-to-date mansion and improved the sur- 
roundings. For beauty of location and scen- 
ery it has no superior. (See pages 12, 57, 
104.) Its prestige remains. 

"The Grove" in point of time was the 
fourth in line. The mansion was erected by 
Col. Philip J. Schuyler before 1800. It is a 
sightly place, an attractive home. Mrs. Mary 
R. Miller became its owner in 1858, and it is 
now the residence of one of the progressive 
citizens of the town, her nephew, Dr. George 
N. Miller. (See pages 93, 99, 299.) 

" Wildercliffe " is next in order. Up to 1799 

398 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

it was a Van Wagenen farm. In that year 
Johannes, or "Hans," Van Wagenen ex- 
changed lands with Rev. Freeborn Garrett- 
son. (See page 153.) Wilder Klippe is Dutch, 
meaning- wild man, or Indian. On a rock on 
the shore are rude figures of two Indians, 
one holding a tomahawk, the other a calumet 
or pipe. War or peace, it is for the white 
man to say. He said peace. The Garrettsons 
built a new house and moved into it in Octo- 
ber, 1799. Mrs. Garrettson, once led in the 
dance by Gen. Washington, in a letter said, 
"The first night we spent in family praj^er." 
Mrs. Olin said of this house and family : 

"It was a home for the Lord's people; 
strangers were welcomed as brethren ; and 
many a weary itinerant has rested there as in 
the Palace Beautiful. Relatives and friends 
came to the house year after year, and en- 
joyed delightful interchange of thought and 
feeling with Christians of different denomina- 
tions. How many who have enjoyed the 
genial hospitality of this house will recall the 
dignified form of the hostess, with her marked 
features, her soft hazel eye, the brown hair 
parted under the close fitting cap with its 
crimped muslin border, and the neatly fitting 
dress, always simple, yet alwa} 7 s becoming." 

Miss Mary Garrettson (see page 168), the 

Who's Who and Was 399 

daughter, lived there until her death in 1879, 
continuing the generous hospitality for which 
Wildercliffe was always famous. Probably 
no house anywhere has entertained so many 
Methodist ministers, from the humblest to the 
greatest. H. E. Montgomery, a Wall street 
magnate, now makes it a summer home. 

"Clifton Point" was for many years the 
home of Hon. Freeborn Garrettson, Jr., and 
his distinguished family (see pages 97-8). 
The railroad company made a tunnel through 
the rocks there. It was always an attractive 
spot. Louis A. Ehlers became its owner after 
the Civil war. He recently sold it. A couple 
of murders in the locality gave it some noto- 
riety a few years ago. 

" Ellerslie," of well deserved fame, follows. 
In 1750 this was the farm of Hendricus Heer- 
mance. His daughter, Clartjen, married 
Jacobus Kip. The farm passed to the Kips 
by inheritance, and was in 1814 sold to Ma- 
turin Livingston, son-in-law of Gov. Lewis. 
He built a mansion on it. In 1816 James 
Thompson bought it. He gave it the name, 
"Ellerslie." In 1831 it was sold to James 
Warwick, and in 1841 to William Kelly. 
Under Mr. Kelly the acreage was increased 
to nearly eight hundred, covering about all of 
the lots three and four. (See map on page 13.) 

400 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

Mr. Kelly not only multiplied his acres, but 
did what money, taste, intelligence and enter- 
prise could do to adorn them and increase 
their productiveness. The mansion, though 
of an ancient type, was stately and capacious, 
and commanded river and mountain view of 
great extent and beauty. It stood in the 
borders of a park of five hundred fenceless 
acres, embracing wood and meadow land, 
lakelets and rivulets, and every variety of 
natural and charming scenery. With its 
avenues, walks, lawns, flower plats, fruit 
houses, orchards, gardens and conservatories, 
all artistically planned and arranged, and 
open to the public on week days under a few 
indispensable restrictions, there is nothing 
to-day of which Rhinebeck may so justly take 
pride to itself, because there is nothing for 
which it is so widely and favorably known as 
the presence within its borders of the Ellers- 
lie park and gardens. It is now the property 
of Gov. Levi P. Morton, who has erected a 
new, modern mansion on the old site. (See 
pages 260, 262, 297, 373-4.) 

" Ferncliff " is of later date. It was se- 
lected and named by William Astor, who was 
born July 12, 1829, and died April 25, 1892. 
He was a son of William B., and a grandson 
of John Jacob Astor. His mother was Gen. 

Who's Who and Was 401 

Armstrong's daughter. (See page 98.) His 
wife, Caroline Webster Schermerhorn, a lady 
of education, culture and refinement, recog- 
nized during her life as the leader of the 
" four hundred." William Astor was a prince 
among men. His public spirit was unlimited. 
In Florida, where he had large property 
interests, he explored the coast, built a rail- 
road, had two postoffices and a lake named in 
his honor — Astor, Armstrong, Schermerhorn. 
He refused the United States senatorship. 
He saved Rhinebeck from a heavy bonded 
indebtedness. (See page 336.) He was prom- 
inent in the Episcopal church, and an officer 
of the principal financial eleemosynary and 
philanthropic institutions of the State. Fern- 
cliff is to-day the largest estate in "ye olde 
town." It is owned by Col. John Jacob 
Astor, the son of William, and contains 
within its borders all that is desirable. 

Of Col. Astor the following is descriptive : 
Born at Ferncliff, July 13, 1864. Educated 
at St. Paul's School, Concord, New Hamp- 
shire. Entered Harvard in 1884 ; graduated 
in 1888. Traveled in Asia, Africa and South 
America, 1889-90. Married Miss Ava L. Will- 
ing, 1891. Won prizes at the Chicago World's 
Fair, 1893. Wrote "A Journey in Other 
Worlds" and "A Romance of the Future." 

402 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

Devised a rain-making- machine and patented 
a bicycle brake and a pneumatic road cleaner. 
Built an electric motor boat. Appointed aide 
on Gov. Morton's staff, 1895-6. Offered his 
yacht free to the government at the outbreak 
of the Spanish-American war, 1898. Equipped 
a mountain battery for the Philippines at a 
cost of $75,000. Entered the United States 
army as lieutenant-colonel on Gen. Shafter's 
staff ; saw active service before Santiago, and 
was present at the surrender of the Spaniards. 
Inherited a great fortune, estimated over 
$100,000,000, largely invested in city real 
estate. Is interested in automobiles, elec- 
tricity, flying machines, yachts, good roads 
and chemistry. Is popular in society, but 
cares little for show and gush. Is practical. 

" Ankony " is part of the original Kip pur- 
chase and patent. Was given its present 
name about 1866. (See page 8.) Now the 
residence of Henry Spies Kip, a descendant 
in direct line of the original owner. 

"Glenburn" is the summer home of Col. 
Stephen H. Olin, a well-known lawyer of high 
rank in his profession, and the son of Mrs. Olin 
of revered memory. The name of Olin in Rhine- 
beck is warm in the hearts of the people. 

" Castle-on-the-hill " is well named. It is a 
most appropriate location for a castle. It is 

Who 7 s Who and Was 403 

the country seat of William Starr Miller, and 
is all that its name implies. 

"Millbank," the former home of Dr. Van- 
derburgh and H. G. Dyar, with the ''Fox 
hollow farm," is now the estate of Tracy 
Dows, an enterprising- townsman who believes 
in good roads, good stock, good crops, and 
good things generally. It is one of the show 
places of the neighborhood. 

"Leacote" is an old residential property 
formerly owned by the Wainwrights, but now 
the home of Douglas Merritt, a wealthy 
public-spirited citizen, ever striving for the 
betterment of local conditions and making 
more attractive home surroundings. He fre- 
quently appeals through the home newspa- 
per to his townspeople to remedy evils. 

" Stonecrest " is a new place recently 
opened by George D. Beattys, a lawyer of 
Brooklyn. A fine residence is in process of 

"Hemlocks," east of the village, once the 
residence of Thomas and Albert Traver, is 
now occupied as a summer home by William 
Kinscherf, a jewelry merchant of the great 

"Steen Valetje" is on the north boundary 
line, and is the residence of F. H. Delano. 
(See pages 19, 21, and map, page 221.) 

404 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

"Rokeby" is of Armstrong-- Astor fame, 
the residence of the Chanlers. (See page 98.) 

There are many other homes in the town 
well entitled to mention ; the Suckley, Finck, 
Swartzwalder, Stein, etc., and in the village 
there are any number of beautiful homes, the 
residences of the first citizens of "ye olde 
town." (See pages 73, 74, 284.) 

The portraits of two remarkable women, 
one the mother of great men and noble 
women, and the other her revered grand- 
daughter, with those of a few of the men 
"who was," are inserted. 

Here endeth "Historic Old Rhinebeck." 


A Indian Deed to Artsen, Roosa and Elton. 

B Indian Deed to Kip. 

C Royal Patent to Artsen-Kip. 

D Royal Patent to Henry Beekman. 

E Release, Beekman to Artsen-Kip. 

F Deed, De Witt to Beekman. 

G First Tax Assessment, 1723. 

H Census of 1740. 

I Census of Slaves, 1755. 

J Signers of Revolutionary Pledge. 

K Staatsburgh. 

L Red Hook. 

M German Village of Rheinbach. 

N Census, 1790. 

O Some Old Graves. 

P A Beekman Deed. 

Q Supervisors and Town Clerks Since 1800. 

R Remarks. 


406 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

The first Indian deed for lands in what is now the 
town of Rhinebeck, is recorded in Book AA, Ulster 
eounty clerk's office, in Kingston, N. Y. (See page 
4.) The deed is dated June 8, 1686. It is a transla- 
tion in English of the original, and is as follows: 


" Translated.— It is acknowledged by these presents 
that upon the 8th day of June, 1686, in the presence- 
of the magistrates, have Aran Kee, Kreme Much 
and Korra Kee, young Indians, appeared, the which 
do acknowledge to have sold to Gerrit Artsen, Arie 
Rosa and Jan Elton a certain pareell of land, lying 
upon the east shore, right over against the mouth of 
the Redout creek, bounded between a small creek 
and the river, the which said creek is sold to the pur- 
chasers. The bounds of the said land beginneth at 
the parting of the lands of Henry Kip, and by a 
small creek called, in the Indian speech, Quanelos ; 
and then runs right through to a great oak tree, 
marked and scored by the Indians; then runs south 
to where the uppermost creek comes into the same ; 
and then by the said creek to the river ; for which 
the said purchasers promise to pay to the aboriginal 
sellers, or cause to be paid, as follows : Six buffaloes, 
four blankets, five kettels, four guns, five horns, five 
axes, ten kans of powder, eight shirts, eight pairs of 
stockings, forty fathoms of wampum, orsewant, two 
drawing knives, two adzes, ten knives, half anker 
rum, one frying pan ; which payment shall and must 
be made on the 1st of November next ensuing; and 
with the payment the Indians are bound to give a 
free transport and license unto them, the which both- 

Appendix 407 

parties promise to adhere to. The day and year as 

above said. 


Gerrit Artsen, Aran CO Kee, 


Arie Roosa, Kreme O Much, 


Jan Elton, Korra — Kee, 


in the presence of us Magistrates : 
Benjamin Provoost, 

Jan X Jorken, 



Henry X Elison. 

" Upon ditto the sale of the land the same Indians 
acknowledge to have given unto Gerrit Artsen, Arie 
Rosa and Jan Elton a valley situate eastward from 
the land bought by them, named Mansakenning, and 
a path to the same, upon approbation of his honor, 
on the 8th day of June, 1686, Kingston. 
I His 

Aran </) Kee, 

( mark. 


Kreme O Much, 


Korra — Kee. 

In the presence of us Commissioners : 
Benjamin Provoost, 


Jan x Jorken, 



Henry x Elison." 


408 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

Another Indian deed, not of record, dated July 28, 
1686, written in English, and in the possession of 
Henry Spies Kip, a descendant of the Hendrick Kip 
(see page 5) named in the deed, and the present owner 
of " Ankony " on the land sold, is as follows : 


" We, the underwritten Ankony, one of ye Esopus 
Indians, and Anamaton, and Calycoon, one of the 
Esopus Sachams, do acknowledge to have received 
of Hendrick Kip, of Kingston, full satisfaction for a 
parcell of land lying over against the Redout kill, on 
the north side of Arie Rosa, on the river, which is re- 
ceived hy me, Ankony, Anamaton and Calycoon, in 
full satisfaction for the above said lands. In witness 
whereof, have hereunto set our hands, this 28th day 
of July, 1686. 

The mark of W Ankony, 
The mark of (") Anamaton, 
Testis: The mark of U Calycoon. 

Henry Pawling." 

Confirming these sales made by the Indian owners, 
a Royal Patent was granted by King James the Sec- 
ond, on the 2d day of June, 1688. (See page 4.) 

COPY royal patent 

"Thomas Dougan, Captain-General and Governor- 
in-Chiefe in and over the Province of New York and 
Territoryes depending thereon in America, under his 
most sacred Majesty, James, the Second, by the 
grace of God King of England, Scotland, France and 

Appendix 409 

Ireland, Defender of the faith, &c. To all to whom 
these presents shall come sendeth greeting. Whereas, 
Gerrit Arsen, Arrian Rose, John Elton, Hendrick 
Kipp and Jacob Kipp, by vertue of my lycense, con- 
sent and approbation, have purchased of and from 
the Indians, natural owners and possessors of the 
same, a, certain parcell of land lying on the east side 
of Hudson's river; in the Dutchess' County, over 
against the Rondout Kill, beginning at a certain 
marked tree at the river side ; from thence running 
upon a direct line eastward two hundred and seventy 
Rodds to a certain small creek; thence along said 
creek southwesterly seven hundred ninety and four 
Rodds ; and thence westerly along the said creek to 
the river, containing twelve hundred a-cres, or there- 
about. And, Whereas, the said Gerrit Arsen, Arrian 
Rose, John Elton, Hendrick Kipp and Jacob Kipp 
have made their requests unto me, that I would, on 
behalf of his Majesty, grant and confirm unto them, 
the said Gerrit Arsen, Arrian Rose, John Elton, Hen- 
drick Kipp and Jacob Kipp, their heirs and assigns, 
the before mentioned parcell of land and premises, 
with the appurtenances : Know ye that by vertue of 
my commission, and authority from his most sacred 
Majesty, and power in me being and residing, in con- 
sideration of the quitt-rent and chiefe rent herein 
after reserved, and divers other good and lawful con- 
siderations me thereunto moveing, I have given, 
granted and confirmed, and by these presents do 
hereby give, grant and confirm unto the said Gerrit 
Arsen, Arrian Rose, John Elton, Hendrick Kipp and 
Jacob Kipp, their heirs and assigns forever, all the 
before recited parcell of land and premises, with all 
and every the appurtenances, together with all and 
singular lands, meadows, woods, moors, marshes, 

410 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

waters, hunting, hawking, fishing and fowling, and 
all other proffitts, advantages, commoditys, emolu- 
ments and hereditaments to the said parcel of land 
and premises belonging, or in anywise appertaining. 
To have and to hold the said parcell of land and 
premises, with all and singular, the hereditaments 
and appurtenances, unto the said Gerrit Arsen. 
Arrian Rose, John Elton, Hendrick Kipp and Jacob 
Kipp, their heirs and assigns, to the only proper 
use and behoof of them, the said Gerrit Arsen, Arrian 
Rose, John Elton, Hendrick Kipp and Jacob Kipp, 
their heirs and assigns forever. To be holden of his 
most sacred Majesty, his heirs and successors, in free 
and common socage, according to the tenure of East 
Greenwich, in the county of Kent, in his Majesty's 
Kingdome of England, yeelding, rendering, and pay- 
ing therefor unto his said Majesty, his heirs and suc- 
cessors, forever, yearly, and every year, the quan- 
tity of eight bushels of good, sweet, merchantable 
winter wheat, as a quitt rent, to be delivered at the 
city of New York, unto such officer or officers as 
shall from time to time be impowered to receive the 
same, in lieue, place and stead of all service due, and 
demand whatsoever. In testimony whereof I have 
signed these presents with my hand writing, and 
caused the same to be recorded in the Secretary's 
office, and the seal of this his Majesty's province to be 
thereunto affixed, this second day of June, in the 
fourth year of his Majesty's reign, and in the year of 
our Lord, One Thousand Six Hundred Eighty and 

Thomas Dougan." 


" May it Pleas yor Exc y 

Appendix 411 

"The Attorney General has perused this grant and 
finds therein nothing prejudicial to your Majesties- 
"Exad May 31, 1688." W. Nichols." 

"Att a councill held at ffortt James, July 28, 1688; 
Present, his Excellency, Major Antho : Brockholls, 
Major Baxter, Major Phillips, Major Cortlandt, Coll. 
Bayard, this pattent was approved of. 

Geo. Brewerton." 

"Recorded in the Secretary's office for the province 
of New York, in Lib. No. 2, begun 1686, Page 319 &c 
" Exad. by Geo. Brewerton." 

The original of this patent fell into the hands of 
the Roosa family, and passed from them, through the 
Van Etten family, to Hon John N. Cramer, a de- 
scendant from whom it passed into the possession of 
the late Hon. William Kelly, and then to Hon. Levi 
P. Morton, whose lands are all within the limits of 
the territory which it conveyed. It is of parchment, 
perfectly preserved, and has a seal four inches in di- 
ameter, enclosed in a tin box. The lands conveyed 
by it lie between Landsman and Rhinebeck creeks 
and the river, and extend from Vanderburgh's cove 
north to a line drawn directly west from the Hog 
bridge to the river. 

It does not appear that the Beekmans ever pur- 
chased any lands of the Indians in what is now the 
town of Rhinebeck. The "Calendar of Land Pa- 
pers " states that in 1695 Henry Beekman, the son of 
William, petitioned for a patent for land in Dutchess 
county, lying opposite Esopus creek, and known by 
the name of Sepeskenot. On the 22d of April, 1697, 

412 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

he obtained a patent for these lands, which says it is 
for lands "lying to the north of Hendrick Kip, and 
alongst Hudson's river, to the bounds of Major Peter 
Schuyler, containing in length about four miles, and in 
breadth into the woods as far as the bounds of the 
said Major Schuyler." He was to pay therefor yearly 
and every year forever, next and after the expiration 
of seven years * * * upon the first day of annun- 
ciation (the 25th of March,) at the City of New York, 
the yearly rent of forty shillings. 

This patent did not define the boundaries of the 
lands as fully and accurately as Col. Beekman de- 
sired, and he obtained another in the place of it, on 
the 25th of June, 1703. (See pages 18, 19, 21.) 

"beekman patent" 

The following is a copy of the " Beekman Pattent," 
as recorded in Book 7 of Patents, Page 219, and filed 
in the office of the Secretary of State, at Albany. It 
was copied for " Historic Old Rhinebeck." It will be 
noticed that there are many peculiarities in the style, 
construction of sentences, the manner of spelling and 
abbreviating words, punctuation, &c, such as " ff " 
instead of capital " F," the use of " tt " and the addi- 
tion of " e " and other features which appear odd 
enough. Here it is verbatim : 

Anne by the Grace of God of England Scotland 
ffrance & Ireland Queen Defender of the ffaith, &c. 
To all to whom these Presents shall come sendeth 
Greeting Whereas our Loving subject Coll. Henry 
Beekeman of Kings toume in the county of Ulster within 
our Province of New York in America, one of our Jus- 
tices of the Peace for the said county of Ulster & 
Judge of our Court of Common Pleas there by his Pe- 
tition to our Eight trusty and well beloved Cousin Ed- 

Appendix 413 

ward Viscount Cornbury our Capt. Genii. & Govr. in 
Oheife in and over our Province of New York afore- 
said & Territories Depending thereon in America Pre- 
ferred in Council the Eighteenth day of June instant, 
therein Setting forth thatt having obtained Letters 
Patents bearing Date the two and twentieth Day of 
Aprill one thousand six hundred ninety & seven from 
Coll Benjamin ffletcher then Governour of our said 
Province of New York for two severall p'rcells of Land 
in Dutches County within our Province aforesaid att 
& under ye yearly Quitt rent of ffortey shillings the 
Bounds of one of w'ch Percells of Land not being so 
fully mentioned & expressed in the said Letters Pat- 
tents thereof as was intended hath humbly prayed our 
Grant or Letters Pattents of the said two Parcells of 
Land in Dutches County aforesaid according to the 
reall & true Bounds and extent thereof and of each of 
them upon Surrender of the said former Letters Pat- 
tents thereof by the said Coll Benjamin ffletcher 
Granted as aforesaid att and under the said Yearly 
Pent of ffortey Shillings the which petition Seeming 
reasonable unto us and we being minded to Grant the 
same Know yee that for and in Consideration of the 
said Coll Henry Beekman Surrender of the before 
recited Letters Pattents of the two several p'rcells of 
Land in Dutchess County aforesaid to our said Right 
trusty & well beloved Cousin Edward Viscount Corn- 
bury our Capt Genii & Govr in Cheife aforesaid in Coun- 
cill to be made Void & Cancelled before the passing 
hereof and for divers others Good Causes & Considera- 
tions us thereunto moving wee of our Special Grace Cer- 
tain Knowledge & meere motion have Given Granted 
Ratified and Confirmed & in & by these Presents Doe for 
us our Heires and Successors Give Grant<Ratifie & Con- 
firm unto the said Coll Henry Beekeman of Kingstowne 

414 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

aforesaid in the said County of Ulster our Loving 
Subject aforesaid his Heires and assigns all that Tract 
of Land in Dutchess County aforesaid Situate lying & 
being on the East side of Hudsons River beginning att 
a Place Called by the Indians Quaningquaios over 
against the Kleyn Sopus my being the Northern Bounds 
of the Land called Pawlings Purchase from thence 
extending Northerly by the side of Hudsons River afore- 
said untill it comes to a Stone Creek over against the 
Kallcoon Hook wch is the Southerly Bounds of the 
Land of Coll Peter Schuyler formerly Stiled Major 
Schuyler from thence Easterly along the Southerne 
Bounds of the Land of the said Coll Peter Schuyler 
untill it Comes so farr East as to reach a certain Pond 
called by the Indians Waraghkemeeck and from thence 
extending Southerly by a Line Parralell to Hudsons 
River aforesaid untill a Line Runn from the place- 
where first begann Easterly into the woods does meet 
the said Parralell Line bounded Westerly by the said 
Hudsons River Northerly by the Land of the said 
Peter Schuyler Easterly by the said Parralell Line 
and Southerly by the Line Drawne from the place 
where it was att first begann and meeting the said 
Parralell Line wch is the Northern Bounds of the said 
Land before Called Pawlings Purchase and also all 
that other Tract of Land in Dutchess County afore- 
said Beginning att the North side of the high lands att 
ye East of the Land of Coll Courtlandt Deceased & 
Company and running in Length as farr as the said 
Land of Coll Courtlandt & Compa aforesaid in Breadth 
from the East Bounds of the said Land of Coll Court- 
landt and Compa aforesaid so farr as the Line between 
this our said Province of New York and our Collony 
of Connecticutt extends, together with all woods under- 
woods Trees and Timber Standing Growing or renew- 

Appendix 415 

ing in or upon the said severall Tracts of Land afore- 
said or either of them or any Part or Parcell of them 
or either of them and all ffeilds Pastures Meadowes 
Marshes Swamps Pooles Ponds Waters Watercourses 
Rivers Runns Streams and Brooks within the Bounds 
and Limitts aforesaid as also free Liberty of ffishing 
ffouling hawking and hunting within the said several 
Tracts of Land aforesaid and every or any Part or 
prcell thereof and all other Proffitts Priviledges bene- 
fitts and advantages Hereditaments and appurtenances 
whatsoever to the said Severall Tracts of Land in 
Dutchess County aforesaid or either of them belonging 
or in anywise appertaining To have and to hold ye 
Said Severall Tracts of Land Woods underwoods Trees 
Timbers melds Pastures Meadows Marshes Swamps 
Pooles Ponds Waters Watercourses Rivers Runns 
Streams and ffishing ffouling hawking and hunting 
and all and Singular the Premises with appurtenances 
hereby Given and Granted or meant mentioned or 
intended to be hereby Given or Granted as aforesaid 
and every Part and Parcell thereof unto the said Coll 
Henry Beekeman his Heires and assigns forever to the 
Sole and onely proper use benefitt and behoofe of him 
the said Collonell Henry Beekeman his Heires and as- 
signs forever to be holden of us our Heires & Succes- 
sors in ffree and Common Locage as of our Mannor of 
East Greenwich in the County of Kent within our 
Realm of England Yeilding and Paying therefore 
Yearly and every Year unto us our Heires and Suc- 
cessors att our Citty of New Yorke or to our Collector 
or Receiver Generall there for the time being att or 
upon the ffeast Day of the Annunciation of the blessed 
Virgin Mary the Rent or Sume of ffortey Shillings 
Current Moneys of our said Province of New York in 
Lieu and Stead of all other Rents Services Dues 

416 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

Duties and Demands whatsoever to Grow due and 
payable unto us our Heires or Successors for the same 

In testimony whereof wee have Caused the Seale of 
our said Province of New York to these our Letters 
Patents to be affixed 

Wittness our Right Trusty and well beloved Cousin 
Edward Viscount Cornbury our Captain Generall and 
Govr in Chiefe in and over our Province of New York 
aforesaid and Territories Depending thereon in Amer- 
ica and Vice Admirall of the same &c in Councill att 
our ffort att New York aforesaid the twenty fifth day 
of June in the Second Year of our Reigne Annoq Dom 

Lett the Seal of the Province be 
affixed to Letters Pattents for Coll 
Henry Beekman of Kingstown in the -^ Honan 
County of Ulster for two Tracts or Secrv 

Parcells of Land in Dutchess County 
as by the said Pattents may more at 
large appear. Dated att New York 
this 25th Day of June 1703. Cornbury. 

To Mr Honan Secr'y- 

As Beekman's second patent covered land already 
patented to Artsen, Roosa, Elton and Kip, the son 
of the patentee Henry Beekman, Jr., having suc- 
ceeded his father, made a release to settle all ques- 
tion of title (see page 21), in substance as follows : 


" Know all christian people to whom these present 
writings shall or may come, that I, Henry Beekman, 
of Dutchess county, in the province of New York, for 

Appendix 417 

divers good causes and considerations him t here- 
unto moving, hath remised, released and forever quit 
claimed, and by these presents for himself and his 
heirs doth fully, clearly and absolutely remise, re- 
lease and forever quit claim unto Jacob Kipp, 
Mathias Sleight, Evert Van Wagenen, Evert Roosa, 
Henricus Heermance, Goose Van Wagenen, Barent 
Van Wagenen and Lavvrens Osterhout, all of said 
Dutchess county and province of New York, yeo- 
men, in their full and peaceable possession, and 
seizen, and to their heirs and assigns forever, all 
such right, estate, interest and demand whatsoever, 
as he the said Henry Beekman had or ought to have 
of in or to all that certain tract or parcel of land in 
Dutchess county which tract of land is heretofore 
granted to captain Arie Roosa, John Eltinge and 
others in company, cituating and being over against 
the Rondout Kill * * * containing the quantity 
of land as it is comprehending and lays within its 
boundaries according to the express words of said 
pattint granted as above said, and in the year of our 
Lord one thousand six hundred and eighty-eight 
(Alway acceptd, and it is hereby forever reserved to 
the said Henry Beekman, his heirs, exects, administs, 
or assigns, or to any of them, all such right title 
clame and demand or possession which be, the said 
Henry Beekman, hath and ought to have in said 
pattint by vertue of such title and conferences from 
and under hand and seal of Hendrick Kip, and all 
other assurances, divisions and contracts made over 
and confirmed to the said Henry Beekman, which of 
right did to the said Hendrick Kip belong as his in- 
heritance from his father, Hendrick Kip, deceased, 
one of ye partners of ye above resighted patin, all 
which right so belonging heretofore to the said Hen- 

418 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

drick Kip is hereby excluded by these presents) * * * 
Dated: March 19, 1726. Witnessed by Jacob Kip, 
jr. and William Van Vredenburgh, jr." 

The Indian deed "B"and this quit claim deed "E" 
were shown this writer in 1872. 

These instruments were never recorded. The deed 
"E" is in the handwriting of Col. Henry Beekman. 

The deed from Peek DeWitt to Henry Beekman, 
Jr. , bears date the 9th day of August, 1715, and reads 
as follows: 


"To all christian people to whom these presents 
shall or may come, Peek De Witt, of Dutchess, in the 
province of New York, in America, sends greeting. 
Now know yea that the said Peek De Witt by and 
with the consent and good liking of Maritje, his wife, 
testified by her signing and sealing of these presents, 
for divers good causes him thereunto moving, but 
more especially for and in consideration of an ex- 
change of a certain tract of land lying and being in 
the county of Ulster, in the corporation, Kingston, 
on the south side of the Rondout creek, above the 
great fall, in said Rondout creek, and of ten acres of 
fly or meadow, lying on the north side of said Ron- 
dout creek, between the fly of John Frere and the fly 
of Coll. Henry Beekman, this day conveyed and as- 
sured unto the said Peek De Witt by the said Coll. 
Henry Beekman, have given, granted, bargained, 
sold, released, certified and confirmed * * * unto 
Henry Beekman, jr., of Kingston, in Ulster County, 
gent, the just third part of all that certain tract or 
parcell of land, situate, lying, and being in Dutchess 

Appendix 419 

County, beginning at the north bounds of the land of 
the said Coll. Henry Beekman, and so along Hudson's 
river to a certain small creek or run of water to the 
north of Magdalene's Island and as far into the 
woods as the said patent for the said land of Coll. 
Peter Schuyler extends, with the just third part of 
the mill, and mill creek, and the appurtenances there- 
unto belonging, together with all and singular the 
orchards, buildings, gardens, fencing and improve- 
ments on the same, to have and to hold the said just 
third part of the said tract or parcell of land, mill 
and mill creek, with all and singular the profits, ben- 
efits, advantages, commodities * * * unto him, 
the said Henry Beekman, jr., his heirs and assigns 
forever. In witness whereof the said Peek Be Witt, 
and Marit je, his wife, have hereunto put their hands 
and affixed their seals, in Kingston, this ninth day 
of August, in the second year of the reign of our 
sovereign Lord George, by the grace of God of Great 
Britain, France and Ireland, King Defender of the 
Faith, &c, Anno Domine, 1715. 

"Sealed and delivered in the presence of us, 

Henry Beekman, Peek P. D. W. DeWitt, 



Johannes Wynkoop, Maritie x DeWitt. 


In the presence of me, Mattys Jan sen. 
W. Wattingham, Justice of the Peace." 
Recorded in Ulster Co., Liber No. 66, Folio 383, 
Wattingham, clerk. 

By this purchase from Peek DeWitt, Henry Beek- 
man, jr., obtained five thousand five hundred and 
forty-one acres of land on the north of and adjoining 
the patent of his father. This covered all of the 


Historic Old Rhinebeck 

present town of Rhinebeck except the patent of Art- 
sen, Roosa, & Co.; also part of Red Hook. 

Upon the southerly portion of this land some of 
the Palatines were settled soon after its purchase, 
and this fixes the date of their arrival in Rhinebeck. 
The fall of 1715 was the time. (See page 42.) 


The first tax assessment was in 1723. (See page 80. } 
The inhabitants, residents, sojourners and free- 
holders of Dutchess County are rated and assessed 
by the assessors chosen for the said county, as follows % 


£ s. d. 
Widow Harmon Knick- 
erbocker 5 5 

Widow Adam Van El- 

styn 5 5 

LaurensKnickerbacker 18 18 

Barent VaiiBenthuysen 10 2 
Johan Jacobus Melus .707 

Jacob Hooghtyling 12 12 

JanVasburgh 11 11 

Hans Jacob Dencks ... 12 12 

Aarent Feinhout 6 6 

Nicolas Row 18 18 

Fallentyne Bender 8 8 

Philip Feller 5 5 

Johannes Risd or ph.... 8 8 

Barent Noll 8 8 

Jurrie Soefelt 17 17 

Lawrence Hendrick... 10 10 
Annauiaas Teel, Wag- 

aner 10 10 

Frederick Mayer 10 10 

Karl Neher 14 14 

Philips, cooper 12 12 

Herry Teder 12 12 

Hans Jerry Prigell .... 8 12 

Hans Adam Frederick. 8 8 
Henrick Sheerman.... unable 

HenrickBeem 7 7 

Johannes Backus 9 9 

Andries Countreman.. 6 7 

Jurryan Saltman 6 6 

£ s. d. 

Peter Tybell 15 15 

Alburtus Schryver .... 5 5 

Nicolas Eemeigh 1U 10 

Henrick Ohle 10 10 

Carel Ohle unable 

Adam Eykert 18 18 

Hans Lambert 19 19 

Stephen Froelick 8 8 

Martten VVheitman 6 6 

Hendrick Buys 8 8 

Jacob Van Kempeu ... 10 10 

Nicolas Bonesteel 7 7 

Areyen Hendrick, Van 

Pine 12 12 

Isaac Borhans 10 10 

Evert Knickerbacker.. 7 7 

Johannes Row 6 6 

Simon Westfall 14 14 

John Windfield 5 5 

Jacobus Van Etten 5 5 

Martten Boock 6 6 

Peter Dob 12 12 

Johannes Dob 6 6 

Cornel iusKnickerback- 

er 11 11 

Vallentine Shaver 5 5 

Peter Wooleven, Jr 5 5 

Bastian Traver 7 7 

Deirk De Duytser 13 13 

Barent Van Wagenen . 21 1 1 

Abraham Freer, Jr.... 8 8 




Hans Felten Woleven. . 

Peter Woleven 

Frans Kelder 

Joseph Reykert 

Hendrick S never 

Peter Van Ostrander . . 
Estate Mary tie Ostran- 

William Traphagen . . . 

Jacob Kip 

Hendrick Kip 

Mathvs Sleight 

Abraham Freer 

Evert Van Wagenen. . . 
Hendricus Heermanse. 
Goose Van Wagenen . . 
Laurense Osterhout. . . 
Hendricus Beekman. . . 

Jacob Ploegh 

Tunis Pier 

Larense Teder 

North Ward, 97 people, assessed. 

Tax, at Is. on a pound 

Middle Ward, 48 people, assessed 

Tax, at Is. on a pound 

South Ward, 48 people assessed . 
Tax, at Is. on a pound 

s. d. 


1 8 

2 15 


1 12 


1 9 


1 1 


Gerardus Lewis 

Jurrie Westfall 

Johannes Berenger, 


Wen del Polefer 

Arie Roosa 

Peter Van Etteni 

Roelif Kip 

William Simon 

Martin Burger 

Adam Dinks . . , 

Henrick Swetselar 

William Vredenburgh. 

William Schot 

John Jurie Aere 

Christian Berg 

Lazuroz Dome 

Simon Coal 

Aery a Rosa, Jr 

Jurie Shever 

Philip Saloman 

£ s. d. 

8 8 

8 8 

8 8 

8 8 

8 8 

8 8 

9 9 
5 5 
5 5 

10 10 

8 8 



,£105S 15 7 

£54 8 
40 12 

. 27 3 
£122 3 


£2443 15 7 

This tax list shows that in 1722 the North Ward, 
which comprised the present towns of Red Hook and 
Rhinebeck, contained more taxable persons than both 
the others, paid very nearly twice as much tax as the 
South, which contained the town of Fishkill, and 
was assessed £276 15s. more than the Middle Ward, 
which contained the town of Poughkeepsie. Of 
course, the North Ward contained the thirty-five 
families of Gov. Hunter's Palatines, found there in 
171S ; and, as the list of names shows quite a number 
besides. Here are old names referred to on page 42. 

A census of the county was taken in 1740, and the 


Historic Old Rhinebeck 

following freeholders were found in Rhinebeck pre- 
cinct. This precinct then extended from Pawling's 
south line on the south, to Columbia county on the 
north, and from the river on the west, to the Nine 
partners' line on the east. Leaseholders paid the 
taxes. A freeholder was not necessarily the owner 
of the fee. (See page 82.) 

Henry Beekman, 
L. Knickerbacker, 
Nicholas Hoffman, 
Martinus Hoffman, 
B. Van Benthuysen, 
Philip Louden, 
Hendrick Kip, 
Nicholas Row, 
Jury Soefelt, 
Zacharias Haber, 
Frederick Sipperly, 
Johannes Spaller, 
Jury Felder, 
William Cole, 
Hans Hayner, 
Johannes P. Snyder, 
Michael Sipperly, 
David Ri chart, 
Jacob Moul, 
Mathys Eernst, 
Adam Ostrander, 
Simon Kool, 
Gotfried Hendrick, 
Wendel Yager, 
Jacob Drom, 
Martinus Shoe, 

Andries Wilderwax, 
Frans Nieher, 
Christovel Snyder, 
Martin Tiel, 
Arnout Velie, 
Lawrence Tiel, 
Jacob Cool, 
Philip More, 

Hendricus Heermance, 
Evert Van Wagenen, 
Johannes Backus, 
HansV. Wolleven, 
Hans Lambert, 
Joseph Rykert, 
Hendrick Sheffer, 
Peter Ostrander, 

Jan Van Benthuysen, B. Van Steenburgh, 

Zacharias Smith, 
Josias Ross, 
Gysbert Westfall, 
Alburtus Schryver, 
Lawrence Osterhout, 
Roeloff Kip, 
Mathys Sleight, 
Tunis Pier, 
Jury Ackert, 
Evert Knickerbacker 
Nicholas Bonesteel, 
Jacobus VanEtten,Jr 
Basteaan Trever, 
Conradt Berringer, 
Wendel Polver, 
Peter Van Etten, 
William Simon, 
Jury Adam Soefeldt, Abraham Kip, 
Philip Foelandt, 
These are old names referred to on page 42. 

Hans Velte Shaffer, 
William Freer, 
William Schot, 
Peter Tippel, 
Stephen Frelick, 
Andries Heermance, 
Michael Polver, 
Johannes Weaver, 
Wm, Van Vreden- 

burgh, Jr., 
Johannes Kip, 
Arie Hendricks, 
Wm. Van Vreden- 

Isaac Kip, 
Joseph Kip, 
Goese Van Wagenen, 
A rent Ostrander. 



fn 1755 n census of the slaves in the countv was 

Appendix 423 

taken (see page 84); the owners and number of slaves 
in Rhinebeck precinct were as follows : 

Captain Zachariah Hoffman's List. — Col. Martin 
Hoffman owned ten ; Captain Zachariah Hoffman, 
four ; Vullared Widbeck, two ; Harmon Knicker- 
backer, two ; John Van Benthuysen, four ; Barent 
Van Benthuysen, eight ; Anthony Hoffman, one ; 
Adam Pitzer, one ; John Vosburgh, three ; Captain 
Evert Knickerbacker, one ; Rier Schermerhorn, one ; 
Peter Heermance, one ; Garret Heermance, one — 
altogether thirty-eight. 

Captain Evert K?iickerbacker's List. — Jacob Sie- 
mon, one ; Margaret Benner, one ; Symon Kool, two ; 
Nicolas Stickel, one ; Johannes Feller, one ; Petrus 
Ten Broeck, five ; Mrs. Catharine Pawling, two ; An- 
dries Heermance, two — altogether fifteen. 

Captain Frans Neher's List. — Mrs. Alida Rutsen, 
six ; Mrs. Rachel Van Steenburgh, two ; Lawrense 
Tiel, one ; Philip Veller, two ; Johannes Lambert, 
one ; Jack Keip, four ; Roelof Keip, two ; Abraham 
Keip, three ; Gerrit Van Benthuysen, three ; George 
Soefeldt, one ; George Adam Soefeldt, one ; Susan 
Agnes Sheever, one ; Cornelius Ostrander, one ; 
Mrs. Cathlyntie Van Vredenburgh, one — altogether 

Captain Hendricus Heermance 's List. — Hendricus 
Heermance, three ; Gerrit Van Wagenen, two ; Aart 
Van Wagenen, one ; Evert Van Wagenen, two ; 
Johan Van Wagenen, one ; Peter DeWitt, four ; Jog- 
ham Reddely, two ; Mathew Sleight, two ; Hendrick 
Sleight, one; Jacobus Van Etten, Jr., one; Col. Hen- 
drick Beekman, eight; Lea Van Wagenen, one; 
Herry Hendricks, two ; William Traphagen, one ; 
Joe Croffert, one ; Arie Hendricks, one ; Charles 
Crooke, one — altogether thirty-four. In the pre- 

424 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

cinct, fifty-two slave-holders, one hundred and six- 
teen slaves. 


After the battle of Lexington, on the 19th of April, 
1775, the people of Dutchess County were asked to 
sign the following pledge : (See page 88. ) 

"Persuaded that the rights and liberties of Amer- 
ica depend, under God, on the firm union of its in- 
habitants in a vigorous prosecution of the measures 
necessary for its safety, and convinced of the neces- 
sity of preventing anarchy and confusion, which at- 
tend a dissolution of the powers of government, we, 
the freemen, freeholders and inhabitants of Dutchess 
County, being greatly alarmed at the avowed design 
of the ministry to raise a revenue in America, and 
shocked by the bloody scene now enacting in Massa- 
chusetts bay, do, in the most solemn manner, resolve 
never to become slaves, and do associate under all 
the ties of religion, honor and love to our country, to 
adopt and to carry into execution whatever measures 
may be recommended by the Continental Congress, 
or resolved upon by our provincial convention for 
the purpose of preserving our constitution, of oppos- 
ing the several arbitrary acts of the British Parlia- 
ment, until a reconciliation between Great Britain 
and America, on constitutional principles, which we 
most solemnly desire, can be obtained : and that we 
will, in all things, follow the advice of our general 
committee respecting the purposes aforesaid, the 
preservation of peace and good order, and the safety 
of individuals and property." 

Those in the precinct of Rhinebeck who thus repu- 



diated the British Government, and placed them- 
selves under the power of new men and new meas- 
ures, were as follows : 

Petrus Ten Broeck, 
P. G. Livingston, 
George Sheldon, 
William Beem, 
John Van Ness, 
Herman Hoffman, 
Ananias Cooper, 
David Van Ness, 
Egbert Benson, 
Jacob Hermanse, 
Andries Hermanse, 
Peter Hermanse, 
Zach. Hoffman, Jr., 
Martin Hoffman, 
Zacharias Hoffman, 
Abraham Cole, 
James Everett, 
William Pitcher, Jr. 
Jacob More, Jr., 
Christian More, 
Lodowick Elseffer, 
Isaac Walworth, 
Samuel Green, 
Peter Traver, 
Andrew Simon, 
Jacob Fisher, 
Samuel Elmendorf, 
Zacharias Backer, 
Johannes Hannule. 
Johannes Richter. 
Levi Jones, 
Isaac Cole. 

Samuel Haines, 
Peter Ledwyck, 
Jacob Elmendorph. 
Jan Elmendorph, 
Patt Hogan, 
Evert Hermanse, 
John Cole, 
Petrus Pitcher, 
Zacharias Root, 
Edward Wheeler, 
Peter Hoffman. 
William Beringer, 
Conrad Berringer, 
Henry Klum. Jr., 
C. Osterhout, 
Peter Cole, 
Simon Kole, 
Jacob Maul, 
Everardus Bogardus, 
Simon Westfall, 
Jacob Tremper, 
Henry Titemor, 
John Mares, 
James Ostrander, 
Christover Weaver, 
Peter Westfall, Jr. 
Henry Gissebergh, 
W. Van Vraden burgh, 
Jacob Kip. 
James Lewis. 
Peter De Witt, 
John Pawling, 


Historic Old Ehinebeck 

Hendrick Miller, 
Simon Cole, Jr., 
Frederick Weir, 
John Banks, 
John Garrison, 
Nicholas Hermanse, 
Philip Bonesteal, 
Simon S. Cole, 
Andries Michal, 
John Davis, 
Christian Miller, 
Wilhelmus Pitcher, 
John Hermanse, 
Godfrey Gay, 
v Henrich Tetor, 
Johnannes Smith, 
Jeab Meyer, 
William Harrison, 
Christoffel Schneider, 
Christopher Fitch, 
John Schermerhorn, 
Henry Waterman, Jr., 
Jeab Waterman, 
Henry Beekman, 
Evert Van Wagenen, 
Art Van Wagenen, 
H. J. Knickerbacker, 
William Tuttle, 
Stephen Sears, 
Joseph Elsworth, 
Jacob Thomas, 
Philip Feller, 
Harman Whitbeck, 
Evert Vasbnrgh, 
John Moore, 

Alburtus Sickner 
Andrew Bowen, 
Martinus Burger 
Johannes Scutt, 
Jacob Sickner, Jr., 
Barent Van Wagenen, 
William Dillman, 
Cornelius Miller, 
Simon Millham, 
John Weaver, Jr., 
Benjamin Osterhout, 
Henry Burgess, Jr., 
Uriah Bates, 
William McClure, 
Joshua Chamber, 
Jacob Sickner, 
J. Van Aken, 
Peter Van Aken, 
Jacob N. Schryver, 
Peter Radcliff, 
C. Wenneberger, 
Jacob Folant, 
Abraham Kip, 
Peter Brown, 
Jacob Schultz, 
John Hoffman, 
Jacob Maul, Jr., 
B. Van Steenburgh, 
Johannes Van Rensen. 
Tobias Van Keuren, 
John Klum, 
Godfrey Hendrick, 
Jacob Beringer, 
John Bender, 
Zacharias Whiteman, 



Petrus Backer, 
Johannes Backer, 
Conradt Lescher, 
Michael Sheffer, 
Goetlieb Mardin, 
Hendrick Mardin, 
David Martin, 
Cornelius Swart, 
James Adams, 
Daniel Ogden, 
Joseph Funck, 
Christian Fero, 
Ryer Schermerhorn, 
Wilhelmus Smith, 
Frederick Moul, 
George Reystorf , 
Joseph Rogers, 
Benjamin Bogardus, 
Hans Kierstead, 
Isaac Kip, 
Jacob Kip, 
Philip J. Moore, 
Nicholas Hoffman, 
John Williams, 
Joseph Lawrence, 
Jeab Vosberg, 
James Douglass, 
William Klum, 
Johannes Miller, 
Jacob Schermerhorn, 
C. Schermerhorn, 
Reyer Hermanse, 
Jacob Hermanse, 
William Pitcher, 
Jacob A. Kip, 

Joseph Hebert, 
William Schultz, 
John Blair, 
Thomas Greves, 
Michael Schatzel, 
Peter Schopp, 
Hendrick Moore, 
Herrick Berger, 
Johannes Turk, 
John White, Jr.. 
John Cowles, 
Herman Duncan, 
John Denness, 
William Waldron, 
Cornelius Demond, 
S. Van Benschoten, 
B. Van Vradenburgh, 
Peter Scoot, 
Jonathan Scoot, 
John Mitchell, 
Simon Scoot, Jr., 
William Scoot, Jr., 
Jacob Lewis, 
Jacobus Kip, 
William Skepmus, 
Johannes P. V. Wood, 
John Haas, 
P. Vradenburgh, 
R. J. Kip, 
David Mulford, 
Lemuel Mulford, 
Paul Gruber, 
Solomon Powell. 
Henry Bull, 
George Bull. 


Historic Old Rhinebeck 

John Tremper, 
Henry Shop, 
John Balist, 
Helmes Heermanse, 
Oor. Elmendorph, 
Philip Staats. 
Isaac Beringer, Jr., 
William Waldorf, 
Johannes Benner, 
George Sharp, 
Christian Backer, 
William Kadcliff, 
H. Waldorph, Jr., 
Henrich Benner, 
Philip Hermanse, 
Thomas Lewis, 
Hendrick Livey, 
Everhart Rynders, 
Henry Kuncke, 
George Stetting, 
Elias H in neon, 

William Powell. 
Casper Haberlan, 
Thomas Humphrey, 
Christopher Denirah, 
Abraham Westfall, 
John McFort, 
William Carney, 
Philip Feller, Jr., 
Nicholas Bonesteel, 
Philip Bonesteel, 
Zach. Neer, 
Nicholas Stickel, 
Abraham Scott, 
William Troophage, 
Alexander Campbell, 
R. Van Hoverburgh, 
John Rogers, 
Nicholas Stickel, 
Jacob Teil, 
John Satin, 
Henry Fraleigh, Jr. 



The southern portion of the old town was in 1680 
the ' ' Pawling purchase. " It was once called " Malmes- 
bury." The royal patent, issued in 1696, was to Neeltje 
Pawling, widow of Henry. (See pages 18,19,20.) It 
was owned in common, after May 26, 1701, by Dr. 
Samuel Staats, Dirck Vandenburgh and Albert, Ann, 
Henry and Mary Pawling, children of Henry and 
Neeltje. Dr. Staats died in 1715. Prior to his death he 
purchased the Vandenburgh interest. A partition of 
the purchase divided it into eighteen lots. Nine lots 

Appendix 429 

were on the river with nine back. To the Pawlings, 
who held a one-third interest, fell lots 1, 10, 3, 13, 9 and 
18. Mary Pawling married Thomas Van Keuren, who 
settled in Staatsburgh. His daughter, Neeltje, mar- 
ried Ma]. John Pawling, her cousin. A son, Tobias 
Van Keuren, was on the revolutionary pledge ; so was 
his cousin, Maj. Pawling. The major was active in the 
revolution, and a very prominent man afterwards. 
Benjamin Van Keuren, son of Tobias, married Eliza- 
beth Morris, daughter of Lewis Morris, also of revo- 
lutionary fame. He and his wife rest in the Rhine- 
beck cemetery. Hiram T. Van Keuren was their son. 
The De Witts, Van Vliets, Berghs, Eames, Russells, 
Mulfords, Hughes, Bakers, Uhls, were prominent fam- 
ilies in the early days on the Pawling purchase. The 
village is mostly on lot No. 7, which fell to Dr. Staats' 
heirs in the partition. William B. Dinsmore, presi- 
dent of Adams' Express Company, owned an estate 
north of the village. It is now the property of his 
son, and one of the finest show places on the Hud- 
son river. The Mills' and Vanderbilt places are also 
noted ones. 


The northern section of Rhinebeck was until 1812 
what is now Red Hook. (See pages 21, 22, 95. ) It was 
in the Peter Schuyler patent, dated June 2, 1688. Be- 
fore 1700 settlers came. The Knickerbockers and Vos- 
burghs were among the first, followed by Hoffmans, 
Benners, Staats, Bensons, Van Benthuysens, Heer- 
mance, Moores, Pitchers, Kittle, Confines, Lyle. Bone- 
steels, Pundersons, Van Nesses, Rowleys, Whitemans, 
Sharps, Elseffers, Martins, Fellers, Tanners, Chamber- 

430 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

lains, Donaldsons, Shooks, Piesters, Massoneaus, Tyl- 
ers, and others whose names are still familiar in 
the locality. The Ked Hook landing is now Tivoli. 
The Sawkill is the principal stream, and once furnished 
power for several mills. There are numerous villages, 
Barrytown, Madalin, Anandale, Tivoli, Upper and 
Lower Red Hook. The latter and Madalin are incor- 
porated. St. Stephen's College is at Anandale. The 
Chanlers and Delanos, branches of the Armstrong- 
Astor families, live in the town. Capt. Andrew C. Za- 
briskie has an estate there. In area and population 
it is larger than what is left of " ye olde town," of 
which it was once an important part. 



On page 39 reference is made to the German village 
of Rheinbach. It antedates by many years the " Ryn- 
beck" of 1714. The first syllable is spelled as the 
Germans spelled, Rhine. The last, bach, means in 
German, brook, so does beck in Dutch. They are syn- 
onymous. Here we find the name Rhinebeck in the 
country the Palatines came from. Neither Judge 
Beekman or the Palatines who came to " ye olde 
town" in 1715 invented it. It was the name of a pros- 
perous village before any of them were born. They 
must have known this when "ye olde town" was 
named. Inquiry shows that it now has a population 
of about twenty-five hundred, several churches, 
schools, banks, newspapers, etc. It is in a thickly 
settled wine section, and vineyards are numerous 
about it. There was in 1714, and still is, another 
ReAnbeck, the first syllable spelled Rein; it is now a 
suburb of the city of Hamburg on the Elbe. It has a 

Appendix 431 

namesake in Grundy county, Iowa. The Iowa village 
is growing ; it has a population of fifteen hundred ; 
two banks, a newspaper, churches, schools, etc. There 
were in 1714 many places with " beck " as a part of the 
name in what is now Germany ; " Einbeck " is one. Mrs. 
Lamb was certainly mistaken when she guessed how 
the name of Rhinebeck originated, and Jay, Lossing, 
Smith and others accepted her guess as correct, and 
made the same mistake she did. Proper investigation 
would have avoided so palpable an error. It is due to 
truth and Judge Beekman to make correction. 


On pages 81-5 reference is made to the first United 
States census. The data from Washington shows 
that by it Rhinebeck had : Heads of families, 514 ; 
white males over sixteen, 875; white males under six- 
teen, 756; white females, 1,514; all other free persons, 
66 ; slaves, 121. Family names remained practically 
the same as heretofore given. This census of Rhine- 
beck covered the town as it then was, Red Hook and 
Staatsburgh being part of it. 


A ramble through old graveyards, like the " Old 
Dutch church " yard on South street, is suggestive to 
those interested in the past. (See page 138.) This 
yard was available as early as 1733 for interments. 
William Traphagen died in 1710, and is buried there, 
as are others of his family. Kips, Ostranders, Hen- 
dricks, Browns, Streits, and other old families are 
recalled by the inscriptions on stones. A few suggestive 

432 Historic Old Ehinebeck 

names, with year of birth and death, have been selected 
as a guide : Sarah Radcliff, 1787-1785 ; Everardus Bo- 
gardus, 1738-1799; Elisha R. Potter, 1799; Martinus 
Schryver, 1753-1836; Frederick Schultz, 1748-1819; 
David Schryver, 1751-1816; Jeremiah Van Auken, 
1744-1825; Elijah Triel Abbot, 1756-1811; Jacob Hen- 
dricks, 1756-1835 ; Jonathan Denison, 1722-1802 ; George 
Crapser, 1791-1826; Cathrine Echert, 1775-1827; Lucy 
Tinker, 1775-1845; Sarah Brown, 1754-1842; John S. 
Van Keuren, 1765-1827; Thomas Hyslop, 1788-1833; 
Jacob W. Cramer, 1783-1826; Hendrick Pells, 1740- 
1820; Deborah Kissam, 1757-1815; Henry Drury, 1786- 
1830; Dr. Joseph Frisbie, 1787-1814; Capt. Elias 
Cowles, 1766-1837; David Tomlinson, M.D., 1771-1841; 
Maj. William Radcliff, 1754-1834; Barnet Van Etten, 
1761-1833; Abraham Van Keuren, 1749-1810; James 
Oanfield, 1752-1830; George Bard, 1769-1824 ; William 
Jacques, 1768-1 8:i5 ; Ichabod Brown, 1767-1829; Col. 
Abm. Van Derhoof, 1777-1832 : Derrick Van Vliet, 1722- 
1800; John Van Wagenen, 1761-1839 ; Jacob Van Wag- 
enen, 1763-1840 ; David Van Wagenen, 1774-1849 ; Jacob 
Schultz ; 1752-1830 ; Robert Cooper, 1746-1820 ; Nathan 
S Judson, 1766-1824 Eliza Judson, 1766-1841 ; John 
Jennings, 1784-1850. Then there are graves of Sands, 
Lewis, Elmendorf, Schell, Kiersted, Seymour, Sea- 
man, Tremper, Smith, Mann, Arnold, Reynolds, 
Butler, Loomis, Davis, Phillips, Ruggles, Swan,Ben- 
ner, Yale, Babcock, Champlin, Thomas, Adams, 
Romeyn, Rider, Morse, Hevenor, Mink, Holdridge, 
Hagadorn, and others of the old families. 


On page 230 the old deeds, so called, but in fact 
leases, are mentioned. From the antiquary collection 

Appendix 435 

of Edwin Styles, deceased, by the courtesy of his 
daughter, Miss Flora N. Styles, the author has re- 
ceived an original, and here inserts it verbatim. Miss 
Styles also furnished the portrait of Margaret Beekman- 
Livingston, which appears on page 26. 


This Indenture Made the twentyth Day of Octo- 
ber in the Fifth Year of the Reign of our Sovereign 
Lord GEORGE, by the Grace of God of Great Brit- 
ain, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, 
&c. Annoq: Domini One Thousand Seven Hundred 
and Eighteen Beticeen Henry Beekman of Kingstown 
in the County of Ulster Gent John Rutsen of Kings- 
town aforesaid Gent and Catherine his wife Gilbert 
Livingstone of the City of New York rnercht and 
Cornelia his wife on the one part and Andreas France 
of Rinebeck in the County of Dutchess yeoman on 
the other- part. 

Witnesseth, That the said Henry Beekman John 
Rutsen & Catherine his wife Gilbert Livingstone and 
Cornelia his wife For and in Consideration of Ten 
Shillings current Money of New York, to them in 
hand paid by the said Andreas France at and before 
the Ensealing and Delivery of these Presents, (the 
Receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged) and also in 
Consideration of the Rents and Covenants herein 
after mentioned and expressed, and which on the 
part and behalf of the said Andreas France are and 
ought to be paid, done, observed, performed, fullfllled 
and kept, and for divers other good Causes and Con- 
siderations them the said Henry Beekman John Rut- 
sen & Catherine his wife Gilbert Livingstone and 
Cornelia his wife hereunto Moving, They the said 
Henry Beekman John Rutsen Catherine his wife Gil= 


434 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

bert Livingstone and Cornelia his wife Have Given 7 
Granted, Bargained, Sold, Aliened, Released, En- 
feoffed and Confirmed, AND by these Presents DO 
Fully, clearly and absolutely Give, Grant, Bargain, 
Sell, Alien, Release, En feoff and Confirm unto the said 
Andreas France All That Certain Track t of land or 
farm Scituate lying and being at Rinebeck in County 
of Dutchess Eastward there from Hudsons River 
within the Bound of the patent formerly granted to 
Henry Beekman deceased Father of the said Henry 
Beekman, Esq., to these prsents, beginning at a 
white Oak tree mark'd with three notches and a 
Cross on ye South East side of a small Swamp near 
to ye house of said Countryman from thence run- 
ning Northwest two chains then Northeast twenty 
five chains then at right angles So East thirteen 
chains then at right angles Southwest twenty five 
chains then at Right angels to ye first Station Eleven 
chains the whole being bounded to the northwest 
by the Seven Acres of Land laid out for Hendrick 
Shearman and the rest of the land of Collonel 
Beekman and on all other sides by the said Land 
Containing in all thirty two acres and a half To- 
gether with all and singular the Ways, Passages, 
Waters, Water-Courses, (other than the Erecting 
any Mill or Mills thereon) Fishing, Fowling, Profits, 
Commons, Feedings, Commodities, Hereditaments 
and Appurtenances whatsoever to the said Farm, 
Land and Premises, with the Appurtenances belong- 
ing, or in anywise appertaining. AND Also Right 
of Commonage and Feeding of all Commonable 
Beasts and Cattle, and Liberty and cut sufficient 
Fire- Wood and Timber in the Common or Waste 
Ground of them the said Henry Beekman John Rut- 
sen & Catherine his wife Gilbert Livingstone and 

Appendix 435 

Cornelia his wife for Building and Fencing upon the 
said Farm, and for the necessary Firing and Fewel- 
ing of him the said Andreas France and Repairing 
the House and Fences, when built, and to be used 
and imployed within six months after the cutingand 
felling thereof, on the herein before granted Prem- 
ises, with the Appurtenances, Only, and not else- 
where, and to and for no other use or purpose what- 
soever. AND Also, All the Estate, Right, Title, 
Claim and Demand of them the said Henry Beek- 
man John Rutsen and Catherine his wife Gilbert 
Livingstone and Cornelia his wife of, in and to the 
said Farm, Land and Premises herein before granted, 
with the Appurenances, or of, in or to any part or 
parcel thereof To Have and to Hold the said Farm, 
Land and Premises herein before granted, or meant, 
mentioned or intended to be herein before granted, 
with their and every of their Appurtenances unto the 
said Andreas France his Heirs and Assigns forever, 
To the only proper Use and Behoof of him the said 
Andreas France his Heirs and Assigns forever. 
Yielding and Paying therefor for and during the Space 
of Seven Years, to commence from the Date hereof, 
unto the said Henry Beekman John Rutsen Cath- 
erine his wife Gilbert Livingstone and Cornelia his 
wife their Heirs and Assigns, the yearly rent of Two 
Couple of Live Fat Hens on the Feast of the Annun- 
ciation of the blessed Virgin Mary, commonly called 
Lady Day ; And from and after the Expiration of 
the Term of Seven Years aforesaid, Then Yielding, 
Paying and Delivering yearly, and every year, for- 
ever hereafter unto the said Henry Beekman John 
Rutsen & Catherine his wife Gilbert Livingstone & 
Cornelia his wife their Heirs and Assigns, the yearly 
Rent of Two Couple of Fat Live Hens aforesaid, and 

436 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

also the additional yearly Rent of one peck and a halfe 
of good Merchantable Winter Wheat for every Acre 
of the said Farm and Land herein before granted, 
on the First Day of May, yearly, at such convenient 
Store-house or place as the said Henry Beekman 
John Rutsen & Catherine his wife Gilbert Living- 
stone and Cornelia his wife their Heirs and Assigns 
shall, within any part of the said Tract of Land 
within which the Premises aforesaid are compre- 
hended and exprest, appoint and direct ; The First 
Payment thereof to begin and be made the first Day 
of May next happening after the Expiration of the 
Term of Seven Years, without any manner of De- 
duction or Abatement of or for any manner of Taxes, 
Charges, Assessments or Impositions whatsoever 
imposed or to be imposed upon the said hereby 
granted Premises, or any part thereof, or upon the 
reserved Rents aforesaid, or upon the said Henry 
Beekman John Rutsen and Catherine his wife Gil- 
bert Livingstone and Cornelia his wife their Heirs 
and Assigns, for or in respect thereof, by any Power 
or Authority whatsoever. Which said yearly Rent 
of Two Couple of Live Fat Hens, and also the addi- 
tional yearly Rent of one Peck & a halfe of good 
Merchantable Winter Wheat for every Acre of the 
said Land hereby granted, the said Andreas France 
for himself, his Heirs and Assigns, and for every of 
them, doth Covenant, Promise, Grant and Agree, to 
and with the said Henry Beekman John Rutsen and 
Catherine his wife Gilbert Livingstone and Cornelia 
his wife their Heirs and Assigns, and to and with 
every of them, by these Presents, Well and truly to 
Pay and Deliver, or cause to be paid and deliver'd 
unto the said Henry Beekman John Rutsen & Cath- 
erine his wife Gilbert Livingstone & Cornelia his wife 

Appendix 43? 

their Heirs and Assigns, at the Days, Times and 
Place above in these Presents mentioned and ap- 
pointed for payment thereof, and in manner and 
form as the same are herein before reserved, accord- 
ing to the true Intent and Meaning of these Presents. 
Provided Always, and these Presents are upon this 
Condition, That if the said yearly Rents of two 
Couple of Live Fat Hens, or the additional Rent of 
Computed to Twelve bushels of good Merchantable 
Winter Wheat, are, or any part thereof, shall be 
behind and unpaid, in part or in all, by the space of 
Twenty Days next after any the Days before ap- 
pointed for payment thereof (being Lawfidly De- 
manded) Or if the said Andreas France shall not 
observe, keep and perform the several Articles, Cov- 
enants and Agreements hereafter particularly ex- 
pressed, That then, and in any or either of these 
Cases it shall and may be Lawful to and for the said 
Henry Beekman John Rutsen & Catherine his wife 
Gilbert Livingstone & Cornelia his wife their Heirs 
and Assigns into the said Farm, Land and Premises, 
or in any part thereof, and in the name of the whole, 
wholly to Re-enter, and the same to have again, 
retain, repossess and enjoy as in their first and 
former Estate, anything in these Presents contained 
to the contrary thereof in any wise notwithstand- 
ing. AND Also, from time to time, when and so 
often as the said yearly Rents, or either of them, 
shall be behind and unpaid, in part or in all, by the 
space of Twenty Days next after the Days and 
Times above appointed for the Payment thereof, it 
shall and may be lawful to and for the said Henry 
Beekman John Rutsen & Catherine his wife Gilbert 
Livingstone and Cornelia his wife their Heirs and 
Assigns, or any of them, into the said Farm. Land 

43b Historic Old Rhinebeck 

and Premises hereby Granted, or mentioned to be 
granted, or any of them, and into every part, or any 
part or parcel thereof, to Enter, and Distrain, and 
the Distress and Distresses then and there found and 
taken, to lead, drive, chace, take or carry away, im- 
pound, detain and keep until the said yearly Rents, 
and all Arrearages thereof (if any shall be) unto the 
said Henry Beekman John Rutsen & Catherine his 
wife Gilbert Livingstone and Cornelia his wife their 
Heirs and Assigns be fully paid and satisfied. AND 
The said Andreas France for himself, his Heirs and 
Assigns, and for every of them, doth Covenant, 
Promise, Grant, and Agree to and with the said 
Henry Beekman John Rutsen & Catherine his wife 
Gilbert Livingstone & Cornelia his wife their Heirs 
and Assigns, and to and with every of them, by 
these Presents, in manner and form following, viz. 
That the said Andreas France his Heirs and Assigns 
shall and will, from year to year, and so every year 
hereafter, first Offer and give unto the said Henry 
Beekman John Rutsen & Catherine his wife Gilbert 
Livingstone and Cornelia his wife their Heirs and 
Assigns, some or one of them, the pre-emption or 
buying, or refusal of buying of all such Grain or 
Corn as the said Andreas France his Heirs or Assigns 
shall, from year to year, and every year, raise and 
have off and from the said Farm, Land and Premises 
herein before granted, over and above what the said 
Andreas France his Heirs and Assigns shall keep and 
preserve for his own use, and which he or they shall 
be minded and desirous to Sell and Dispose, AND 
Also, That in case he the said Andreas France his 
Heirs or Assigns, or any of them, shall at any time 
hereafter be minded and desirous to Sell and abso- 
lutely to dispose of the said Farm. Land and Prem- 


Ises herein before granted, or any part thereof, with 
the Appurtenances, That then the said Andreas 
France his Heirs and Assigns, shall and will first 
Offer and give the Pre-emption, buying or purchas- 
ing, or refusal of buying and purchasing the same, 
unto the said Henry Beekman John Rutsen & Cath- 
erine his wife Gilbert Livingstone & Cornelia his wife 
their Heirs and Assigns, some or one of them. And 
shall and will, from time to time, and at all Times 
hereafter, bring and grind all such Grain as the said 
Andreas France his Heirs and Assigns shall use in his 
and their Family at the Grist-Mill of the said Henry 
Beekman his Heirs and Assigns according to the 
usual Custom and Usage of a Grist-Mill, in case the 
same be in order, and fiting to grind. And Also, 
That he the said Andreas France his Heirs and Assigns, 
Tenants and Under-Tenants, and every of them, 
shall, from time to time, and at all Times here after, 
be Subject unto, perform, observe, do and obey all 
reasonable Orders, Rules and Agreements as shall at 
any time hereafter be made by the Majority of the 
Inhabitants of the said Tract of Land of them the 
said Henry Beekman John Rutsen and Catherine his 
wife Gilbert Livingstone and Cornelia his wife within 
which the Farm, Land and Premises aforesaid, 
hereby granted, do lie and are comprehended, for 
the regulating, maintaining and keeping up all and 
singular the Fences within the Farm, Land and 
Premises hereby granted, and preserving the just 
Bounds and Limits thereof. And Further, That the 
said Andreas France his Heirs and Assigns, nor any 
of them, nor any other Person or Persons whatso- 
ever, by his or their privity, consent or procurement, 
shall not, nor will not, at any Time hereafter, Cut 
down or take off and from the Common or Waste 

440 Historic Old Rhinebeck 

Grounds of them the said Henry Beekman John Rut- 
sen & Catherine his wife Gilbert Livingstone and 
Cornelia his wife aforesaid, of any other or more 
Wood or Timber than what shall be sufficient for, 
and shall be actually used for his and their necessary 
Building and Repairing of the House, Barn and other 
Buildings and Fences on the Farm, Land and Prem- 
ises hereby granted, and for his and their necessary 
Fuel and Firing, to be burnt, used and spent on the 
Premises aforesaid, and for no other use, intent or 
purpose whatsoever ; and shall not nor will not Sell, 
Dispose or Carry away any Wood, Trees or Timber, 
or any Bark of any Tree or Trees off or from the 
Common or Waste Ground, but shall use the same in 
a,nd about the Buildings and Fences of the said Farm, 
Lands and Premises hereby granted, and for Firing 
aforesaid, and not else- where or otherwise. And the 
said Henry Beekman John Rutsen and Catherine his 
wife Gilbert Livingstone & Cornelia his wife for them- 
selves, jointly and severally, and for their Heirs and 
Assigns, and for every of them respectively, Do and 
Doth Covenant, Promise and Agree to and with the 
said Andreas France and his Heirs and Assigns, and 
to and with every of them, by these Presents, That 
he the said Andreas France his Heirs and Assigns, 
and every of them, paying the several Rents herein 
before mentioned, as the same are herein before Re- 
served, and doing, paying, observing, performing, 
fulJfilling and keeping all and singular the Grants, 
Articles, Clauses, Payments, Conditions, Proviso's 
and Agreements herein before mentioned, which on 
his and their parts and behalf are and ought to be 
paid, done, observed, performed, fullfilled and kept, 
Shall or lawfully may peaceably and quietly Have, 
Hold. Occupy, Possess and Enjoy all and singular the 

Appendix 441 

said Farm, Land and Premises herein before men- 
tioned to be granted, with their and every of their 
Appurtenances, without the lawful Let, Suit, 
Trouble, Molestation, Eviction or Hindrance of them 
the said Henry Beeknian John Rutsen & Catherine 
his wife Gilbert Livingstone and Cornelia his wife or 
either of them, their, or either of their Heirs or As- 
signs, or any other Person or Persons Claiming, or to 
Claim, by, from or under them, any or either of them. 
In Witness Whereof the party s first above named 
to these prsent Indentures Have set their Hands and 
Seals The day and Year first above written. 
Henry Beekman [l. s.] Jno. Rutsen [l. s.] 
Catharina Rutsen [l. s.] Gil. Livingston [l. s.] 
Cornelia Livingston [l. s.] 
[Acknowledged before Johannes Hardenbergh 
Judge Com. pleas.] 

Dutchess County ss Recorded in said County Record 
in Lib. B. fol. 124, 125, 126, 127, 128 & 129 And This is 
to Certifie That in page 126 Between The 16th & 17th 
Lines is Interlined The words (commons ffeedings) 
To be read between The words (proffits) and (Com- 
modities) ffeb 25:1747. 

f> Henry Livingston, 



On pages 84 and 85 the names of supervisors and 
town clerks before 1800 are given. Since then the fol- 
lowing persons have held office : Supervisors — Isaac 
Stoutenburgh, Andrew Heermance, Peter Contine, 
Jr., David Van Ness, John Cox, Jr., Coert Du Bois, 
Christian Schell, Garret Van Keuren, Isaac F. Rus- 


Historic Old Rhinebeck 

sell, Frederick I. Pultz, Henry S. Quitman, Conrad 
Ring, John Armstrong, Jr., James A. A. Cowles, 
Nicholas B. Van Steen burgh, Moses Ring, Tunis 
Wortman, James Monfort, Isaac I. Piatt, Jacob G. 
Lambert, Ambrose Wager, James C. McCarty, Wil- 
liam H. Brown, John N. Cramer, Richard R. Sy- 
lands, Theophilus Nelson, Richard J. Garrettson, 
Andrew J. Heermance, Smith Quick, William M. 
Sayre, Robert L. Garrettson, Virgil C. Traver, John 
O. Ostrom, Joseph H. Baldwin, James H. Kipp, Wil- 
liam Bergh Kip, Martin Heermance, Andrew J. 
Odell, John C. Milroy, George Esselstyn, John A. 
Traver, Mandeville S. Frost. Town clerks — Henry 
Shop, Henry F. Tallmadge, Garret Van Keuren, 
John Fowkes, Jr., Jacob Heermance, William B. 
Piatt, Henry De Lamater, Henry C. Hoag, Conrad 
Ring, Stephen A. Du Bois, Henry W. Mink, Tunis 
Wortman, George W. Bard, John T. McCarty, Al- 
bert A. Rider, Harvey M. Traver, Calvin Jennings, 
George H. Ackert, John D. Judson, George W. Ho- 
gan, Simon Welch, James A. Monfort, Jacob Ryn- 
ders, Edward Brooks, William H. Sipperly, William 
H. Hevenor, Jacob H. Potten burgh. Forty-two dif- 
ferent persons have held the office of supervisor 
during the one hundred and eight years, and twenty, 
seven persons the office of town clerk. The present 
incumbent of the latter office, Jacob H. Pottenburgh, 
has served for thirty-two years. Many of the super- 
visors served several terms. 


A few words of explanation will perhaps be ex- 
pected and we trust appreciated. In size this book 

Appendix 443 

has reached over one hundred pages more than was 
intended, yet space has proved inadequate to insert 
all that was desired. This is the reason for omis- 
sions. They could not be avoided. Actual count 
shows four hundred and seventy-two printed pages. 
The portraits of noted men and women identified 
with "ye olde town "is compensatory. The galaxy 
is certainly a valuable collection. The faces recall 
the past vividly. 

The fact that names and words are spelled differ- 
ently, and by present standard perhaps, incorrectly 
in many places, is apparent. This was necessary. 
In copying records, old papers, etc., the wording and 
spelling as found therein were strictly followed. The 
old style may appear queer, and is often quaint, but 
it was the way the old people did it. Any change 
would have impaired its value. It is gratifying that 
there is so much to tell about Rhinebeck and its peo- 
ple. The only regret is the inability to tell it all. 


The index system adopted is very simple. Any 
subject, name or place, can be readily found. Each 
•chapter is indexed in its heading. Illustrations and 
appendix have separate index pages. Cross-refer- 
ences run through the chapters. As to subjects the 
plan is made plain by stating that under " Churches " 
all are covered. Under " Names " the same. This 
general plan will enable the reader to quickly find 
any special matter sought. 

Academy, 217-18. 
Ackert, Alfred T., 199, 230, 

244,818; portrait, 294. 
Advertisements, 15, 68, 69, 
85,87,319, 334-5-6-41. 
Amusements, 348. 
Ankony, 6, 8. 

(See Appendix, B, C, E. ) 
Armstrong, Gen. John, 98. 

John. Jr., 89, 98. 
Artsen, 2, 7, 10, 11,16, 20. 

(See Appendix, A,C,E.) 
Astor, William. B., 13, 98. 

William, 336-7-43, 400-1. 

Caroline W. S., 401. 

Col. John Jacob, 401. 

Portrait, 282. 

Bake-kettle,346'; bees, 347. 
Baker, Dr. B. N., 280, 368. 
Baldwin, Capt. J. H., 62, 

276, 336. 
Banks, 294, 297. 
Barges, 828; Berghs, 101. 
Bear market, 226. 
Beatty, John, 33, 40. 
Beekman, 18 to 30. 

Beekman Survey, 23, 220-1. 
Portraits, Sr. and Jr., 98. 
Residence, Jr., 26, 396. 
Mills, 22,56; dock, 24, 63. 
Reference to, 83 to 41, 
47-9, 67 to 72, 79,80,88, 
138, 229, 239, 265. 
(See chapter VIII; also 
Benner, John, 183, 241, 278. 
Benson, Egbert, 99; por- 
trait, 282. 
Billings, Josh, cited, 36-8. 
Blithewood Light In - 

fan try, 384. 
Bogardus, Evert, 14, 52. 
Everardus, 14, 229, 253- 

4-5, 273. 
Reference to, 16, 103-4", 
144,241. 259,325. 
Bowery, 137; house, 291. 
Burr, Aaron, 92-3. 
Business men, 315. 

Problems, 292. 
Buttermilk falls, 54. 

Camp-meeting woods, 231. 




Carroll, Wm.,280; portrait, 

Caste,349-50; cave,3,226-7. 

Cemeteries, 109, 115, 138, 
147, 863-9. 
St. Joseph's, 374. 

Census. 82, 85. 

Church lands, 136 to 138. 

Churches, 106 ; German 
Union, 106 ; Reformed, 
107; "Stone," 114-123; 
" Old Dutch," 123-145 ; 
AY urtemburgh, 145- 
152; Methodist, 152- 
171 ; burning, 304-307 ; 
new, 307-309 ; Baptist, 
171-183 ; village Luth- 
eran, 183-186 ; Episco- 
pal, 187-194; Hillside 
and Rhinecliff, 194-6; 
Catholic, 196-8. 

Civil war, 358 to 360. 

Clifton Point, 399. 

Clinton, 7, 95, 147,236. 

Coenties Slip, 52. 

Colonial times, 344 to 355. 

Colored people, 84, 103-5, 
159, 351-5. 

Company C, 128th N. Y. 
V., 358, 362; F, K, B, 
150th N. Y. V., 358-9. 

Cooper, J. Fenimore, 7. 
Dr. Ananias, 33, 88, 254, 

Cowles, 103. 224. 

Cramer, 34, 58, 269, 271 , 328. 
John N.,60, 244, 395,411; 
portrait, 276. 

Crosby, Ernest H., 396; 
portrait, 396. 

Crystal lake, 54. 

Darling, Capt. N., 288. 

De Hart, Capt., 286 to 289. 
Horse, 289-90. 

De Lamater, Henry, 113, 
259, 282, 294, 364 ; por- 
trait, 294. 

De Peyster, Gen. J. W., 

De Witt, 21, 114, 321-2. 

Deeds, 6, 21-2-5-H, 32, 48, 
107-8-9, 114, 121, 124 
to 127, 136, 147, 154. 
(See chaps. VIII and 
XVIII ; also Appen- 

Docks, 7, 61,224,370. 

Doctors, 87-8, 309-10-11. 

Donation parties, 142. 

Doyle, 58; Dueis, 28,97. 

Drury's, 92, 277-8, 283, 316, 

Du Bois, 14, 100, 114,276-7. 

Ehlers, Louis A., 337, 399. 
Elmendorf, 52, 65. 
Ellerslie, 12, 399. 
Elton, 2, 4,10,12, 16,20,55. 
Esselstyn, Geo., 313, 368 r 
379, 383. 

Ferry, 63, 65, 327, 370-1. 

Fire department, 385. 

Fires. 169,278. 

Flatts, 26, 56, 124-8-9, 135. 

Fox hollow, 57. 

Fulton, Peter M., 212; 

portrait, 396. 
Furniture, 293, 349. 

Garrettson, 97, 399. 

Miss Mary, 168,398. 
General training, 286. 
Glenburn, 402. 
Gold farms, 234. 
Grand Army post, 361-2. 
Grasmere, 29, 238, 396. 


Historic Old Rhinebeck 

Grove, the, 29, 93, 397. 

Hart wick Seminary, 121. 
Heermance, 6, 12, 62, 80. 
Hemlocks, 403. 
High school, 216. 
Highways, 66 to 78. 
Hill, Edwin, 277,294, 366; 

portrait, 396. 
Hoffman, 99. 
Hog bridge, 4, 26. 
Holiday farm, 302. 
Home supplies, 232. 
Hyde Park, 95. 

Indian deeds, 4. 

Names, 3, 4, 31-2. 

(See Appendix.) 
Inn, 218, 263. 

James, Augustus, 397. 
John, not Thomas, 242. 
Judson,N. W. II., 190,277, 
281,294; portrait, 300. 
Justices, 86, 273. 

Kelly,* Win, 180, 244, 260, 
294-7, 399; portrait, 300. 
Kip, 2, 5, 8, 34, 65, 134, 247. 
Win. Bergh, portrait, 396. 
Kipp, James H., 230, 244. 
Kipsbergen, 6, 37, 61, 80-1. 
Kipskill, 54. 

Kirchehoek, 36, 106, 220. 
Knights of Pythias, 382-4. 
Kockerthal, Kev.,43, 47. 

Landsman, Casper, 25. 

Kill, 53-4. 
La Fayette, 241. 
Lawyers, 312. 
Leacote, 403. 
Leather, 347. 

Lewis, Morgan, 56, 92, 96 ; 
portrait, 96. 

Lin wood, 57, 397. 
Livingston, Margaret 
Beekman, 26-7. 
Robert R., 27, 99; Ed- 
ward, 96 ; portraits, 96. 
Henry B., 58,88 to 90. 
Peter R., 59 ; Francis A., 
312; Lewis H.,29, 238. 
Locust trees, 228. 
Lynch, Judge James, 97. 

McCarty, James C. , 58, 192, 
288, 313, 378-9; por- 
trait, 300. 

Mansakenning, 31-2. 

Marked tree, 231. 

Maps, 13, 24, 221-70-74. 

Marquardt, Conrad, 299, 
337 ; portrait, 276. 

Mars halls, 57. 

Masons, 255, 375, 378-9. 

Ministers, 316. (See chap- 
ter VIII.) 

Mechanics, 50, 91-2, 220, 
223,264,270-1-3-5 to 283. 

Memorial building, 373. 
Organ, 193, 374. 

M e re h a n t s , 224 , 2: }3 , 264-83 . 

Merritt, Douglas, 403. 

Milan, 74, 95, 328. 

Militia, the, 227. 

Mill men, 55 to 61. 

Mills, 55 to 61. 

Miller, Dr. Geo. N., 29, 223, 
285-6, 397. 
Wm. Starr, 402. 
Mrs. Mary R., 299. 

Monterey, 103. 

Montgomery, Gen., 29, 56, 
96 ; portrait, 96. 

Morse, Cyrus B., 192, 275, 
377-9; portrait, 276. 
Howard II., 206, 336, 358, 
378; portrait, 1. 



Morton, Levi P., 262, 378-4, 

400 ; portrait, 282. 
Mt. Rutsen, 74, 167. 

Names, 16,28,31, 42,51. 
(Nearly every page men- 
tions persons by name) 

Nelson. Dr. T., 278, 310-11 ; 
portrait, 294. 

Newspapers, 314. 

Odd Fellows, 376-8. 
Officers. 80 to 87. 

(See Appendix.) 
Old houses, 6 to 10, 266 to 
209; deeds, 230. 
Graves T 431-2;sleigh,351. 
Hotel, 91, 93, 289-41, 249 
to 268; ovens, 346. 
Ostrom, JohnG., 281, 293, 
299, 337 ; portrait, 276. 

Palatine settlers, 42 to 51. 
Partition of land, 6, 13, 

Patrons of Husbandry, 

Pawlings, 19. 

Peddler, 77, 347. 

Pewholders, 129, 140. 

Pink's corner, 86. 

Piatt, William B., 62. 108, 
163, 257, 259, 282, 294, 
858, 895; portrait, 294. 

Politics, 242-3-4. 

Postmasters, 395-6. 

Postoffice, 68, 282. 299. 

Potters, 98, 251, 255, 259. 

Pump, the town, 94, 272. 

Pultz, Peter, 291. 

Quick, Smith, portrait, 276. 
Augustus!!., 138.378,385. 

Quicks, 59, 138. 

Quitman, Gen. John A., 102. 

Radcliffe, Jacob, 99; por- 
trait, 282. 

Radcliffes, 7, 99. 

Rut sens, 28, 56. 

Relics, 344. 

Revolutionary soldiers, 

Rhinecliff, 370, 374. 

Rider, Albert A., 395-6. 
John P., 897. 

Rikert, R. Raymond, 285. 

Rokeby, 404. 

Roosa, 2, 4, 10. 12, 16, 19, 
20, 55. 

Ruppert, Jacob, 78, 397. 

Saltford, Geo., 387. 
Schell, Robt., portrait, 282. 

Walter AV., 885. 
Schells, 58, 62, 101. 
Scholars, 172-3, 217. 
Schools, 164,167, 199 to 218. 
Schuyler, Col. P., 99; por- 
trait, 282. 
Schuylers, 8,11.20-7-8-9. 
Schryver, Jno. T., 184, 276. 
Sepasco, 8; Indians, 3. 

Trails, 66, 251. 
Sexton, 348. 
Shoemaker, the, 347. 
Slate quarry, 236-8. 
Slavery, 84. 351 to 355. 
Sloops, 15, 24, 42. 52,61. 
Smith. Ed. M., 25, 38, 141. 
314, 431; portrait, 8(H). 
Soldiers' monument, 357. 
Spanish - American war, 

Spinning wheels, 346-8. 
Staatsburgh, 19, 20. 
Starr Institute, 299. 


Historic Old Rhinebeck 

Stages, 281, 317 to 324. 
Steen Valet je, 19, 21. 
Street opening, 303-4. 
Stonecrest, 423. 
Styles, 58, 174, 178. 

Edwin, portrait, 300. 
Suckleys, 28-9. 

Eutsen, 167, 188, 275. 

Thomas H., 167. 

Kobert B., 29, 404. 
Suydam, Rev. Dr. J. H., 
74,144-5; portrait, 396. 

Tammany Hall, 90, 93,376. 
Taverns, 63, 81,90, 93, 137, 

219, 245 to 249, 320. 
Teachers, 205, 217. 
Texas, 103. 

Thomson, Wm., 366-8. 
Thompson home, 185, 301, 

Tillotsons, 12, 28, 57, 97, 

104, 135, 139, 140, 161. 
Toll-gate, 75 ; rates, 77. 
Tomlinson.Dr. David, 310- 

11, 432. 
Town hall, 298-9. 
Traphagens, 25, 34, 81, 91. 
Traveling in 1766, 229. 
Traver, Virgil C, 298, 338, 

366 ; portrait, 300. 
John A., portrait, 396. 
Rev. Chester H., 316. 
Rev. Dr. J. G., 121. 
Augustus M., 298, 338- 


Traver, Thaddeus A., 298. 
Tremper, Geo., 138, 395. 

Uhls, 72, 293. 

Ulster and S. Turnpike, 75. 

Union Iron Works, 275. 

Van Cortlandt, 27. 
Van Ettens, 12, 91, 132. 
Van Keurens,123, 313-429. 
Garret, 259; portrait.294. 
Van Steenberghs,33,87,92. 
Van Vredenburghs, 12. 
Van Wagenens, 11, 34,70, 

81, 86, 132, 153. 
Vanderburghs, 397, 403. 
Veitch, Geo., 190,197,371-2. 
Village, 264 to 316. 
Violets, 387-93. 

Wager, Ambrose, 145, 187, 
207, 260, 281, 313, 333, 
376,379; portrait, 294. 

Wainwrights, 187, 403. 

Washington, 97, 104, 398. 

Water Company, 285. 

White corner, 258, 282-3. 

Wild, Alfred, 275, 333, 397. 

Wortman, Tunis, 93, 240-2. 

Wynkoops, 14, 87, 337. 

Young Men's Christian 
Association, 301. 

Zabriskie, Capt. And. C, 


Note. — Many family names occur so often between 
pages 1 and 444 that reference to each page was